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the Centre for 




by Douglas 





}'c,k i ttA1 I'» FltM OR1C1NAL PLAES,--iC(hz'Z.e ' Cl#$«'lç" A.IJ, I5 5 : t;:«" ,'#]'.«' _l" l:«ede" «#c 17., A.I), 15p 7. 







l;v tlENRY GREEN, hl.A. 

OEtittl numrroua ][luatrati t3rbrz from tÇr Origiaal Iut[lora. 

Portrait of Shakispeare. 


[ lii.«ht of T «nslatiou rcso ve, l.] 

EW only are the remarks absolutely needed by 
way of intl'oduction to a work which within 
itself sufficiently explains and carries out a nev 
method of illustration for the dramas of Shake- 
speare. As author, I commelced this volume because of 
various observations which, while reading sevel'al of the eal'ly 
Emblem writers, I had ruade on similarities of thought and 
expression between themselves and the great Poet; and I had 
sketched tlae wlmle outline, and had nearly filled it in. without 
knowing that the path pursued by me had il any instance been 
trodden by othel" amateurs and critics. Fl'om the xvritings of 
the profoundly learned Francis Douce, whose name ought never 
to be uttered without deep respect for his rare scholarship 
and generous regard to its interests, I first became awal'e that 
Shakespeare's direct quotation of Emblem mottoes, and direct 
description of Emblem devices, had in some degree been already 
pointed out to the attention of the literary public. 
And right glad ana I to observe that I have had precursors 
in my labours, and companions in my researches ; and that, in 
addition to Francis Douce, xvriters of such repute as Langlois 
of Rouen, Charles Knight, Noel Humphreys, and Dr. Alfred 
\Voltmann, of Berlin, have, each by an example or two, shown 
how, with admirable skill and yet with evident appropriation, 

viii tEtrt CE. 

our great Dramatist has interwoven anaong lais o*vll thc materials 
which he had gathered from Emblem writers as their source. 
To myself the fact is ai1 assurance that neither from aiming 
at singularity of conjecture, nor from pretending to a more 
penetrating insight into Shakespeare's methods of composition, 
have I imt before the world the following pages for judgment. 
Those pages are the results of genuine study,--a study I could 
not bave so well pursued had not liberal-minded friends freely" 
entrusted to my use the book-treasures which countervailed 
my own deficiencies. The results arrived at, though imper- 
fcct, are also, I bclieve, grounded on real similitudes between 
Shakespeare and his predecessors and contemporaries; and 
those similitudes, parallelisms, or adaptations of thought, by 
whichever naine distinguishcd, often arose from the actual 
impression ruade on his mind and lnemor¥ by the Emblematists 
whose works he had seen, read, and used. 

As a suitable Frontispiece the portraits are presented of rive 
celebrated authors of the fifteenth and slxteenth centuries: one 
a German--Sebastian Brandt; three Italian--A_ndrew A_lciat, 
Paolo Giovio, and Achilles Bocchius ; and one from Hungary 
John Sambucus. They were all men of learning and renown, 
whom kings and emperors honoured, and whom the foremost of 
their age admired. The central portrait, that of Bocchius of 
Bologna, is from the famous artist Giulio Bonasone, and the 
original engraving was retouched by A-ugustino Caracci. The 
other portraits have been reduced from the " ICONES," or 
Figlres of Fifty [[ltslriols l][o, which Theodore de Bry 
executed and published during Shakespeare's prime, in I597. 
In their ovn day they were regarded as correct delineations and 
likenesses, and are said to be authentic copies. 
The vignette of Shakespeare on the title-page is now 

l'.RI?FA CI?. ix 

engraved for the first time. The original is an oil-painting, a 
head of the life size, and possessing considerable animation 
and evidences of power. It is the property of Charles Clay, 
Esq., M.D., lIanchester. Without vouching for its authenticity, 
we are justified in saying, when it is compared with some other 
portraits, that it offers equal, if hot superior, claims to genuine- 
ness. To discuss the question does not belong to these pages, 
but simply and cordially to acknowledge the courtesy xvith 
which the oil-painting xvas offered for use and allowed to be 
copied, and to say that our woodcut is an accurate and well- 
executed representation of the original picture. 

Of the ornamental capitals at the head of the chapters, and 
of the little embellishments at thelr end, it may be remarked 
that, with scarcely an exception, there are none later than our 
Poet's day, and but few that do not belong to Emblem books : 
they are forty-eight in number. The illustrative woodcuts 
and photolith plates, of which there are one hundred and 
fifty-three of the former and nineteen of the latter, partake of 
the variety, and, it may be said, apologetically, of the defects 
of the works from which they have been taken. However 
fanciful in themselves, they are realities,--true exponents of the 
Emblem art of their day; so that, within the compass of our 
volume, containing above two hundred examples of emblematic 
devices and designs, is exhibited a very full representation of 
the various styles of the original works, and xvhich, in the 
absence of the works themselves, may serve to show their chief 
characteristics. The Photoliths, I may add, have been executed 
by llr. A. Brothers, of Manchester. 
Doubtless both the woodcuts and the plates are very 
unequal in their execution; but to have aimed at a uniformity 
even of high excellence would have been to sacrifice truth to 

× PR}?.F.A CI?. 

mere embellishment. It should be borne in mind what one of 
out objects has been,--namely, to place before the reader 
examples of the Emblem devices themselves, very nearly as 
they existed in their own day, and not to attempt the ideal 
perfection to which modern art rightly aspires. 
The Edition of Shakespeare from which thc extracts are 
taken is the very excellent one, in nine volumes, issued from 
Cambridge, I863--I866. Its numbering of the lines for pur- 
poses of reference is most valuable. 

Out work offers information, and consequcntly advantage, to 
three classes of the literary public :- 
1st. To the 13ook Agent and 13ook Antiquarian, so far as 
relates to books of Emblems previous to the early part of the 
seventeenth century, A.I. 66. In a collected and methodical 
form, aided not a little by the General Index, the first chapters 
and sections of out volume supply information that is widely 
scattered, and not to be obtained without considerable trouble 
and search. The authors, titles, and dates of the chief editions of 
Emblem books within the period treated of, are clearly though 
briefly given, arranged according to the languages in which the 
books were printed, and accompanied where requisite by notices 
and remarks. There is not to be found, I believe, in any other 
work so much information about the early Emblem books, 
gathered together in so compendious and orderly a manner. 
2nd. To the Students and Scholars of Shakespeare,--a 
widely-extended and ever-increasing community. Another 
aspect of the Master's reading and attainments is opened to 
them; and into the yet unquarried illustrations of which his 
marvellous writings are susceptible, another adit is driven. We 
may have followed him through Histories and Legends, through 
the Epic and the 13allad, through Popular Tales and Philosophie 


Treatises,--from the forest glade to the halls and gardens of 
palaces,--across the wild moor where the weird sisters muttered 
and prophesied, and to that moon-lighted bank where the sxveet 
Jessica was sitting in ail maiden loveliness;--but if only for 
variety's sake it may interest us, even if it does hOt impart plea- 
sure, to mark hmv much lais mind was in accord with the once 
popular Emblem literature, which now perchance awakens 
scarcely a thought or a regret, though great scholars and men of 
genius devoted themselves to it; and how from that literature, 
imbued xvith its spirit and heightening its power, even he--the 
self-reliant one--borrowed help and imagery, and ruade his own 
creations more his mvn than otherxvise they xvould have been. 
And 3rd. To the great 13rotherhood of nations among the 
Teutonic race, to whom Shakespeare is known as a chieftain 
among the Lares,--the heroes and guardians of their house- 
holds. In him they recognise an impersonation of high poetic 
Art, and they desire to see unrolled from the treasures of the 
past whatever course his genius pursued to elevate and refine 
its pmvers ;--persuaded that out of the elevation and refinement 
ever is springing something of lais OVla inspiratiou to improve 
and ennoble mankind. 

A word or two may be allowed respecting the translations 
into English which are offered of the Emblem writers' verses 
occurring in the quotations. An accurate rendering of the ori- 
ginal was desirable; and, therefore, in many instances, rhymes 
and strictly measured lines have been abjured, and cadence 
trusted rather than mette; the defect of the plan, perhaps, is 
that cadence varies with the peculiar pitch and intonation of 
each person's voice. Nevertheless, among rhymes the Oarsmaids 
C,y (p. 6) might find a place on Cana, or Isis, and the lIro/f 
atd t/w Ass (p. 54) be entitled to abide in a book of fables. 

xii P.R.E FA CE. 

In behalf of quotations from the original, it is to be urged 
that, to defamiliarise the minds of the public, so much as is now 
the custom, from the sight of other languages than their own, is 
injurious to the maintenance of scholarship ; and were it not so, 
the works quoted from are many of them hot in general use, 
and some are of highest rarity ;--itis, therefore, only simple 
justice to the reader to place before him the original on the very 
page he is reading. 

The value of the work will doubtless be increased by the 
Appendices and the very fill Index which bave been added. 
These will enable such as are inclined more thoroughly to 
compare together the different parts of the work, and better to 
judge of it, and to pursue its subjects elsewhere. 

My offering I hang up xvhere many brighter garlands have 
been placed,--and where, as generations pass away, many more 
will be brought; it is at his shrine whose genius consecrated 
the English tongue to some of the highest purposes of which 
speech is capable. For Humanity itself he rendered his Service 
of Song a guidance to that which is noble as well as beautiful,-- 
a sympathy with our nature as well as a truth for out souls. 
God's benison rest upon his memory ! 

Tn'LE-FhE iii 


I-- 29 

Sect. I. General Extent of the Emblem Literature to which 
Shakespeare might have had Access. 
., z. Emblem Works and Editions doyen to the end of the 
Fifteenth Century 
• , 3- Other Emblem Works and Eitions previous to ,.. 1564 
i.e. I. 13efore Alciat's first Enblem Work, ,.D. SzZ . 
. Doyen to Holbein, La Perriere, and Corrozet, 
A.D. 1543 . 
3. Dom to Shakespeare's birth, b.D. I564 
bect. 4. Emblem Works and Editions from a.D. 564 to I66 


3 o- 37 

38-- 59 
6o--- 83 
6o 68 

69-- 75 
75-- $3 


CHAPTER II.--(coJllbtuat). 
L e. I. 13efore Shakespeare had enter«d fully on his 
\Vork, A.D. I590 
Z. Until he had ended the Twelfth ]Vight in I6I 5 . 


84-- 92 







Sect. I. 

,, 7, 


Historical Emblems 
Ileraldic Emblems 
Emblems for Mythological Characters 
Emblems Illustrative of Fables 
Emblems in connection with Proverbs 
Emblems from Facts in Nature, and from the l'roperties 
of Animais 
Emblems for Poetic Ideas 
Moral and xEsthetic Emblems 

















I. Dedication Plate 
Ia. Tableau of IIuman Li,--Cebes, 
s.c. 33 o. 
Ib. Tableau of Human Li,--Cebes, 
B.c. 33 o. 
II. Christ's Adoption of the IIuman Soul 

III. Creation 
IV. Title-page,--Seculu»t Ht«mance Sal- 
V. Leaf 3I,--Stccubmz 2tlrttlllttlt«c Sdlvtro 

Alciat's £mb. Ed. I66  
De IIooghe, 67o 3 

Old Print 68 

A MS. of the ist Edition, I44O 44 





A page from the tiblia tazerum. 
]]isloria S. oan. 2ber Figttras,-- 
Corser Collection. 
Eistoria S. an. #er 
Çorser Çollection. 
Title-page of Seb. Brandt's fool- 
Title-page of Van der Veen's 

FMI of Satan 
Occasion seized 
The Zodiac . 
Life as a Theatre . 
Seven Ages of Life,--an early 
Block-Print, British Museum. 
Providence making Rich and mak- 
ing Poor. 

Time flying . 

Noel Humphreys, p. 4 o, PI. 2 46 
Tracing rioto the/31ock-book 49 

Tracing from the Block-book 49 

Locher's Slullifcra Az,is, Ed. I497 57 

A,htms A2hcl, Ed. 1642 


Boissard's Tharl. Vit. liant. Ed. 133 
David's Occasio arr. &c. Ed. 6o 5 . 265 
Brucioli, Z?ella Sihcra, Ed. 543 - 353 
Boissard's Tlteat. l'il. IIttllt. Ed. 405 
A'chwologia, vol. xxxv. I853 , 407 
p. 67. 
Coornhert, Ed. I585 489 

Otho Voenius, Em[,lemal«, Ed. 49 

Itesius, x636. 






ItAT Eblems are, in the general accepta- 
tion of the vord in modern times, is well 
set forth in Cotgrave's Dictio,¢au, , Art. 
EMBLEMA, whcre he defines an emblem to 
be, "a picture and short posie, expressing some particular 
conceit ;" and very pithily by Francis Quarles, when he says,-- 
" an Emblcm is but a silent Parable." Though less terse and 
clear than either of these, we may also take tacon's description, 
in his Adz,a,wcmc,tt of Lcarni,«g, bk. v. chap. 5 
deduceth conceptions intellectuall to ilnages sensible, and that 
which is sensible more forcibly strikes the nlenlol'y, and is more 
easily imprinted than that which is intellectual." 
13y many writers of Emblem books, perhaps by the majority 
ill their practice if not in their theories, there is very little 
difference of meaning observed between Symbols and Èmblems. 
\Ve find, howeveBin other Authors a more exact usage of the 

xvord Symbol. The Greek poet l'indar* speaks of "a trust- 
worthy symbol, or sign, concerning a fnture action," or from 
which the future can be conjcctured ; Iago, rccounting the 
power of Desdemona over Othello, act il. sccne 3, 1. 326, 
declares it were easy 
"for ber 
To win the Moor, were't to renounce his baptism, 
Ail seals and symbols of rcdcemcd sin ;" 
and Cudworth, in his Truc I, ttcllcctttal Systcm of t/w Uni- 
verse, ed. 1678, p. 388, after giving Aristotle's assertion " tlmt 
Vllillbvrs c,tv'e l/w GlllSVS of t/w Essccc of oth,w tlthtEs," 
adds, " though we are hot ignorant, how the Pythagoreans 
ruade also the Numbcrs within the Decad, to be Symbols of 
Claude Mignault, or Min6s, thc famous commcntator on 
the Emblcms of Andreas Alciatus, in his Tract, Cotcc,vzhtg 
Symbols, Coats of Arms, and Emb#ms,eds. 1581, or 16o8, or 
I614,--maintains there is a clear distinction between emblems 
and symbols, which, as he affirms, " many persons rashly and 
ignorantly confound together."  " We confess," he adds, " that 
the force of the Emblem depends upon the Symbol : but they 
differ, I say, as Man and Animal; for people who bave any 
judgment at all know, that here of a certainty the latter is taken 
more generally, the former more specially." Mignault's mean- 
ing nmy be carried out by saying, that all men are animais,- 
but ail animais are hot men; so ail emblems are symbols, 
tokens, or signs, but ail symbols are not emblems ;--the two 

* See the Olymflica, I2. IO: " o'{l.t]oXov rlo''v l.tdl rpdlo o'ol.t4v]5." Also 
.»Eschylus, ¢tg'amemnon, 8: "l vôv qbvhdrrw htzt,rdo rb rbtBohov." 
q OEvnlagma De Sym3olis, .c., per Clavdivm Minoëm, Lvgdvni, t.IC.Xnl. 
p. 13 : "Plerique sunt non satis acuti, qui Emblema cum Symbolo, cum eEnigmate, 
cum Sententia, cum Adagio, ternerè & irnperitè confundunt. Faternur Ernblernatis 
quidcm vim in symbolo sitam esse: sed differunt, inquarn, vt Homo & Animal: 
alternm enina hîc rnaximè generaliùs accipi, specialiùs ver alterum nortt onmes qui 
aliquid indicii habeant." 

Cr^v. I.] EARZ Y EXAM'PZES. 3 

possess affinity but not identity,--they have no absolute con- 
vertibility of the one for the other. 
_An example of Emblem and Symbol united occurs in 
Symeoni's Dedication* " To Madame Diana of Poitiers, 

Dutchess of Valentinois ;" 
for Emblem, there are 
" picture and short posic" 
expressing the particular 
conceit, " Quodcunque 
petit, consequitur," -- 
allah«s z,halc,«r shc s«d'«; 
and for Symbols, or signs, 
the sun, the temple, the 
dogs, the arrow, and the 
stag; and for exposition, 
the stanza ; 

" Sanie le ,l[use soz, santa è Dhna, 
Casle son futile, el casl, t è fucsla a2chora. 
1?aile A[ttse il Sol mai ton s' allon&tna, 
Et d' Aollo Diana vnica  suora. 
A2"lle «7[¢tse  d'. Imore offni art« e,amt, 
EI d« i htcci d' Amor Dhzna è fitOl"a. 
Clte roi uou skte dalle A[use ailtica ]" 

Thus mctrically rendered, 
"Holy the Muses are, holy is Diana, 
Chaste are they, and chaste also is she. 
From the Muses the Sun indeed moves hot afar, 
And alone of Apollo Diana is sister. 
Against the Muses I.ove's every art is vain, 
And free is Diana from all snares of Love. 
\Vho then is the Diana that says, 
That you are hot a friend of the Muses ?" 

* "LA VlTA ET IETAMORFOSEO : ' * A Lione per Giouamfi di Tornes," 
559, PP- , 3- 

4 .E.M.BLE.3IS ." [Char. I. 

The »vord emblem, l>[3l>a, is one that has strayed very 
widely from its first meaning, and yet by a sort of natural 
process, as the apple grows out of the crab, its signification now 
is akin to what it was in distant ages. It then denoted the 
thing, whether implement or ornament, placcd in, or thl'own on, 
and so joined to, some other thing. Thus a word of cognate 
origin, Eiblgs, in the Iliad, bk. xxiv. 1. 453,* denoted the bolt 
of tir that held fast the door ;--it was somethilg put against the 
door,--the peg or bar that kept it from opening. So in the 
Odysso, , bk. il. 1. 37, the sceptre, the emblem of command, 
was the baton which the herald Peisênor pl«ccd in the hand of 
the son of Ulysses ; and again in the Iliad, bk. xiii. 1. 319, 20,+* 
the flaming torch was the implement which the son of Kronos 
might t/wow on the swift ships. 
Of the changes through which a word may pass, "the word 
llnblem presents Olle of the most remarkable instances." They 
cannot be better given than in the "Sl'ctc/ of tkat brauch of 
Li¢«ra¢m'c callcd I3OOKS OF EM13LEMS," read in 848 before 
the Literary and Philosophical Society of Liverpool, by the late 
Joseph Brooks Yates, Esq. He says of the word ];LE.t, 
pp. 8, 9,--" its present signification, ' Type or allusive represen- 
tation,' is of comparatively modern use, while its original 
meaning is become obsolete. Among the Grceks an tmblem 
(e>[3a>a), derived from ev[3oatu., meant something thrown in or 
inserted after the fashion of what we now call IV[arquet T and 
Mosaic work, or in the form of a detached omament to be affixed 
to a pillar, a tabler, or a vase, and put off or o11, as there might 
be occasion. Pliny, in his 2Vatm'al History," bk. xxxiii, c. I2, 

CIIAP. L l _]ç.ARL Y _]ç«V_ML_]ç.S.  

"mentions ail artist called Pytheus, who executed xvorks of this 
last description in silvcr, ont of which, intcnded to be attached 
to a jar (in phialoe embiemate), represented Ulysses and Diomed 
carrying off thc Palladium.* It weighcd two ounces, and sold 
for IO, OOO sesterces = 8o/. 14s. 7 d. of our moncy. According to 
one ancicnt manuscript of Pliny, it sold for double that amount. 
Marcus Curtius leaping into the gulph forms the subject of a 
beautiful silver Eblem, in the possession of the writcr. "Vhen 
the arts of Greece were transplanted into Italy and Sicily, the 
word tFmbl«ma bccame naturalised in the Latin tongue, though 
hot without some resistance on the part of the reigning prince 
Tiberius. That enaperor is reported by Suetonius," Tibcr. Ccesar 
l'ira, c. 7L "to have found fault with the introduction of the 
word into a Decrce of the Senatc, as being of foreign growth. 
Ciccro, howcver, had used it in his orations against Verres, where 
he accuses that rapacious governor (amongst other crimes) of 
having compelled the people of IIaluntiuin to bring to him their 
vases, from which he carefully abstracted the valuable Emblems 
and inserted them upon his own golden vessels. Quintilian," 
lib. 2, cap. 4, "soon after this pcriod, in enumerating the arts of 
oratory uscd by the pleaders of his day, describes some of them 
as in the habit of preparing and committing to memory certain 
highly finished clauses, to be inserted (as occasion might arise) 
lihe mbl«ms in the body of their ora.tions. , 
" Such was the meaning of the terre in the classical ages of 
Greece and Rome ; nor was its signification altered until some 
rime after the revival of literature in the fiffeenth century." 
Our own Gcoffrey Whitney, deriving, as he does the other 

* Philemon IIolland names the work of art, " A broad goblet or standing piece," 
--" ,ith a d«z'ice ajb«nd«,lt fo it, for to be set on and taken offwith a vice." 
al" Now the property of his grandson, Mr. Henry Yates Thompson, of Thingwall, 
near Liverpool. 
++ Quidam .... scriptos eos {scilicet locos) rnernoriœeque diligentissime 
maudatos, inpromptn habuerent, ut quoties esset occasio, extemporales eorum 
dictiones, his, velut Emblematibus exornarentur."--Qtdtt. Lib. 2, cajb. 4. 

parts of his Choice ofL11blcmcs from the writers on the subject 
that preceded him, gives very exactly the saine explanation as 
llr. Yates. In his address "To the Reader" (p. 2) he says 
" It resteth nov to shewe breeflie vhat this vorde Embleme 
significth, and whereof it commeth, which thoughe it be bor- 
rowed of others, & not proper in the Englishe ronge, yet that 
which it signifieth : Is, and hathe bin alvaies in vse amongst vs, 
which worde being in Greek èdeoEOa, vel ègoEOa is as 
touche to saye in Englishe as To sel bt, or lo ztl bt : properlie 
ment by suche figures, or workes ; as are wroughte in plate, or in 
stoncs in the pauemcntcs, or on the waulcs, or suche like, for the 
adorning of the place: hauinge some wittie deuise expressed 
with cunning woorkemanship, somethinge obscure to be per- 
ceiued at the first, whereby, whcn with further consideration it is 
vnderstood, it maie thc greater delighte the behoulder. And 
althoughc the worde dothe comprehende manie thinges, and 
diuers matters maie be therein contained ; yet all Emblemes for 
the most parte, maie be reduced into these three kindes, which 
is Hstoricall, Natzrall, & ]IoralZ istoricall, as representing 
the actes of some noble persons, being matter of historie. 
vll, as in expressing the natures of creatures, for example, the 
loue of the yonge Storkes, to the oulde, or of suche like. 
peaining to veue and instruction of life, which is the chiefe of 
the three, and the other two maye bee in some sorte drawen into 
this head. For, all doe rende vnto discipline, and morall pre- 
ceptes of liuing. I lnighte write more at large hereof, and of the 
difference of mblcma, Symbohtm,  «ma, hauinge all (as it 
weare) SOlne aNnitie one with the other. But bicause my mean- 
ing is to write as briefely as I maie, for the auoiding of tedious- 
nes, I referre them that would fuher inquire therof, to 
Alciatus, GMlicl. Pcrrcri¢ts, Achill«s Eocchi¢ts & to diuers others 
that haue written thereof, wel knowne to the learned. For 
purpose at this present, to write onelie of this worde Embleme : 

CHAI'. I.] tARL Y t,VA_aLPLES. 7 

Bicause it chieflie doth pertaine vnto the matter I haue in hande, 
whereof I hope this muche, shall giue thcm some taste that 
weare ignoraunt of the same." 
Vhitney's namesake, to whom flattering friendship comparcd 
him, Geoffrey Chaucer, gives us more than the touch of an 
Enblem, xvher hc describes, in the Ca,t«rbuy Talcs, 1. 59-63, 
the dress of" a Nonne, a Prioresse," 

" Of smale corail aboute hire arm she bare 
A pair of bedes, gauded ail with grene ; 
And theron heng a broche of gold ful shene, 
On whiche was first ywritten a crouned A, 
And aftcr, Amor ,iwil o»ttht. '' 

So the "Cristofre," which the Yeoman wore, 1.  5, 

"A Cristofre on his brest of silver shene," 

was doubtless a true Emblcm, to be put on, and taken off, as 
occasion served,--and was probably a cross with the image of 
Christ upon it : and if picturcd forth according to the description 
in ThcLwcmt of Good IVo»wu, 1.  96-8, an emblematical device 
was exhibited, where 

" With saddle rcddc, embrouded with delite 
(3f gold the barres, up enbossed high, 
Sate Dido, all in gold and perrie wrigh." 

This form, the natural form of the Emblem, xve may illustratc 
from a Greek coin, figured in Eschenburg's 2l[atual of C[assical 
Lilcralurc, by Fisk, ed. 1844, pl. xl. p. 35 L 
The Flying Horse and other ornaments of this coin on the 
helmet of Minerva are Emblems,--and so are the owl, the 
olive wreath, and the amphora, or two-handled vase. Were these 

* So the note in illustration quotes from Gower, Cozf. Ara. f. 19o , 
' Ulaon tlte gaudees ail without 
Was wryte of gold, ur rcos,'r," 

8 .EM.BZ.EA[S : [Cmr. I. 

independent castings or mouldings, to be put on or taken off, 
they would be veritable emblelns in the strict litcral Sellse of 
the word. 

Spenser's ideas of devices and ornaments correspond to this 
meaning. Mercilla, the allegorical representation of the sovc- 
reign Elizabeth, is described as 

"that gratious Queene : 
Vqho sate on high, that she might all mcn see 
And might of all inen royally be seene, 
Upon a throne of gold full bright and sheene, 
Adorned all with gemmes of endless price, 
As either might for wealth have gotten becne, 
Or could be fram'd by workman's rare device 
And all embost with lyons and with flour de lice." 
Faerie Q««cc, v. 9. 27. 

Ill Ç.yllbc[illv, Shakespeare represents Iachimo, act i. sc. 6, 
1. 188, 9, describing "a present for the emperor ;" 

"'Tis plate;of rare device ; and jevels 
Of rich and exquisite fonn ; their values grcat." 

So Spenser, fi'ao'ic Q¢tcclm, iv. 4- 15, sets forth, "a prccious 
rebeke in an arke of gold," as 

"A gorgeous Girdle, curiously embost 
,Vith pearle and precious stone, worth many a marke ; 
Yet did the workmanship farre passe the cost." 

In the literal use of the xvord emblcm Shakespeare is vcry 
exact. Parolles, All's ll'dl, act ii. sc. t, 1. 4o, charges thc 
young lords of thc French court, as 

"Noble heroes, my sword and yours are kin ;" and adds, " Good sparks 
and lustrous, a word, good mctals: you shall find in the rcgilncnt of the 
Spinii one Captain Spurio, with his cicatrice, an emblem of war, here on his 
sinister cheek ; it was this very sword entrenched it." 

The Coronation Scene in//«n3' l'III., act iv. sc. I, 1. 8 I m92, 
describes the solemnities, when Annc Bullen, " the goodliest 
woman that ever lay by lnan," 
" with modest paces 
Came to the altar ; where she kneel'd, and saint-like 
Cast her fair eyes to heaven, and pray'd devoutly:" 
Each sacred rite is then observed towards her ; 

" She had all the royal makings of a queen ; 
As holy oil, Edward Confessor's crown, 
The rod, and bird of peace, and all such emblelns 
Lay'd nobly on her." 

Jlld down to Milton's rime the original meaning of the word 
l']mblem was still retained, though widely departed from as used 
by some of the Elnblem vriters. Thus he pictures the " blissful 
bower" of Eden, bk. iv. 1. 697--703, tV'aradis« Los[, 

"each beauteous flower, 
Iris all hues, roses, and jessamin, 
Rear'd high their flourish'd heads between, and wrought 
Mosaic : underfoot the violet, 
Crocus, and hyacinth, with rich inlay 
Broider'd the ground, more colour'd than with stone 
Of costliest emblem." 

Thus, in their origin, Emblems were the figures or omaments 
fashioned by the tools of the artists, in metal or wood, indepen- 
dent of the vase, or the colunm, or the furniture, they were in- 
tended to adorn; they might be affixed or detached at the 

o EII[BL_E.AIS : [ClqAe. 1. 

promptings of the ownet-'s fallcy. Then they were formed, as in 
mosaic, by placing side by side little blocks of coloured stone, or 
tiles, or small sections of variegated wood. Raised or carved 
figures, however produced, came next tobe considcred as 
Emblems; and aftelvards any kind of figured ornament, or 
device, whether carved or engraved, or simply traced, on the 
walls and floors of houses or on vessels of wood, clay, stone, or 
metal. These ornaments were sometimes like the raised work 
on the Varwick and other vases, and formed a critst which 
made a part of the vessel which they embcllished ; but at other 
times they were devices, drawings and carvings on a fi-amcz«ork 
which might be detached from the cup or goblet on which the 
owner had placed them, and be applied to other uses.* 
\Ve may here remark, since embossed ornaments and sculp- 
tured figures on any plain surface are essentially Emblems, the 
sculptor, the engraver, the statuary and the architect, indeed all 
workers in wood, metal, or stone, who embellish with device or 
symbol the simplicity of nature's materials, are especially en- 
titled to take rank in the fraternity of the Emblematists. They 
and their patrons, the whole world of the civilized and the 
intellectual, are not content with the beam out of the forest, or 
with the lnarble fi-om the quarry, or with even the gold from the 
mine. In themselves cedar, marble and gold are only forms of 
brute and unintelligent nature,--and therefore we impose upon 
them signs of deep-seated thoughts of the heart and devices of 
wondrous meaning, and out of the rocks call forth sermons, 
and lessons and parables, and highly spiritual suggestions. On 
the very shrines of God we place our images of corruptible 
things,--but then the soul that rightly reads the images lifts 
them out of their corruptibility and makes them the teachers of 
eternal truths. 

* See Smith's Diclio,ta O, of Gk. atzd IVo»t. A,tL, p. 377 b, article EIIBLEIIA. 

The domains of the statuary and of the architect are hoxv- 
ever too vast tobe entered upon by us, except vith a passing 
glance; they are like Philosophy ; it is ail .Na, tz,ra],--and yet 
visely men map it out into kingdoms and divisions, and pursue 
each his selected vork. 
So xve remember it is not the Universe of Emblenaatism ve 
must attempt, even though Shakespeare should lend us 
" The poet's eye, in a fine fl'enzy rolling, 
To glance froln heaven to earth, from earth fo heaven ; 
And as imagination bodies forth 
The forms of things unknown," 
should add the gift of "the poet's pen," so that ve might 
" Turn them to shapes, and give to airy nothing 
A local habitation and a naine." 
A[idsum»ter Wiffht's Dream, act v. sc. . 1. 2- 17. 
Our business is only with that comparatively slnall section of 
the Emblem-\Vorld, which, "like mummies in their cerements," 
is vrapped up within the covers of the so called Ernblem-books. 
\Vhether, when they are unrolled, they are worth the search and 
the labour, some may doubt ;--but perchance a scaraboeus, or an 
elnerald, with an ancient harp upon it, may rexvard our patience. 

13y a very easy and natural step, figures and ornaments of 
many kinds, when placed on smooth surfaces, vere named 
emblems ; and as these figures and ornaments vere very often 
symbolical, i.c., signs, or tokens of a thought, a sentiment, a 
saying, or an event, the terln emblem was applied to any paint- 
ing, drawing, or print that was representative of an action, of a 
quality of the mind, or of any peculiarity or attribute of cha- 
racter.* "Emblems in fact were, and are, a species of hiero- 

* See the Author's ]t['odltctaty Disscrta[iÇu, p. x, fo the Fac-sinfile Reprint of 
XVhitney's nbl«ms. 

 2 E[.BZE./|[S : [C,tf. I. 

glyphics, in which the figures or pictures, besides denoting the 
natural objects to which they bear resemblances, were employed 
to express properties of the mind, virtues and abstract ideas, and 
all the operations of the soul." 
Thus, the Tablct of Ccbcs, a work by one of the disciples of 
Socrates, about c.c. à9o, is an explanation, in the form of a 
Dialogue, of a picture, said to have been set up in the temple 

cratici-c Iohnis AeRicpiani Epiftola. 

l'ab. Ccl,«',"£ç, 5o7. 

of Kronos at Athens or at Thebes, and which xvas declared to be 
enlblematical of Human Lire. 
One of the older Latin versions, printed in I5O7, presents the 
foregoing illustrative frontispiece. 
As the book has corne down to modern times it is, generally, 
what bas sometimes been namcd, mtdztiz Fmblcma, a naked 
Emblem, because it bas neither device nor artistic drawing, but, 
like Shakespeare's comparison of all the world to a stage in which 
man plays many parts, the course of Life, with its discipline, false 
hopes and false pleasures, is in the Tablet so described,--in 
fact so dclineated,* as to have enabled the Dutch designer and 
engraver, Romyn de Hooghe, in 167o, to bave pictured "the 
whole story of Iquman Life as narrated to the Grecian sage." 
The Moral of the Allegory may hot be set forth with entire 
clearness in the picture, but it can be given in the words of one of 
the Goh[«z Sctoccs of Democritus,--see Gale's Ofius. 30,tlwL :-- 
"That human happiness does hOt result from bodily excellencies nor froln 
riches, but is founded on uprightness of mind and on righteousness of 
Coins and medals furnish most valuable examples of emble- 
Inatical figures; indeed some of the Emblem writers, as Sam- 
bucus in 1564, were among the earliest to publish impressions 
or engravings of ancient Roman money, on which are frequently 
given very interesting representations of customs and symbolical 
acts. On Grecian coins, xvhich Priestley, in lais Zccturcs o, His- 
tory, vol. i. p. I e6,--highly praises for "a design, an attitude, 
a force, and a delicacy, in the expression even of the muscles 
and veins of human figures,"--we find, to use heraldic language, 
that the owl is the crest of Athens,a wolf's head, that of 
Argos,--and a tortoise the badge of the Peloponnesus. The 
whole histol T of Louis XIV. and that of his great adversary, 

* See Plate I., containing De Hooghe's enm'aving, reproduced on a smaller scale. 

 4 IfrlLE[S: [crAP. I. 

William III., are represented in volumes containing the medals 
that vere struck to commemorate the Icading events of thcir 
reigns, and though outrageously untrue to nature and reality by 
the adoption of Roman costumes and classic symbols, they serve 
as records of remarkablc occurrcnces. 
Heraldry throughout employs the language of Emblcms ;--it 
is the picture-history of familles, of tribes and of nations, of 
princes and emperors, lffany a Icgend and many a strange 
fancy may be mixcd up with it and dcmand almost the credulity 
of simplest childhood in order to obtain our credence ; yet in the 
litcraturc of Chivalry and Honours there arc enshrined abundant 
records of the glory that belonged to mighty names. I rccall 
noxv but one instance. In the fine folio lately emblazoned with 
the wcll-knovn motto " GANG FORWARD," "I Agi READ¥," what 
volumes, to those who can interprct each mark and sign and 
tutorcd symbol, arc wrapped up in the F.ramplcs of the ortta- 
mcutal Hcraldrj, of t/te si.rtccuth Ccutztrg, : London, 1867, 1868. 
Thc custom of taking a device or badge, if nota motto, is 
traccd by Paolo Giovio, in lais Dhtlogo dcll' l»rcsc ¢fflit«ri et 
amoros; ed. 1574, p. 9,* to thc carlicst rimes of history. He 

« To bear these emblems was an ancient usage." GIO. « It is a point not 
to be doubted, that the ancients used to bear crests and ornaments on the 
hclmets and on the shields : for we see this clearly in Virgil, when he made 
the catalogue of the nations which came in favour of Turnus against the 
Trojans, in the eighth book of the ./Eneid ; Amphiaraus then (as Pindar 
says) at the var of Thebes bore a dragon on his shicld. Similarly Statius 
writes of Capaneus and of Polinices, that the one bore the Hydra, and the 
other the Sphynx," &c. 

* " 1! orlar quesle itreseft costume autico. GIO. Non è unto da dubitare, 
che .li auliclti vsassero di orlar Cimieri . ornamevtli vte gli elmetli e ne gli scttdi : 
ercke si vede chiaratnête itt Vergil. qudo là il Cataloffo delli geuti, che vênero hz 
fzuore cli Turto contra i Troiani, tell' ollatto dell' eida ; 4)qarao ancora (cotze dice 
29ittdaro) alla guer'a di Thebe îbor[o wz draffote. tello scttdo. Statio scriue sittiltttetle 
di Cataoco  di _Poliuice ; che quelli orlà l'Hidra, e qtesle la Sfluffe," c. 

CnAP. 1.1 EARL V F.VAI]fPLES. ' 5 

But these were simple emblems, without motto inscribed. 
The saine t'aolo Giovio, and other writers after him,* assign both 
" picture and short posie," to two of the early Emperors of Rome. 
"Augustus, wishing to show how self-governed and moderate he was in 
all his affairs, never rash and hasty to believe the first reports and informations 
of his servants, caused to be struck, anaong several others, on a gold medal of 
lais o n, a Butterfly and a Crab, signifying quickness by the Butterfly, and 
by the Crab slowness, the two things which constitute a temperament 
necessary for a Prince." 
The motto, as figured belov,--" 1V[XKE IL\STE IEISURELV." 


.-çyiltgOtt» '. er. I56I. 
The Device is thus applied in Whitney's TmM«m«, p. 
and dedicated to two eminent judges of Elizabeth's reign ; 

* See Gabriel Symeon's l)ises or tmNemes Izrm.oiqves a 3Iowles, ed. . Lyon, 
56L pp. 28, 29, 22o. 

 6 EI]TLE3IS: [CHAr. 1. 

" This figure, lo, AVGVSTVS did deuise, 
A mirror good, for Iudges iuste to sec, 
And ahvayes fittc, to bee before their cies, 
When sentence they, of lire, and dcathc decree : 
Thcn mustc they haste, but verie slowe awaie, 
Like butterflie, whome creepinge crabbe dothc staie. 

" The Prince, or Iudge, maie not with lighte reporte, 
In doubtfull thinges, giue iudgement touching lire : 
But trie, and learne the truthe in euerie sorte, 
And mercie ioyne, with iustice bloodie knife : 
This pleased well AVGVSTVS noble grace, 
And Iudges ail, within this tracke shoulde trace.'" 

The other is the device xvhich the Aldi, celebratcd printers of 
Vcnice, from A.D. I490 to 563, assumed, of thc dolphin and 

N ,m«oni. 

anchor, but which Titus, son of Vespasian, had long before 
adopted, with the motto " ]0ROt'ERA TARDE,"* lftTsltvl 
"faccmto," says Symeoni, "vm figura moth'rata ddla vclocità di 
qucsto, c ddla graucza di qucll' altra, ucl modo che toi vcggiamo 
ditazzi à i libri d' A ldo." 

* See Paolo Giovio's l)ialogo, p. IO, and Symeon's l)œe,ises 'roiques, p. 220. 
Also Le Imprese dal. S. Gab. Symwtd, ed. in Lyone I574; ri-oto which, p. I75 , the 
above device is figttred. 

CHAr. I.] 2EARL Y 2EXA]IPL2ES.  7 

But the heraldry of mankind is a botmdless theme, and ve 
might by simple beat of drum heraldic collect almost a countless 
host of crests, badges, and quarterings truly emblematical, and 
adopted and intended to point out peculiaritics or remarkable 
events and fancies in the histories of the coat-armour families of 
the world. 
The emblematism of bodily sign or action constitutes the 
language of the dunlb. An amusing instance occurs in the 
Abbé 131anchet's "APOLOGUES ORIENTAUX," in lais description 
of " Thc Silot Aadc»o,, or thc Embl«»«s : "-- 
" There was at Hamadan, a city of Persia, a celcbrated acadelny, of which 
the first statute was conceived in these terres ; Yhe acad«micia**s shall lhi*tk 
much, vritt" lilll; atd st«at« the vey l««st that is fiossibl«. It was named 
lh¢ silenl Academy; and there was hOt in Persia any truly learned man who 
bad not the ambition of being admitted to it. Dr. Zeb, an imaginary person, 
author of an excellent little work, THE GAG, learned, in the retirement of 
the province where he was born, there was one place vacant in the silent 
Academy. He sets out immediately ; he arrives at Hamadan, and presenting 
himself at the door of the hall where the academicians are assembled, he 
prays the servant to give this billet to the president : 13r. Zcb asks htt,tkl A, 
lire z,aoztl tShtce. The servant immediately executed the COlnmission, but 
the Doctor and his billet arrived too late,--the place was already fille& 
"The Academy was deeply grieved at this disappointment; it had 
admitted, a little against its wish, a wit ri'oto the court, whose lively light 
eloquence formed the admiration of all ruelles.  The Academy saw itself 
• educed to refuse Doctor Zeb, the scourge of praters, with a head so well 
formed and so well furnished! The president, charged to announce to 
the Doctor the disagreeable news, could scarcely bring himself to it, and 
knew not hmv to do it. After having tbought a little, he filled a large cup 
with water, but so well filled it, that one drop more would bave ruade the 
liquid overflmv ; then he ruade sign that the candidate should be intro- 
duced. He appeared with that simple and modest air which almost ahvays 
announces truc merit. The president arose and, without offering a single 
word, showed, with an appearance of deep sorrow, the emblematic cup, 
this cup so exactly fille& The Doctor understood that there was no more 
• L,:, the space left between one of the sides of a bed and the wall. Employed 
firatively, this word relates to a custom xvhich bas passed away, when people betook 
themselves to the alcove or sleeping room of their fi-iends to enjoy the pleasure of 

,8 Ell[t¢LE[S : [CAv. I. 

room in the Academy; but without losing courage, he thought how to 
lnake it understood that one supcrnumerary acade,nician would disarrange 
nothing. He sees at his fect a roseleaf, he picks it tp, he places it gently on 
the surface of the water, and did it so well that nota single drop escaped. 
«At this ingenious answer everybody clappcd hands; the rules were 
allowed to sleep for this day, and Doctor Zeb was received by acclamation. 
The register of the Academy was immediately presented to him, where the 
nev lnembers must inscribe themselves. He then inscribed hi,nself in it ; 
and there relnaincd for him no more than to pronounce, according to custom, 
a phrase of thanks. But as a truly silent academician, Doctor Zeb returned 
thanks without saying a word. He wrote in the margin the number Ioo,--it 
vas that of his new brethren ; then, by putting a o before the figures, oloo, 
he wrote belov, thty are wo'lk t«ilhcr less tor tore. The president 
answered the lnodest Doctor with as lnuch politeness as presence of mind. 
He placed the figure I before the number io% Le.  oo ; and he wrote, t/t O, 
¢,ill be worlh clevet If»tes mo e." 

The varieties in the Emblems which exist might be pursned 
from "the bird, the mouse, the frog, and the four arrows," which, 
the Father of history tells us,* the Scythians sent to Darius, the 
invader of their country,--through all the ingenious devices by 
which the initiated in secret societies, whether political, social, or 
religions, seek to guard their mysteries from general knmvledge 
and observation,--until we come to the flower-language of the 
affections, and learn to read, as Hindoo and Persian maidens 
can, the telegrams of buds and blossoms, and to interpret the 
flashing of colours, either si,nple or combined. We should have 
to name the Picture vriting of the Mexicans, and to declare 
what lneanings lie concealed in the signs and imagery which 

* Herodotus, in the T[eltomo«e, bk. iv. c. t3t. 
"t" So in the autunm and wiuter which preceded Napoleon's return from Elba, the 
question was often asked in France by his adherents,--" Do you like the violet ." 
and if the answer was,--" The violet will return iu the spring," the answer became 
a sure levelation of attachment to the Emperor's cause. For full information on 
Flower sigtts see Casimir llagnat's 2ï-aité dt« Zattgage sy#tboliqt«e, emNJ»tatiqtte ci 
reliettx des Fleurs. 8vo: A. Touzet, Paris, r$55. In illustration take the lines 
from Dr. Donne, af one rime secretary to the lord keeper lïgerton :-- 
"' I had hot taught thee then the alphabet 
Of flowers, how they devisefully being set 
And bound up, might vith speechless secresy 
Deliver errands nmtely and mutually."--Flç.%l. 7- 


adorn tomb and monument,--or peradventure to set forth the 
art by which, on so simple a material as the bark of a birch-tree, 
some Indians, on their joumey, emblematized a troop with 
attendants that had lost their way. " In the party there was 
a military officer, a person whom the Indians understood 
to be an attorney, and a mineralogist; eight were armed: 
when they halted they ruade three encampments." With 
their knives the Indians traced these particulars on the bark 
by mcans of certain signs, or, rather, hieroglyphical marks;-- 
"a man with a sword," they fashioned "for the officer; 
another with a book for the lawyer, and a third with a 
hammer for the mincralogist; three ascending columns of 
smoke denoted the thrce encampments, and eight muskets 
the number of armed men." So, without paper or print, a 
not unintelligible memorial was left of the company that were 
travelling together. 
_And so we corne to the very Early Examples--if hot the 
earliest--of Emblematical Representation, as exhibited in fictile 
remains, in the workmanship of the silversnith, and of those by 
whom the various metals and precious stones have been wrought 
and moulded ; and especially in the numerous specimens of the 
skill or of the fancy which the glyptic and other artizans of 
ancient Egypt have left for modern times. 
For the nature of Fictile ornamentation it were sufficient to 
refer to the recently published Lire of ):osiah lVcdgzt,ood;* but 
in the, or terra cotta ornaments, derived ri-oto the old 
Etruscan civilisation, we possess true and literal Emblems. As 
the naine implies, these ornaments "were fi.r«d bcfore che bMht- 
bts," often on the friezes "which they adorned," and were 

" Sec also " xEAL hlUSEO ]3ORBONICO," 2Vaali Dalla StaoEeria lt'ale, 1824. 
VoL i. tavola viii. e ix. Avventura e hnprese di Ercoli. Vol. ii. tav. xxviii. 
Dedalo e Icaro. Vol. iii. tav. xlvi. Vaso Italo-Greco depinto. Vol. v. tav. li. 
Vaso Italo-Greco,--a Vely fine example of embleln ornmnents in the literal sense. 

20 .EM-I?LE31S: [çUAr. I. 

fastened to them by leadcn nails. For cxamples, easy of access, 
we refer to the sketches supplied by James, Eq., of 
Itighgate; to the Z)iclionar.J, of GX'. and Rom. Anliquilh's, p. 5  ; 
and especially to that antefixa which represcnts Minerva super- 
intending the construction of the ship _Argo. The man with the 
hamlner and chisel is ANus, who built the vcssel under hcr 
direction. The pilot Tiphys is assisted by her in attaching the 
sail to the yard. The borders at the top and bottom are in the 
Grcek style, and are extremely elcgant." 
_And the pressing of clay into a matrix or mould, from which 
the form is taken, appears to be of very ancient date. The book 
of Job xxxviii. 14, alludcs to the practice in the words, "it is 
turned as clay to the seaU' Of similar or of higher antiquity is 
"the work of an engraver in stone, lid'c the engravings of a 
signet," Exodus xxviii. I L _And "the breastplate of judgment, 
the Urim and the Thulnmim," v. 3o, worn " upon _Aaron's 
heart," was probably a similar emblematical ornament to that 
which Diodorus Siculus, in his Iistou', bk. i. chap. 75, tells us 
was put on by the president of the Egyptian courts of justice : 
" He bore about his neck a golden chain, at which hung an 
image, set about, or composed of precious stones, which was 
called TRUTII."* 
_Among instances of emblematical workmanship by the silver- 
smith and his confabricators of similar crafts we may naine that 
shield of _Achilles which Homer so graphically describes,$ "solid 
and large," " decorated with numerous figures of most skilful 
art ;"-- or the shields of Hercules and of .SEneas, with which 
Hesiod, 'ca', iv. I41--317, and Virgil, dïncid, viii. 615-73, 
might make us familiar. Or to come to modern times,--to days 

' " E¢popet ' autos rept "fou "rpaxvlA.ov #¢ Xpv#s dv#eoes pvgevov çoeov vœu 
oAvr«oev Owv)  po/op«vov HOEIAN." 
+ Iliad, xviii. 478, " 
,, ,, 482, "of« 

CHAI'. 1.1 .£AII, Y .£XA[tL.£S. 2 i 

out very" own,--there is the still more precious, the matchless 
shield by Vehm, whereon, in most expressive imagery, are ham- 
mered out the discoveries of Newton, Milton's noble epics, and 
Shakespeare's dramatic xvonders. XVe may, too, in passing, 
allude to the richly-embossed and ornamented cups for which 
our swift racers and grey-hounds, and those " dogs of war," our 
volunteers, contend; and the almost imperial pieces of plate, 
such as the Cœesars never beheld, in which genius and the highest 
art combine, by thcir "cunning work," to carre the deeds and 
enhance the renown of somc of our great Indian administrators 
and illustrious generals; these all, truly" "choice emblemes," 
intimate the extent to which ottr subject might lead. But I 
forbcar to pursue it, though scarcely" any path offers greater 
temptations for wandering abroad amid the marvels of human 
skill, and for considering rcvcrently and gladly" how men havc 
been "filled with the spirit of God, in wisdom, and in under- 
standing, and in knowledge, and in ail manner of workmanship." 
Exodtts xxxi. 3. 
Of glyptic art the most ancient, as well as the most ample, 
remains are found in the temples and the other monuments of 
Egypt. Various modern explorers and writers have given very 
elaborate accounts of those remains, and still are carwing on 
their researches; but of old writers only Clemens, of Alexandria, 
who flourished "towards the end of the second centre 3, after 
Christ," "has left us a full and correct account of the principle 
of the Egyptian wrltlng, and bas declared what the subjects 
were which were included in the word hieroglyphics ; } and as 

« See Kenrick's AncieJzt Egvt ztJ«de" lhe tharaoks, vol. i. p. z9. 
+ See the Stro»m¢a of Clemens, ri. 633 ,-where we learn that it was the duty of 
the Hierogranamateis, or Sacred Scribe, to gain a knowledge of "what are named 
Hieroglyphics, which relate to cosmography, geography, the action of the snn and 
moon, to the rive planers, to the topography of Eg-ypt, and to the neigltbourhood of 
the Nile, to a record of the attire of the priests and of the estates belonging to them, 
and to other things seMceable to the priests." 

far as is known, no other early author, except Horapollo of the 
Nile, has written expressly on the Itieroglyphics of Egypt, and 
dcclared that his work--which was probably translated into 
Greek in the reign of the emperor Zeno, or even latcr--was 
dcrived from Egyptian sources; indeed, was a book in the 
language of Egypt. 
Probably the best account we have of the author and of 
the translator, is given by Alexander Turner Cory, in the 
Preface to his edition of Horapollo. He says, pp. viii. 
and ix.,-- 

" At the beginning of the fifih century, Horapollo, a scribe of the Egyptian 
race, and a native of l'hoencbythis, attcmpted to collect and perpetuate in 
the volume before us, the then remaining, but fast fading knowledge of the 
symbols inscribed upon the monuments, which attested the ancient grandeur 
of his count3". This compilation xvas originally ruade in the Egyptian lan- 
guage ; btt a translation of it into Greek by Philip has alone come down to 
us, and in a condition very far from satisfactory. From the internal evidence 
of the work, we should judge Philip to have lived a century or two later than 
Horapollo ; and at a time when every remnant of actual knowledge of the 
subject must have vanished." 

However this may be, it is certainly a book of Emblems, and 
just previous to Shakespeare's age, and during its continuance 
was regarded as a high authority. Within that rime there were 
at least rive editions of the work,and it was certainly the mine 
in which the writers of Emblem books generally sought for what 
were to them valuable suggestions. The edition we have used is 
the small octavo of I55,* with many woodcuts, imaginative 
indeed, but designed in accordance with the original text. J. 
Mercier, a distinguishcd scholar, who died in 562, was the 
editor. In 547 he was professor of Hebrew at the Royal 

« " ORI APOLLINIS NILACl, De Sacris notis et sculpturis libri duo," &c. 
"Parisiis: apud Jacobum Keruer, via Jacoboea, sub duobus Gallis, M.D.Li." 
Also, A[arlin' "Orus Apollo de _]Egypte de la sygmification des notes hiero- 
glyphiques des Agyptiens : Paris, Keruer, sm. 8vo, 543." 

College of Paris, and iii I548 edited the quarto edition of 
Horapollo's tticrogl3'ltics. 
From the edition of 155I, p. Se, we take a very popular 
illustration ; it is the Phoelix, and lnay serve to show the nature 
of Horapollo's work. 

the Egyptialas reprcsent 
a soul passing a long 

time here ?" "They 
paint a bird--the Phce- 
nix ; for of all creatures 

in the world this bird has 
by far the longest lire." 
Again, bl« i. 37, or 
P- 53, "Hov do they de- 
note the man who after 

long absence will rcturn to his fi'iends fi'om abroad?" By thc 
Phcenix; "for this bird, aftcr rive hundred years, when thc 
death hour is about to seize it, returns to Egypt, and in 
Egypt, paying the debt of nature, is burned with great 
solcmnity. And whatcver sacred rites thc Egyptians observe 
towards their other sacred animals, these they observe towards 
the Phcenix." 
And bk. ii. 57,"The lasting restoration which shall take 
place after long ages, when they wish to signify it. thcy paint 
the bird Phcenix. For when it is born this bird obtains the 
restoration of its properties. And its birth is in this manncr: 
the Phcenix being about to die, dashes itself upoll the ground, 
and receiving a wound, ichor flows from it, and through the 
opening another Phcenix is born. And when its wings are 
fledged, this other sets out with its father to thc city of the 
Sun in Egypt, and on arriving there, at the rising of the 
Sun, the parent dies; and after the death of the father, thc 

24 EA[BZEALç : [Cm,. I. 

young one sets out again for its own country. And the dead 
Phcenix do the priests of Egypt bury." 
But the drawings, which in the old editions of Horapollo 
were fancy-made, have, through the researches of a succession of 
Egyptian antiquaries, assumed reality, and may be appealed to 
for proof that Horapollo described the very things which he had 
seen, though occasionally he, or his translator t'hilip, attributes 
to them an imaginative or highly mythical meaning. The 
results of those researches ve xvitness in the editions of tIora- 
pollo, first by the celebrated Dr. Conrad l_,eemans, of Leyden, 
in I835,* and second, by .Alexander Turner Cory, Fellow of 
l'embroke College, Cambridge, in I84O ;a t both of which cditions, 
by their illustrative plates, taken fl'om correct drawings of the 
originals, present Horapollo with an accuracy that could hot 
have been approached in the sixteenth century. We bave 
indeed of that age the great work of Pierius Valerian (ed. folio, 
Bâle, I556, leaves 449), the Hi,'rog-13/dca, dedicated to Cosmo 
de' Medici, with almost innumerable emblems, in fifty-eight 
books, and with about 365 devices. But it cannot be regarded 
as an exposition of the Egyptian art, and labours under the 
same defect as the early editions of Horapollo,--the illustrations 
are not taken from existing molmments. 
.Ai1 example or two from Leernans and Cory will snpply 
sufficient information to enable the rcader to understand 
something of the nature of Horapollo's work, and of the actual 
Hieroglyphics from which that work has in great part been 
The following is the 31st figure in the plates which Leemans 
gives; it is the pictorial representation to explain " "What 

* Itoraollbtis )Viloi IZierogl3'thica , 8vo, pp. xxxvi, and 446: "Amstelodami, 
apud J. Muller et Socios, )cccxxxv." 
+ The I-Iia'oglyhics of I4"oraollo Wilotts, sm. 8vo, pp. xii. and I74 : "London, 
Wi||iam Pickering, DCCCX." 

CHAI'. l.l E./tRZ Y EX./t_B]'.PZES. 25 

the Egyptians mean when they engrave or paint a star."* 
"'Vould they signify the God who sets in order the world, or 

destiny, or the number 
rive, they paint a star; 
God, indeed, because the 
providence of God, to 
which the motion of the 
stars and of all the world 
is subject, determines 
the victory ; for it seems 
to them that, apart from 

God, nothing whatever could endure ; and destiny tcy sigMfy, 
since this also is regulated by stellar management,--and the 
number rive, because out of the multitude which is in heaven, 
rive only, by motion originating from themselves, make perfect 
the management of the world." 
Of the three figures which are delineated above, the one to 
the left hand symbolizes God, that in the middle destiny, 
and the third, the number 5, from rive rays being used to 
indicate a star. 
The saine subjects are "l[r" A 
thus represented in Cory's 
Cory's Horapollo, bk. i. 
c. 8, p. 15 , also illustrates 
the question, " How do they 
indicate the soul ?" by the accompanying symbols ; of which 


I. represents the mummy and the departing soul, II. the hawk 
round sitting on the nmmmy, and III. the external mummy 

Lo'y's EralSollo, x84o. 

case. The an- 
swer to the ques- 
tion is :-- 

" Moreover, the 
I-IAWK is put for 
the soul, ri-oto the 
signification of its 
naine ; for among 
the Egyptians the 
hawk is called 

BAIETH : and this naine in decomposition signifies soul and heart ; for the 
word BAI is the soul, &lld ETH the heart : and the heart according to the 
Egyptians is the shrine of the soul; so that in its composition the naine 
signifies 'soul cnshrined in heart.' XVhence also the hawk, from its cor- 
respondence with the soul, never drinks water, but blood, by which, also, the 
soul is sustained." 

_And in a similar vay many of the sacred engravings or draxv- 
ings are interpreted. _A serpent xvith its tail covcred by the rest 
of its bod¥, "depicts Eternity ;"* "to denote an only bcgoth'n, or 
g'cm'ration, or a f«thcr, or the worhl, or a man, they delineate a 
SCAIAI.EUS ;" ¢ a LON symbolises h«trc_pidio,,its FOREPARTS, 
strcngth, and its HEAD, ,atC[lfltlllgSS; *+ the STORK denotes 
filial affection, the CRANE on the watch, a man on guard against 
his enemies, and the FEATI-IER of an Ostrich, iarthdjmticc,-- 
for, adds the author, "this animal, beyond other animais, bas 
the wing feathers equal on every side." § 
Christian Art, like the Religious Art of the world in general, 
from the thou and thcc of simplest Quakerism, outward and 
audible sounds of an inward and silent spîrit, up to the pro- 
foundest mystic ritualism of the Buddhist,--Christian Art 

« II6rapollo, bk. i. c. L 
++ Bk. i. c. 7-9. 

"1" Bk. i. c. Io. 
§ Bk. ii. c. 58 , 94, 8. 

Cr,x . I.] E/RZ I" EXzt3IPZES. 7 

abounds in Emblems ; geins and colours, genuflexions and other 
bodily postures supply them ; they are gathercd from the mineral, 
animal, and vegetable kingdoms, and besides are enrlched from 
the whole domain of imaginary devices and creatures. Does 
the emerald flash in its mild lustre ?--itis of "victory and hope, 
of immortality, of faith, and of reciprocal love," that it gives 
forth light. Is blue, the colour of heaven, worn in some religi- 
ous ceremony ?mit betokens "piety, sincerity, godliness, con- 
templation, expectation, love of heavenly things." Do Christian 
men bare the head in xvorship ?wit is out of reverence for the 
living God, whose earthly tcmples thcy have entered. The 
badge of St. John the laptist, is a lamb on a book,--that of St. 
John the Evangelist is a cup of gold with a serpent issuing flore 
it. The Pomegranate, "showing its fulness of seed and now 
bursting," typifies the hope of immortality ;--and a Fleur-de-lys, 
or the Rose of Sharon, embroidered or painted on a robe,-- 
it marks the Blessed Virgin. XVith more intricate symbolism 
the Greek Church represents the Saviour's naine [HCOYC 
(P|CTOC,--IesuS CHristuS. The first finger of the hand ex- 
tended is for |, the second bent for C or s, the thumb crossed 
upon the third finger for X or Ch, and the fourth finger CUl-ced 
for C or s. Thus are given the initial and final letters of that 
Holy Naine, the Saviour, the Christ.* 
Of early Emblems examples enough have noxv been given to 
indicate their nature. Whether lu closing this part of the 
subject we should naine a work of more ancieut date even than 
the Greek version of Horapollo would adroit of doubt, were it 
hot that every work partakes of an emblematical character, 
when the descriptions giv.en or the instances taken pertain, as 

* For a further and- ve T interesting account of the Emblems of Christian Art, 
reference my be nmde to a work full of ilformation,--too brief it nmy be for all that 
is desirable,--but to be relied on for its accuracy, and to be imitated for its candid and 
charitable spirit:--Sacred Arch«eology, by Iackenzie E. C. Walcott, B.D., 8vo, 
pp. 64o : London, Reeve & Co. 1868. 

28 E$£BZE.MS : [Cm. I. 

Whitney says, "to vertue and instruction of lire," or "doe tende 
vnto discipline, and morall preceptes of living." 
Under this rule we hesitate hot to adroit into the wide cate- 
gory of Emblem writers, EPIPHANIU$, who vas chosen bishop of 
Constantia in Cyprus, A.1. 367, and who died in 4o2. His 
t'lo'sio:agist, published with his sermon on the Feast of l'ahns, 
is, like many vritings of the Fathers, remarkable for highly 
allegorical interpretations. .An edition, by l'once de Leon. a 
Spaniard of Seville, xvas printed at Rome in 587, and repeated 
at Antwerp* in 1588. It relates to the rem and imaginary 
qualities of animais, and to certain precepts and doctrines of 
which those qualities are supposed to be symbolical. As an 
example ve give here an extract from chapter xxv. p. to6, 
" Ca/«ccrni/g c Star,('." 

EJiJ]tani«s, I588. 

* " Ex Ocina Chrlstophori Plantini, Architypographi Regij, I588." 

CHAP. I.] .EARL Y" .EXA2]I.P.L.ES. 29 

The Stork is described as a bird of extreme purity ; and as 
nourishing, xvith xvonderfid affection, father and mothcr in their 
old age. The " interpretation" or application of the fact is ;-- 
" So also it behoves us to observe these two divine commands, 
that is to turn aside from evil and to do good, as the kingly 
prophet wrote; and likexvise in the decalogue the Lord com- 
mands, thus saying ;--Honour thy father and thy mother." 
In a similar way the properties and habits of various animais,- 
of the lion, the elephant, the stag, the eagle, the pelican, the 
partridge, the peacock, &c., are adduced to enforce or symbolize 
virtues of the heart and life, and to set forth the doctrines of the 
writer's creed. 
To illustrate the Emblem side of Christian Art a great 
varicty of information exists iii Skctchcs of thc History of 
Christiau Art, by Lord Lindsay (3 vols. 8vo : Murray, London, 
x847) ; and Northcote and Bl'ownlov's Roma Sottcrrmtca, com- 
piled from De Rossi (Svo: Longmans, London, 1869) promises 
to supply many a symbol and type of a remote age fully to set 
forth the saine subject. 

3 ° EM.B.LE.M-.BO01C LITE.RATU.R.E ." [Cn.«v. ll. 

TO A.D. 66. 



,:: -,. , c N the use of the word Emblem there is scldom 
l  tict ad"ec obed to al' exact a"i- 
__- tion,--so, when Emblem Literature is spoken of, 
-  considerable latitude is taken and allowed as to 
the kind of works which the terres shall embrace. 
In one sense every book which has a picture set in it, or on it, 
is an emblem-book,--the diagrams in a mathematical treatise or 
in an exposition of science, inasmuch as they may be, and often 
are, detached from the text, are emblems ; and when to Tenny- 
son's exquisite poem of" ELAINE," Gustave Doré conjoins those 
wonderful drawings which are themselves poetic, he gives us a 
book of emblems ;--Tennyson is the one artist that out of the 
gold of his own soul fashioned a vase incorruptible,--and Doré 
is that second artist xvho placed about it ornaments of beauty, 
fashioned also out of the riches of his mind. 
Yet by universal consent, these and countless other works, 
scientific, historical, poetic, and religious, which artistic skill bas 
embellished, are never regarded as emblematical in their cha- 
racter. The "picture and short posie, expressing some particular 

SECT. I.] G E_/VE R A L E X T_/V T. 3  

conceit," seem almost essential for bringing any vork within the 
province of the Emblem Literature ;--but the practical applica- 
tion of the test is conceived in a very liberal spirit, so that vhile 
the small fish sail through, the shark and the sea-dog rend the 
meshes to tatters. 
A proverb or witty saying, as, in Don Sebastian Orozco's 
"EMBLEMAS MORALES" (Madrid 161o), "Divesqve miserqve," 
both rich aml wrctchcd, may be pictured by king Midas at the 
table where everything is turned to gold, and may be set forth 
in an eight-lined stanza, to declare hov the toaster of millions 
was famishing though surrounded by abundance ;and these 
things constitute the Emblem. Some scene from Bible Histow 
shall be taken, as, in "F figurr Bt iril etamn, t, &-u 
nmlW' (at Paris, about I5O3) , $[oscs al te ¢trtbg ¢ts ; 
where are printed, as if an Emblcm text, the passage from 
Exodus iii. 24, and by its side the portraits of David and 
Esaias; across the page is a tripler woodcut, representing 
Moses at the bush, and Ma W in the stable at Bethlehem with 
Christ in the manger-cradle ; various scrolls with sentences from 
the Scriptures adorn the page :such representations claire a 
place in the Emblem Literature. Boissard's Tcatr¢m Uit¢ 
¢ma¢ (Metz, 1596 ) shall mingle, in curious continuity, the 
Creation and Fall of Man, Ninus king of the Assyrians, Pandora 
and Prometheus, the Gods of Egypt, the Death of Seneca, 
Naboth and Jezabel, the Advent of Christ and the Last Judg- 
ment ;--yet they are all Emblems,because each has a "picture 
and a short posie" setting forth its "conceit." To be sure there 
are some pages of Latin prose seing to explain or confuse, as 
the case may be, each paicular imagination; but the text 
constitutes the emblem, and however long and tedious the 
comment, it is from the text the composition derives its naine. 
A stcm aud armorial cari¢Es-book of h«h al¢d of low Stations, 


--printed at Frankfort-on-Mayne, 579, presents above 270 
woodcuts of the badges, shields and helmets, with appropriate 
symbols and rhymes, belonging as well to the humblest who 
can claim tobe "vom gutem Geschlecht," of good race, as to 
the Electoral Princes and to the Caesarean Majesty of the Holy 
Roman Empire. Most of the figures are illustrated by Latin 
and German verses, and again "picture and short posie" vin- 
dicate the title,--book of Emblems. 
And of the saine character is a most artistic work by 
Theodore de 13 W, lately added .to the treasure-house at Keir; 
it is also a Statu md IVacltbucl«, issued at Frankfort in 593, 
with ninety-four plates ail within most beautiful and elaborate 
borders. Its Latin title, Emblcma Nobilit«te" et ITulgo scilt 
digère, &c., declares that these Emblems are "worthy tobe 
known both by nobles and commons." 
And so when ail Emperor is married, or the funeral rites of 
a Sovereign Prince celebrated, or a new saint canonized, or 
perchance some proud cardinal or noble tobe glorified, what- 
ever Art can accomplish by symbol and song is devoted to the 
emblem-book pageantry,--and the graving tool and the printing 
press accomplish as endurilg and wide-spread a splendour as 
even Titian's Triumphs of Faith and Fame. 
Devotion that seeks wisdon from the skies, and Satire that 
laughs at follies upon the earth, both have claimed and used 
emblems as the exponents of their aims and purposes. 
"Vith what surpassing beauty and nobleness both of ex- 
pression and of sentiment does Otho Voenius in his " AMORIS 
I)IVINI E3IBLEIIATA," Antwerp, I615, represent to the mind as 
well as to the eye the blessed Saviour's adoption of a human 
soul, and the effulgence of love with which itis filled ! (See 
Plate II.) They are indeed divine Images portrayed for us, and 
the great word is added from the beloved disciple,--" Behold, 
what manner of love the Father bath bestowed upon us, that 


ECT. [. ] GVRA.L XTE2VT. 3 3 

ve should be called the sons of God." 

.And the simple Rcfrab, 

C'esl fiar ccl Mntour que les hommes 
Sorti esleucz de ce bas licu ; 
C'est fiar cal 17nottr que nous so#tne« 
Elns l#hltcs de Dictt : 
Car ?Ame qui garde or la ,ie 
(Comme.fille) or do'nittU' 

_And that clever imitation of the "tultifrra îtauig," thc 
Foo[-fi-cightect çhii , of the fifteenth century, namely, the 
" CENTIFOLIUM STULTORUM," edition 7o7, or Hundrcd-l«aved 
Book of Fools of the eighteenth, proves how the Satirical may 
symbolize and fraternize with the Emblematical. The title of 
the book alone is sucient to shoxv what a vehicle for lashing 
men's faults the device xvith its stanzas and comment may be 
ruade; it is, "A hundred-leaved book of Fools, in Quarto ; or an 
hundred exquisite Fools nexvly xvarmed up, in Folio,in an 
Alapatrit-Pasty for the show-dish ; with a hundred fine copper 
engravings, for honest pleasure and useful pastime, intended as 
well for frolicsome as for melancholy minds ; enriched moreover 
with a delicate sauce of many Natural Histories, gay Fables, 
short Discourses, and edifying Moral Lessons." 
Among the one hundred distiugMskcd characters, xve might 
select, xvere it only in self-condemnation, the Glass and Porce- 
lain dupe, the Antiquity and Coin-hunting dupe, and especially 
the Book-collecting dupe. These are among the best of the 
devices, and the stanzas, and the expositions. Dupes of every 
kind, hoxvever, may find their reproof in the six simple German 
lines,p.  7 , 
 inn nict ir [caen ieI: 


"Wh»  fl» will much nd ft e 
y tçm  muc will mke by 11 bi» techig. 
For though we of out very best be speaking, 
Falsely the fool the very worst is seeking. 
Therefore the fool, a fool untaught, remains, 
Though rive score years we give him all our pains." 
But Politics also have thc bright, if hot thc dark, side of their 
nature presented to thc world in Emblems. Giulio Capaccio, 
Venetia, I62O, derives "IL PRINCIPE," Thc 'incc, from the 
Emblems of Alciatus, "with two htmdred and more Political 
and Moral Admonitions," "usefltl," he declares, "to eve 
gentleman, by reason of its excellent knowledge of the customs, 
economy, and government of States." Jacobus à Bruck, of 
Angermunt, in his " EMBLEMATA POLITICA," A.D. I618, briefly 
demonstrates those things which concern government ; but Don 
Diego Saavedra Faxardo, vho died in 648, in a work of con- 
siderable repute," IDEA de vn Principe Politico-Christiano, 
representada EN CIEN EPRESAS,"[dca & a Po[it[c-Çhristiat 
Prbtcc, 7:rcsc/tt«d i/t otc kmdrcd mblc/«s (edition, Valencia, 
I655), so accompanies his Model Ruler from the cradle to 
maturity as almost to make us think, that could we find the bee- 
bread on which Kings should be nourished, it would be no more 
difficult a task for a nation to fashion a perfect Emperor than it 
is for a hive to educate their divine-right ruling Queen. 
But, so great is the variety of subjects to which the illustra- 
tions fl'om Emblems are applied, that ve shall content our- 
selves with mentioning one more, taking out the arguments, as 
they are named, from celebrated classic poets, and converting 
them into occasions for pictures and short posies. Thus, like 
the dust of Alexander, the remains of the mighty dead, of 



Homer and Virgil, of Ovid and Horace, have served the base 
uses of Emblem-effervescence, and in nearly all the languages of 
Europe have been forced to misrepresent the noble utterances of 
Greece and Rome. lIany of the pictures, however, are very 
beautiful, finely conceived, and skilfully executed ;--we blame 
not the artists, but the false taste which nmst make little bits 
of verses where the originals existed as mighty poems. 
Generally it is considered that the Ovids of the fifteenth 
century were without pictorial illustrations, and could hot, there- 
fore, be classed among books of Eblems; but the Blandford 
Catalogue, p. 2, records an edition, "Venetia, I497," "cure 
jïg'uris dictis,"-- with figures portrayed. Without discussing 
the point, we will refer to an undoubted emblematized edition 
of the _/7[h»zor_phoscs of Ovid, " Figurato & abbreviato in 
forma d'Epigrammi da lXl. Gabriello Symeoni,"--fiKztred aJzcl 
abbrez,iatcd izz form of Eiifframs by [. Gbricl Sym«vff. The 
volume is a small 4to of 245 pages, of which 187 have each 
a title and device and Italian stanza, the whole surrounded by a 
richly figured border. The volume, dedicated to the celebrated 
"Diana di Poitiers, Dvchessa di Valentinois," was published "A 
Lione per Giouanni di Tornes nella via Resina, 1559." An 
Example, p. 13, (see Plate III.,) will show the character of the 
work, ofwhich another edition was issued in I584. The Italian 
stanzas are all of eight lines each, and the passages of the 
original Latin on which they are founded are collected at the 
end of the volume. Thus, for " La Creatione & confusione del 
Mondo," the Latin lines are, 

Of the devices several are very closely imitated in the wood- 
cuts of Reusner's Eblems, publishcd at Frankfort, in I58I. 

36 E_J[tZE_J[-BOOA" ZlTERATU-g£ : [CHAr. II. 

The engravings in Symeoni's Ovid are the work of Solomon 
Bernard, "the little Bernard," a celebrated artist born at Lyons 
in 151z; who also produced a set of vignettes for a French 
translation of Virgil, L'2ncid« d« Virgilc, Prince des Poctcs 
latins, printed at Lyons in I56o. 
names one of his choicest works, first published in I6o7, is a 
similar adaptation of a classic attthor to the prevailing taste of 
the age for emblematical representation. The volume is a very 
fine 4to of 214 pages, of which IO 3 are plates; and a corres- 
ponding lO 3 contain extracts from Horace and other Latin 
authors, followed, in the edition of I612, by stanzas in Spanish, 
Italian, French and Flemish. _An example of the execution of 
the work will be found as a Photolith, Plate XVII., near the end 
of our volume; it is the " VOLAT IRREVOCABILE TElX[PUS," 
lrrevocaMe rime isflyin,so fitll of emblematical meaning. 
From the office of the no less celebrated Crispin de Passe, 
at Utrecht, in I613, issued, in Latin and French verse, 
"SPECVLVM HEROICVM Principis omnium temporum Poëtarum 
HoERI,"The Heroic lirror of Homc; thc _Prince of the 
Paets of all rimes. The various arguments of the tventy-four 
books of the Iliad have been taken and ruade the groundwork 
of twenty-four Emblems, vith their devices most admirably 
executed. The Latin and French verses beneath each device 
unmistakeably impress a true emblem-character on the work. 
The author, "le Sieur J. Hillaire," appends to the Emblems, 
pp. 6975, "Epitaphs on the Heroes vho perished in the Trojan 
War," and also "La course d'Vlisses, son tragitte retour, & 
deffaicte des amans qui poursuivoient la chaste & vertueuse 
What might not in this way be included within the vide- 
encompassing grasp of the determined lïmblematist it is almost 
impossible to say; and therefore it ought to be no matter of 

surprise to find there is practically a greater extent given to the 
Literature of Emblems than of absolute right belongs to it. We 
shall not go much astray if ve take Custom for out guide, and 
keep to its decisions as recorded in the chicf catalogucs of 
Emblem works. 

Horaollo, x55t. 

38 £«]IIL£M-.BO01: LIT£RAT&[i, [Cr. 

 EAVING for the most part out of view tbe 
, } discussions which have taken place as to the 
rg exact time and the veritable originators of the 
 as of printing by fixed or moveable types, 
and of the embellishing of books by cngravings on blocks of 
wood or plates of copper, we are yetfor the full development 
of the condition and extent of the Emblem Literature in the age 
of Shakespearerequired to notice the growth of that species of 
ornamental device in books which depends upon Emblems for 
its force and meaning. We say advisedly "ornamental device 
in boos," for infinite ahnost are the applications of Symbol and 
Eblem to Architecture, Sculpture, and Painting, as is testified 
by the Remains of Antiquity in all pas of the world, by tbe 
Pagan tombs and Christian catacombs of ancient Rome, by 
nearly evew temple and church and stately building in the 
empires of the eartb, and especially in tlose wondcrful creations 
of human skill in which form and colour bring forth to sight 
nearly eve W thought and fancy of our souls. 
Long before either block-printing or type-printing was prac- 
tised, it is well known how extensively the limner's art was 
employed "to illuminate," as it is calle, the Manuscripts that 
were to be round in tbe rich abbeys or convents, and in the 
mansions of the great and noble. For instance, the devices 

.QECT. [[.] TO /.L). Soo. 39 

in the 19ancc of JlIacabci; undoubt- 
edly an Emblem Manuscript of the 
fourteenth centttry, wcrc of painter's 
workmanship, and afterwards em- 
ployed by the wood-engravers to 
cmbcllish typc-printcd volumes of a 
devotional character. To this l;runet, 
in lais J][alu««l du Librairc, vol. v. 
c. I557--I56O, bears witness, whcn 
speaking of the printer Philip Pigou- 
chet, and of the bookseller $imon 
Vostre, who " fitrent les premiers à 
Paris qui surent allier avec succès la 
gravure à la typographie ;" and adds 
in a note, " La plus ancienne édition 
de la Danse macabre que citent les 
bibliographes cst celle de Paris, 1484; 
mais, plus d'un siècle avant cette 
date, des miniaturistes français avaient 
déjà figuré, sur les marges de plusieurs 
Heures manuscrites, des Danses de 
morts, représentées et disposées à peu 
près comme elles l'ont été depuis 

.F'atz ]3ot«t, «,. x559. 


dans les livres de Simon Vostre; c'est ce que nous avons pu 
remarquer dans un magnifique manuscrit de la seconde moitié 
du quatorzième siècle, enrichi de nombreuses et admirables 
miniatures qui, après avoir été conservé en Angleterre dans le 
cabinet du docteur lXead, à qui le roi Louis XV. en avait fait 
présent, est venu prendre place parmi les curiosités de premier 
ordre réunies dans celui de M. Ambr. Firmin Didot." 
A strictly emblematical work in English is the following, 
"from a finely written and illunainated parchment roll, in perfect 

SECT. Il.] 5['0 A.I). 5oo. 4 

preservation, about two yards and thrce quarters in lcngth," 
"Manchester: Printed by R. and V. Dean, 4to, I814." The 
date is fixed by the editor, William Bateman, " between the 
years I4oe and I43O; '' and the poem contains about I20 lines, 
with six illuminated dcvices. We give here, on page 40, in 
outlinc, the DEVICE of " Thc H«art of Y«sus thc Iii'l/of cz,cr- 
There follows, as to each of the Eblems, a Prayer, or 
Invocation ; the Device in question has these lines, 

An Astronomical Manuscript in the Chethana Library, 
Manchcster, the eclipses in which are calculated from A.P. 33 o 
to A.D. I462 , contains emblematical devices for the months of 
the year, and the signs of the zodiac; these arc paintcd 
medallions at the beginning of each month ; and to each of the 
months is attached a metrical line explanatory of thc device. 

Oucr yis fecr I warme myn handcs. 
XVyth yis spade I dclve my londes. 
Hcre knitte I my vyncs in spl-inge. 
So merle I here yese foules singe. 
I ara as Joly as brid on bouz. 
Here wede I my corn, clene I houz. 
Wyth yis sythe my medis I mowe. 
Here repe I my corn so lowe. 
\Vyth ys flayll I yresche my bred. 
Here sowe I my \Vhete so reed. 
Vyth ys knyf I stcke my SWyfl. 
Welcome cristemasse Wyth aie aud Wyn. 


This manuscript contains, as J. O. Halliwell says of it, 
"an astrological volvelle--an instrument mentioled by Chaucer : 
it is the only specimen, I believe, now remaining in which 
the steel stylus or index bas been preserved ill its original 
Doubtless it is a copy of the Içal«ndricr des ogcrs, which 
with the Co,ost des ocrs, has in various forms been circu- 
lated in France from the fourteenth century alnmst, if hot quite, 
to the prcsent day. An cdition in 4to, of  pages, printed 
at Troyes, in 17o 5, bears the title, Lc Grad C«ltwdri«r et 
Compost dcs «crs ; composd ar lc B«cr dc la grand 
Kindred works issued from the prcsses of Venice, of 
Nuremberg, and of Augsburg, between 475 and 478, in 
Latin, Italian, and German, and are ascribed to John Muller, 
more known under the naine of Regiomontanus, a celebrated 
astronomer, born in 436, at I{oningshaven, in Franconia, and 
who died at Rome in 1476. One of these cditions, in folio, 
was printed at Augsburg in 476 by Erhard Ratdolt, being 
the first work he sent forth aftcr his establishment in that 
city. (See Bioff. Unir., vol. xxx. p. 38, and vol. xxxvii, p. 25.) 
But the most thoroughly emblematical work from Ratdolt's 
press was an " tr01abium 91allït fil Iabuli%" "wrought out 
anew by John Angeli, toaster of liberal arts, MCCCLXXXVIII." 
There are 44 woodcuts, and ail of them emblematical. 
The libra W at Keir contains a perfect copy, 4to, in most 
admirable condition. Brunet, i. c. 290 , names a Venice edition 
in I494, and refers to other astronomical works by the saine 
In its manuscript form, too, the celebrated "SPECULçM 
HçiANmSALVATIONIS," fl[irror of nmau Sah,alio6 exhibits 
throughout the emblem characteristics. Of this work, both 
as it exists in manuscript and in the earliest printed form 

SCT. II.] TO A.). 5oo. 43 

by Koster of Haarlem, about I43O , specimens are given in 
"A History of the Art of Printing from its invcntion to its 
wide spread developement in the middle of the sixtcenth 
century;" "by H. NOEL HUMPHREYS," "with one hundrcd 
illustrations produced in Photo-lithography;" folio: Quaritch, 
London, 1867. Pl. 8 of Humphreys' lcarncd and magnifi- 
cent volume exhibits "a page from a manuscript copy of 
the Spcctlum tftmanw Salz,ationis, executed previous to the 
printed edition attributed to Koster;" and pl. IO, "A page 
from the Sccnhtm lfttmanw Salvationis attributcd to Kostcr 
of Haarlcm, in which the text is printcd from moveable 
The inspection of these plates, and the assurance by Hum- 
phreys, p. 60, that "thc illustrations, though infcrior to Kostcr's 
woodcuts, are of similar arrangement," may satisfy us that the 
SjICCll[Ilill 2rTrllllltl/IŒE Sah,atiouis, and ail its kindrcd works, in 
German, Dutch, and French, amounting to many editions 
previous to the year I5OO,* are truly books that belong to the 
Emblem literature. Thus pl. 8, "though without the decora- 
tire Gothic framework which scparates, and, at the same rime, 
binds together the double illustrations of the xylographic artist," 
exhibits to us the exact character of "the double pictures of the 
SPccttlttm." "These double pictures," p. 60 of Humphreys, 
" illustrate first a passage in the New Testament, and secondly 
the corresponding subject of the Old, of which it is the antitype. 
In the present page we have Christ bearing His cross (Christus 
bajulat crucem) typified by Isaac carrying the wood for his own 
sacrifice (Isaac portat ligna sua)." " The engravings," p. 58, 
"i.c., of Koster's first great effort, occur at the top of each leaf, 
and the rest of the page is fillcd with two colunlns of text, 
which, in the supposed first edition, is colnposed of Latin verse 

* See 13runet's A,anud du Librahe, vol. . col. 476 --483, and col. 489 ; also 
vol. iv. col. 33-46. 

44 EJIDLEI]Y-I:>'OOIC LITR.-]T[W', [t.'mr. II. 

(or, rather, Latin prose with rhymed terminations to the lines, as 
the lines do not scan) ; and in later editions, in Dutch prose." 
" This specimen," pl. 8, p. 6o, "will enable the student to 
understand precisely the kind of manuscript book which Koster 
reproduced in a cheaper form by xylography, to which he 
eventually allied the still more important invention of moveable 
From a very fine MS. copy of the S«atht,Jz t[umatw Salï,a- 
liMs, belonging to lIr. Henry Yates Thompson, our fac-simile 
Plates IV. and V., though on a smaller scale, present the Title 
and the first Pair of devices with their text. The work is in 
twenty-nine chapters, and to each there are four devices in four 
columns, with appropriate explanations in Latin verse, and al 
the foot of the columns are the references to the Old or the 
New Testament. 
The manuscript entitled " KI lurrilau, i r Irilau 
¢.O[ttlllli,"--Çoncc'tiJtg" irds, or the Th'ce" Z)oz'cs, in the library 
" du Grand Seminaire," al Bruges, is also an emblcm-book. 
Il is excellently illuminated, and the workmanship is pro- 
bably of the thirteenth centuw. (See the \Vhitncy Reprint, 
p. xxxii.) 
The illuminatcd [issaL* executed in I4_ 5 for John, Duke of 
Bedford and regent of France, according to the account pub- 
lished of il by Richard Gough, 4to, London, 1794 , and by 
others, abounds in emblem devices. Il contains "fifty-ninc 
large miniatures, which ncarly occupy the page, and above a 
thousand small ones in circles of about an inch and half 
diameter, displayed in brilliant borders of golden foliage, with 
variegated flowers, &c. .A_t the bottom of every page arc two 
lines in blue and gold letters, which explain the subject of cach 

* Sold at the Duchess of Portland's sale in 1789 to 1Hr. Edwards for,£215,--and 
al his sale in I8 5 to the IDttke of Marlborough for ,£637 ISS. See Dibdin's 
"Bil, lio»zauhr," ed. ISII, p. 253 ; and Timpedey's Dictionay of tgrinters and 
Priztiug, ed. 1839, p. 93. 

S/CT. II.] .O /.L. 5oo. 45 

miniature." "The Missal," says Dibdin, "frequently displays 
the arms of these noble personages," (John, Duke of Bedford, 
and of lais wife Jane, daughter of the Duke of Burgundy,) 
"and also affords a pleasing testimony of the affectionate 
gallantry of the pair: the motto of the former being 
VOUS ENTIER ; ' that of the latter, ' J'EN SUIS CONTENTE.' " 
Among its ornalnents are emblems or symbols of the twelve 
inonths, and a large variety of paintings derived flore the 
Sacred Scriptures, many of which possess an emblematical 

Not aiming at any exhaustive method in the information we 
gather and impart rcspecting Elnblcm works and editions 
previous to the year A.I». I5OO , we pass by the very numcrous 
other instances in support of ont theme which a search into 
Inanuscripts would supply. The " Block-llooks,"* which, in the 
main, are especially emblematical, we next considcr. We select 
two instances as representative of the whole set ;namely, the 
" BIBLIA PAUPERUM," ibl«s of th« Poot; and the "ARs IEMO- 
RANDI," hg  I'[ of t'lilglilbt'l'illff. 
Dibdin tclls us, " The earliest printed book, containing h:rt and 
cur«viugs illustrative of scriptural subjects, is callcd the Hc- 
torh's of osth, DanicL tt«Hth, and £sth«r. This xvas executed 
in the German language, and was printcd by Pfistcr at Bamberg 
in I462. It is among the rarest of typographical curiosities in 
existence." Dibdin's dictum is considerably modified, if hot set 
aside, by Noel Humphreys ; who, though affirming, p. 4, that 
"a late German edition of thc iblia Pat¢crum bas the date 
475, but that before that period cditions had been printed at 
* One of the earliest and most cttriotts of the Block-books, Biblia aup«rum, 
has been reproduced in fac-simile by Mr. J. l'h. BeLieau, rioto a copy in the British 

46 A'ÆI[l'Llï2l-1)'OOA" ZITERATUIE, [Çtm,. II. 

the regular press with moveable types, as, for instance, that of 
Pfister, printed at Bamberg in I462,"--yet had previously de- 
clared, p. 39, "many suppose that Laurens Koster, of Haarlem, 
who afterwards invcntcd moveable types, was one of the earliest 
engravers of Block-books, and that in fact the l?iblia Pazt- 
/«rum xvas actually his work." "The period of its execution 
may probably be estimated as lying between 4o and I42o : 
probably earlier, but certainly hot later." 
The earliest editions of these l?iblia J°a«qcrnm contain 
forty leaves, thc later cditions fifty, printed only on one side. 
Opposite to p. 4o, Nocl Itumphreys gives, pl. 2, "A Page from 
the Biblia Pauperum generally supposed to be one of the 
carliest block-books." 
Availing ourselves of the Author's remarks, p. 4o, we yet 
prefer, on account of some inaccuracles in lais decyphering the 
Latin contractions, giving our own description of this plate. 
The page is in thrce divisions, all in the Gothic decorative style, 
with separating archways between the subjects. In the ¢?«r 
division, in the centre, are seated, each in his niche, "Isaya" and 
"Dauid." (See Plate VI.) In the upper corners, on the right 
hand of the first, and on the left hand of the second, are Latin 
inscriptions,--the former relating to Eve's seed bruising the 
scrpent's head, Genesis iii. c., and the latter to Gideon's fleece 
saturated with dew, Judges vi. c. The middlc compartment is a 
triptych, consisting of Eve's Temptation, the A_nnunciation by 
the Angel to the Blessed Virgin ; and Gideon in hls armour, on 
lais knees, with his shield on the ground, watching the fleecc. 
Over Eve's Temptation there is a scroll issuing from Isaiah's 
niche, and having this inscription : "rrr irgo r0|lfillil't l't tarirt 
filftllil,"--Beho/d a Æ,bit shall cozct'i2,t" ami b«ar a son, Is. vii. 14 ; 
Eve stands near the trce of lire, cmblematized by God the 
Father among the branches,and erect before her is the serpent, 
almost on the tip of its rail, with its body slightly curved. In 

SCT. II.] TO .//./). x5oo. 47 

the .Annunciation appears a ray of light breathcd tlpon thc 
Virgin from God the Father scated in the clouds, and in the ray 
are the dove, the emblem of the Holy Spirit, descending, and an 
infant Christ bearing his cross; the .Angel stands before lIary 
addressing to her the sahltation, " llr gralfft t3[fll, 0111illllff 
lrrunl,"--Hail f«ll of £rao; tbc Lord is a, it/z /hec, Luke i. 28 ; and 
glary, seated with a book on her knees, and her hands devoutly 
crossed on her breast, replies, " rrr, anrilla omini, at mitji," 
I¢¢hol«l, thc ba«dmaid of thc Lord, bc il ¢¢to m; Luke i. 38. Of 
Gideon and the fleece little nceds bc said, except that over him 
from the niche of David issues a scroll with the words " B'gr'nr[ 
oinu it'ul tluia i g'llu," in the Latin Vulgate, l's. lxxi. 6, 
i.c. Thc Lord shall ar«scctct as rai¢z ¢tlOU tbc jqcccc ; but iii the 
English version, Ps. lxxii. 6, Hc sball corne aroze¢ lil'« raht «ot 
lhc moz«u grass. The Angcl also addressing Gideon bears a 
scroll, not quite legible, but evidcntly meaning, " '0111illll |ffltlll 
ir0rtun f0rtisimr," Judges ri. 12,--English version, Tbc Lord is 
with th«c, tho«t migh O, ma¢¢ of valott: The loa,cr compartment, 
like the upper, has in thc centre two arched niches, which coa- 
tain, thc one Ezekicl, thc othcr Jcrcmiah ; bcncath Eve's tcmp- 
ration and Gideon's omen are the alliterative and rhyming 

"Wiprra bim prrhrt, and 
mr li t)arirntr intrlla." 

".li0n" maht'l 
t,rrmanit aria trlltt ;"" 

and beneath the Annunciation, " }/(rg0 gallttalur, ]llllltt)ll 
manrn graUialur." 
From Ezekiel's niche issues the scroll, Ez. xliv. _% " l.0ra t),rr 

« Mr. Hulnphreys reads " Pluviam sicut al-ida tellus ;" but in this, as in two or 
three other instances in this pl. , and p. 4 o, a botanical lens will show that the 
readings are those which I have given. I desire here to express to him my obligation 
for the courteous permission to lnake use of pl. , p. 4 o, of his work, for a photolith 
(see Plate VI.), to illustrate my remarks. 

t'ltllltl l'rit, ['l 11011 alarrtrtur;" and from Jeremiah's, xxxi. 22, 
" grt, alit }lll{llll 11011|111 l|p('l tt, rram, ft, mina rirrmnatt 
It requires no argument to prove the emblematical nature of 
the matdl« compartment of this page from the 13iÇia l«p« - 
,w, ; and the texts on scrolls are but the accessories to the 
devices, and serve only the more clearly to mark this Block- 
book as an Emblcm-bool« 

Passing by similar Block-books, as Thc ooL" of Çanliclcs. 
and Thc Apocal)7sc of St. TahJ6 we will conclude the sub- 
jcct with a notice of Humphrcys' pl. 5, following p. 4 2 of lais 
tcxt; it is "A Subject from thc Block-book entitlcd 'Ars 
memorandi,' executed probably at the beginning of the fifteenth 
centti ry." 
"The entire work," we are informed, p. 4 2, " consists of the 
symbols of the four evangelists, each occupying a page, and 
being most grotesquely treated, the bull of St. Luke and the 
lion of St. Mark standing upright on their hind legs. These 
symbols are surrounded with various objects, calculated to recall 
thc lcading events in their respective Gospels." 
But the whole passage in explanation of the Plate is so much 
to out purpose, that we ask pardon of the author for inserting it 
cntire. He says :-- 
"Thc page I have selected for reproduction is the fourth 'image or 
symbol' of St. Matthew--the Angel. The objects groupcd around are many 
of them very curious, and, without the assistance of the accompan.ving 
explanations, would certainly not serve to aid the memory of the modern 
Biblical students. The sylnbolic Angel holds in the left hand objects num- 
bered 18, which by the explanation we learn to be the sun and moon, 
accompanied by an unusual arrangement of stars and planers ; intended to 
recall the passage, 'there were signs in the sun and moon '--eratt siffz« 
in sol« ci h«mz. I give the tcxt of monkish explanation in MS. No. 9, the 
clasped hands, rcprcsents lnarriage, in refercnce to thc generations of the 
Ancestors of Christ as enul-ncrated bv St. Matthcw. No. 20, thc cockle 

Scç. II.] f'O A.D. 5oo. 49 

shell and the bunch of grapes are emblems of travelling and pilgrhnage, and 
appear to represent the flight into Egypt ; 2i, the head of an ass, is intended 
to recall the entrance of Christ into Jerusalem riding on an ass ; "2, a table, 
with bread-knife and drinking cup, recalls the Last Supper (Coena may, tza) ; 
and the accompanying symbol, without a number, represents the census 
rendered to Caesar. '' 

With great kindness Mr. Corser, of Stand, offered me, iii the 
spring of I868, the use of a very choice Block-book, soon after 
sold for ;£415, entitled Historia S. yoau L¢tatgc[ist. i'er Fig¢o'as, 
and which is, I believe, the very copy from which Sothcby's 
specimens of the work are taken. Whether it be the "cdilio 
prince@s," as a former owner claimed it to be, is doubted 
on merely conjectural grounds; but a most precious copy it 
is, internally vindicating its claire to pl'iority. The volume 
measures 2"82 decimetres by 2"I4; or I I inches by 8"42. There 
are forty-eight leaves, in perfect preservation, printed on one 
side. The figures, all coloured, relate either to the traditions 
and legends of the Evangelist, or to the visions of the 
_Apocalypse, the former being simply pictorial, the latter em- 
The two Plates uncoloured (Plate VII. and Plate VIII.) 
very clearly show the difference between the mcre drawing 
and the device. The pictures of the Evangelist preaching, of 
Drusiana being baptized, and of the search after John, have 
no meaning beyond the historical or legendary event ;--but 
the tvo xvings of an eagle given to the woman, of the angel 
flying with a book above the tree of life, of the dragon per- 
secuting the woman, and of the mother-church passing 
into the desert: these have a meaning beyond that of the 

* To follow out the subject of the £iblia lauerum, or of Block-books in 
general, the Reader may consult Sotheby's lri, tciia Oogra2Itica, T/te £lock-oobs, 
&c., 3 vols. 4to, London, 1858 ; Dibdin's 17ibliolhcca S2etseria,za , 4 vols. London, 
1814, 1815 ; or 13erjeau's 17iblia lattje, Tt,l, a fac-simile with an historical introduction, 
4to: Triibner, London, 1859. 


50 EI[3LE[-OOKLITE£.4 TUtE, [CHAr. II. 

figures delineated ;--they are emblematical of hidden truths; 
--so are all the other plates of this ]31ock-book which repre- 
sent the visions of the Apocalypse. The date is probably 
142o to 1425. 
The Bodleian Libra o, at Oxford is very rich in this particular 
Block-book, possessing no fewer than #rcc copies of the History 
of ç. yolm tlw Ez'mdist. Among its treasures, however, is a 
MS. on the saine subject, worth them all by reason of its beauty 
and exquisite finish, which the Block-books certainly do hot 
claim. This MS., on fine vellum and fincly drawn and illu- 
minated, is said to have been written in the twelffh century, and 
to have belonged to Henry II. 
But the printing with moveable types is firmly established, 
and Emblem-books are among its earliest productions. A_t 
Bamberg, a city on the Regnitz, near its influx into the Main, 
the first purely German book was printed in 46, by the same 
Pfister who published an edition of the t?iMia ?a¢crm«, and 
who probably learned his art at Mayence with Guttenberg 
himselfi The work in question was a Collection of eighty-five 
Fables in German, with IOI vignettes eut on xvood, each 
accompanied by a German text of rhyming verses. The first 
device, says Brunet, vol. i. p. IO96, represents three apes and 
a tree, and the verses begin with 

" Once on a time came an ape (g'erdl) upright." 

The colophon, or subscription, at the end informs us, 

"At Bamberg this little book ended is 
After the birth of out Lord Jesus Christ, 
\Vhen one counts a thousand four hundred year, 
And to it, as truth, one and sixty more, 
On the day of holy Valentine ; 
God shield us ff'oto the wrath divine. Amen." 

The fables were collected by Ulric ]3oner, a Dominican friar 

Slc'r. I1.] TO A.D. t5oo. 5  

of Bonn, in the thirteenth or at the beginning of the fourteenth 
century. Their chief value is that they present the most pre- 
cious remains of the Minnesingers, or German Troubadours, and 
possess much grace, and " une moralité piquante." See Bivgra- 
plzie UMvcrscll«, vol. v. pp. 97, 98. Paris, I8 2 ; and vol. xxxiii. 
p. 584: Paris, t823. 
Of AEsop's Fablcs iii Greek, the lIilan edition, about 
48o, was the earliest. There had been Latin versions, pre- 
viously at Rome in 473, at Bologna and Antwerp in I486, 
and elsewhere. The German translation appeared in 473, the 
Italian in t479, the French and the English in I484, and the 
Spanish iii t489. Besicles these there were at least thirty other 
editions previous to the year I5oo. 
It has been doubted if FaNes should be classed among 
the Emblem Literature,--but whether i«ucle, as other emblems 
have been named when unclothed in the ornaments of vood 
or copper engravings, or adorl«ed with richly embellished 
devices, they are, as Whitney would naine them, zatm'ally 
emblematical. _A_part from whatever artistic skill can effect 
for them, they bave in themselves meanings to be evolved 
different from those which the words convey. The Lion, 
the Fox, and the Ass are hot simply names for the 
veritable animals, but emblems of different characters and 
qualities among the human race; they symbolize moral 
sentiments and actions, and when we add the figures of the 
creatures, though we may make pleasing and significant 
pictures, ve do little for the real development of the 
Books of Fables, however, are so numerous that they and 
their editors may be counted by hundreds; and as Dibdin 
intimates, the Bibliomaniac who had gathered up ail the editions 
of AEsop in nearly ail the languages of the civilized world, 
vould have formed a very considerable library. Only on a few 

5 2 E[tLEM-B OOIC LITERA 7'UA'E, [Cn.r. I I. 

occasions therefore shall we make meltion of books of Fables in 
out present inquiries. 
"Ve shall not however pass Ulmoticed, since it belongs 
especially to this period, the " .al0glt OErt'atltrarltlll," or, 
Dialoucs of thc Ccatm'cs, a collection of Latin Fables, 
attributed iii the fourteenth century to Nicolas Pergamilms, 
first printed at Gouda in Holland by Gerard Leeu in I48O, 
and at Stockholm by John Snell iii 1483. (See Brunet, vol. il. 
p. 674. ) A French version, by Colard Mansion, was issued at 
Lyons in i482 , Dialog«c des Crcatm'es ntorali:ic ; and ai1 
English version, about I52o, by J. Rastall, " Powly's Churche," 
London, namely, "The Dialogue of Creatures moralyzcd, of 
late translated out of latyn in to our English tonge." 
There were various editions and modifications of the work,* 
but perhaps the contrast between them cannot be better pointed 
out than by selecting the Fable of the "Wolf and the Ass from 
the Gouda edition of I48O, and also ri'oto the Antwerp edition 
of I584. The original edition, with the xvoodcut on the next 
page in mere outline, tells in simple Latin prose how a wolf and 
an ass were sawing a log of wood together. From good nature 

« As in Nourry's Lyons editions of 15o 9 and 1511 , where the title given is, 
" t3»truttriït itirum rx similitulinï trraturarum exrmtJlrù apt0rotJriatifir t0rr 
ollum lialgi," &c.; lge. 4to, in the Corser Library, from which we take-- 
te oIe rt Ltma. 

Lyons ed. xSiX. 

.qWCT. Il.1 TO A.D. 5oo. 53 

the ass worked up above, the xvolf through maliciousness 
down below, desiring to find an opportunity for dcvouring the 
ass; therefore he complained that the ass was sending the 

Dyalogus Creat., ed. x486. 

sawdust into his eyes. The ass replied, "It is not I who am 
doing this,--I only guide the saw. If you wish to saw up 
above I am content,--I will work faithfully down below." _And 
so they talked on, until the wolf threatening revenge drew back, 
and the fissure in the beam being suddenly widened, the wedge 
fell upon the wolf's head, and the wolf himself was killed. 


The Antwerp edition of 584" changes the simple Latin prose 
into the elegant Latin elegiacs of John Moerman, and the outline 
woodcuts of an unknown artist into the copperplate engravings 
of Gerard de Jode, the eldest of four generations of engravers. 
THE WOLF and TttE _,SS are ruade to emblematize, "scelesti 
hominis imago et exitus,"#w imag a«d «/M of a wic]ed mare 
Moerman's Latin may thus be rendered, from leaf 54, ed. 584 : 

-" The XVolf and careless Ass a treaty made, 
Both studious with a sav a beam to rive ;-- 
The ready Ass above directs the blade, 
The ,Volf doth down below deceit contrive. 
He seeks for cause the wretched Ass to slay, 
And cries,--' V'ith sawdust nmch thou troublest me,-- 
The trouble check, or with these teeth, I say, 
My spoil to be devoured thou straight shalt be.' 
To this the Ass,--' Friend "Wolf, be hot annoyed ; 
Guileless the saw I guide with might and main.' 
But soon the long-eared brute vould be destroyed, 
VChen falls the wedge ;--ah ! 'tis the ,Volf is slain." 

* The Title is "zatPOLOGI CREATVRARVM ; .... Vtilia prudenti, imprudenti fitilia. 
G. d« yade exat. 1584." 

SECT. II.] TO A.Z). I5OO. 55 

" Insonti qui insidias struit, ipse perit." 
« XVho for the innocent spreads snares, 
Himself shall perish unawares." 
« The wicked malt his zels dollz s2bread 
Tire itnocott fo lal'e lhe *x,hile; 
But w]to evould harm Ms brother's head 
Doll ¢erish from kis sel_flsl guile. 
God ,z, ill hot dec»z him iznocent, 
2Vor raise him lo the slars aboe, 
IV]zo oit unriffhleous lltouffhls is bent, 
Or tei, ghbours serres wilk f«igzed love. 
But aller 
Of Phle, çelltoz sha# he be hurled, 
lVhere Tartarceau Plulo harsh 
lVillt ]taled sceblres rules a 

_As in the Blandford Catalogue, it has been usual to count 
among Emblem-books the " ECATONPHYLA," printed at Venice 
in I49 I. The French translation of I536 describes the title as 
"signifit centiesme amour, sciemment appropriees a la dame 
aygt en elle autant damour que cent aultres dames en pouroient 
comprendre," sigMfyitg a huztdrcdth lovc, kwwigly atOpropriatcd 
to thc lady haz,iltg Dt hcr as m¢tch love as a hundrcd othcr ladics 
couldiPossibl J, com2rchctd. (Brunet's AIanncl, i. c. 131, 132. ) The 
author of this work, of which there are several editions, was the 
celebrated Italian architect, Leoni-Baptista _Alberti, born of a 
noble family of Florence in 1398, and living as some suppose up 
to 1480. He was a universal scholar, a doctor of laws, a priest, 
a painter, and a good mechanic. 

We are inclined to ask whether Gli Trioujï dd _Pctrarcha, 
printed at Bologna in I475,--especially, when as in the Venice 
editions of 15oo and 1523 they were adorned by the vignettes 
and wood engravings of Zoan _Andrea Veneziano,--whether 
these " Triumphs of Love, Chastity, and Death" may hot, from 



[CHAP. Il. 

their highly allegorical character, be included among the 
Emblem-books of this age ?* The saine question ",ve might ask 
respecting "a. Lrlrntaud),"--T/w took of Icrocs,--printed 
at .&ugsburg, in I477, by Gunther Zainer, who had first been a 
printer at Cracow about 1465; and also concerning the "itlri 
t_¢r0nirarmlt rtl figuri. ri imaginitnt. a iniri0 mùi," a large folio 
known as the Chroniclcs of W:trcmbo, which with its 2ooo fine 
wood engravings, attributed to Michacl Wohlgemuth, vas 
published in that city in I493.+ 
The original "gtrntan," or Dancc ofDcath, painted as a 
memorial of the plague which raged during the Council of Bâle, 
held between 1431 and 1446 (Bryan, p. 335), certainly xvas not 
the work of either of the Holbeins. There are several repre- 
sentations of a Death-dance in the fifteenth century, between 
1485; and 1496 (Brunet, v. 873, 874); and there can be little 
doubt of their emblematical character. The renowned Donc« 
of Dcath by Hans Holbein the younger ve xvill reserve for its 
proper place in the next section. 
We must not however leave unmentioned Thc Daucc of 2][a- 
cabcr, especially as it is presented to us in an English form by John 
Lydgate, a monk of the Benedictine abbey of 13ury St. Edmunds, 
who was born about I375, and attained his greatest eminence 
about 143o. His own poxver for supplying the materials for an 
Emblem-device we observe in the lines on " God's -Proz,idcuc«." 
" God hath a thousand handés to chastise ; 
A thousand dartés of punicion ; 
A thousand bowés ruade in divers wise ; 
A thousand arlblasts bent in his dongèon." 

* An English translation, xvith xvood engravings, appeared about the time of 
Shakespeare's birth, it may be a few years earlier :--The 7"rym/zes af Trattuces 
l"«trarche, "translated out of Italian into English by Hrye Parker knyght, lorde 
Morley," sm. 4to. 
 See Brunet's :antel, iii. c. 85, and i. c. 86o; tiag. Utiverselh; 
"Zainer;" Timperley's 1)ictionary of lrint«rs, p. 97; and B3an's Dict. of 
Etgravers, p. 9IS. 

l'Ch" .9 

fatis laudata Naufs:per Sebaianfi Brant: vernacalo val= 
ga6 fermone oe rhyhmo/ç ûo mortliû fatuitati 
femitas effagere upiêtifi direione/fpeculo/c6modo  
falut :pr mertis gnu lultitiç petua inflmia !exe 
ratine;oecofutt«one/ufabricata: Atç iampridem 
per I a«bum Lo&er l co gr.ométo Phd omufum: Suu :ia 
latmfi trut doqu; per Sebamnfi Brant- denuo 
fedulo reufa/noua d eaa emendat6e elimata: 
at fuadditis bufd nui»/admidifç fatuo generi» 
bus fuppieta :foetîCi exotdtuapriacp;o. 
. 497. 
Nihil fine cauça. 
io. e.OIpe. 

SCT. II.] _TO M.Z). I5oo. 57 

For an account of Lydgate's 1)anc« of 3[aatbc,; and indeed 
for his version in English, we should do well to consult the 
remarks by Francis Douce, in Wenceslaus Hollar's 1)ance er 
1)catk, published about the year I79O , and nore particularly 
the remarks in Douce's Dissertation, cdition 1833. 
The earliest known edition of La Dansc 3[ac«br6 originally 
composed in German, is dated at Paris, 1484, but before the 
completion of the century there were seven or eight other 
reprints, some with alterations and others with additions. It 
was a most popular work, issued at least eight or ten rimes 
during the sixteenth century, and still exciting interest.* A_t 
P. 39 may be seen copies of some of the devices as used by 
The chief Emblem deviser and writer towards the end of the 
century was Sebastian Brandt, born at Strasburg in I458 , and 
after a lire of great usefulness and hollour dying at Bàle iii I52O. 
The publication in German Iambic verse of his "J-larrrli 
rI)tt," Baie, Nuremberg, Rfittlingen, and Augsburg, A.D. I494, 
forms quite an epoch in Emblem-book literature. Previous 
to A.D. 15OO, Locho', crowned poet laureate by the Emperor 
Maximilian I., translated the German into Latin verse, with the 
title ".tultifrra at!alti" (see Plate IX.); R.ivi«re of Poitiers, 
the Latin into French verse, "tta Jo.rf r zff01 u /0r ;" 
and .Dro3v of Amiens, into French prose, "tta grat J'4.rf r zff01 
t! 01tr." Early in the next century, 15o4, or evcn in 15oo , 
there was a Flemish version ; and in 15o 9 two English versions, 
--ont translatcd out of Frcnch, "TIIE SHVPPE OF FOOLES," by 
Hcnry Watson, and printed by "\Vynkyn de \Vorde, lcccccIx." 
(see Dibdin's Tou,; ii. p. 103) ; t/le Ot/lO',  " TULTIFERA 
Natus," or " OEt)r }12ta of .le01 of ttlt' î10rlt' ;" " Ilaprentyd 
in the Cyte of London, by Richard Pynson, II.D.IX." (Dibdin's 

* Langlois in his Essai, pp. 331--34% lmmes thirty-two editions previous to A.D 173o. 

T.). Aut. il. p. 43I.) This latter was "tr«nsl«ted out 
b)'oa-h, and Duc/z into £ng-lishç by AIexander Barclay, 
and reprinted in I570, during Shakespeare's childhood by the 
" Printer to the Queenes Maiestie." At the saine rime, 1570, 
another work by Barclay was publishcd, which, although 
without devices, partakes of an allegorical or even of an 
elnblematical character; it is Th« Iirrour of good 
" conteining the foure Cardinal Verrues." 
Dibdin, ill his ibliwr,hical Antiquarian, iii. p. IOI, 
mentions "a pretty little volumes' as fresh as a daisy,' the 
Hortuks Ros«rum «k" III« Lachu'marum, ' A little Garden of 
Roses from the Valley of Tears' (to which a Latin ode by 
S. Brandt is prefixed), printed by J. de Olpe in I499,"but 
he gives no intimation of its character; conjecturing from its 
title and from the woodcuts with which it is adorned, it will 
probably on firther inquiry be found to bear an emblematical 
Dibdin also, ill the saine work, iii. p. 294, llalnes " a German 
version of the ' HORTULUS NIMm' of S. rant," in manu- 
script ; " undoubtedly," he says, " among the loveliest books in 
the Imperial Library." The Latin edition was printed at 
Strasburg in I498, and is ornamented with figures on wood; 
many of these are mere pictures, without any symbolical 
meaning,but it often is the case that the illuminated manu- 
scripts, especially if devotional, and the early printed books of 
every kind that have pictorial illustrations in them, present 
various examples of symbolical and emblematical devices. 
The last works we shall name of the period antecedent to 
A.D. I5OI, are due to the indust W and skill of John Sicile, 
herald at arms to Alphonso King of Aragon, who died iii I458. 
Sicile, it seems, prepared two manuscripts, o,¢c the Blazon W of 
Arms,the othc; the Blazonry of Colours. Of the former there 
was an edition printed at Paris in I495, Le BLASON de toutes 

sc'r. 11.] TO ,4.1). 5oo. 59 

Artcs et Jctt.:, &c.--and of the latter at Lyons early in the 
sixteenth century, Lc lglasopt &'s Çotlctrs or Ar,es, Lhtrces et 
dcuiscs. Within an hundred years, ending with I595, above 
sixteen editions of thc two works were issue& 

Several other authors there are belonging to the period of 
which we treat,--but enough have been named to show to what 
an extent Emblem devices and F.mblem-books had been 
adopted, and with what an impetus the invention of moveable 
types and greater skill in engraving had acted to multiply the 
departments of the Emblem I.iterature. It was an impetus 
which gathered new strength in its course, and which, previous 
to Shakespeare's youth and maturity, had ruade ail entrance 
into almost every European nation. Already in 5oo, from 
Sweden to Italy and from Poland to Spain, the touch was felt 
which was to awaken nearly every city to the west of 
Constantinople, to share in the supposed honours of adding to 
the number of Emblem volumes. 

Plot,7 ['oesi,,-, t55 -. 


A.D. 5oo AA'D x564. 

A13OR[OUS in some degree is the enterprise which 
the title of this Section will indicate before it shall 
be ended. Perchance we shall have no myths to 
perplex us, but the demands of sober history are offen more 
inexorable than those flexible boundaries w{thin which the 
imagination may disport amid facts and fictions. 
Better, as I trust, to set this period of si.t'O'-thrcc years before 
the mind, it may be xvell to take it in three divisions: ISt, the 
twenty-one years belote Alciatus appeared, to conquer for himself 
a kingdom, and to reign king of Emblematists for about a century 
and a hall; 2nd, the twenty-one years from the appearance of the 
first edition of Alciat's Fmblcms in I522 at Milan, until Hans 
Holbein the younger had introduced the I.mEcs azd LtVErams of 
Dtwth, and La Perriere and Corrozet, the one his Thcatrc of Eood 
Cotriz,a.ccs Dz ouc hmdral L »zbh'ms, and the other his Hccatom- 
Era;Nde, or descriptions of one hundred figures ; 3rd, the twenty- 
one years up to Shakespeare's birth, distinguished towards its 
close chiefly by the Italian vriters on hqrcsc, Paolo Giovio, 
Vincenzo Cartari, Girolamo Ruscelli, and Gabriel Symeoni. 

I.--A Fool-fi'cightcd Shi; was the title of ahnost the last book 
of the fifteenth century,--by a similar title is the Emblem-book 
called which was launched at the beginning of the sixteenth 

SECT. III.] ];']0«|[ t.1). 500 ï'O 52Z. 6 

century; it is, " 2OOri ia'oii afr?sii Stultiferç nauiculç seu 
scaphç Fatuarum mulierum: circa sensus quin7q exteriores 
fraude nauigantium,"--Thc Fool-fr«ighæ«d l#N« shi2s of 7oss« 
Iadis ascc¢sis, or thc skO"s of Sil 0, vomc« h« d«htsion saili¢g- 
abou! ?ho.tir« oatward swscs,--" printed by honest John Prusz, a 
citizen of Strasburg, in the year of Salvation" There 
was an earlier edition in I SOO,--but almost exactly the saine. 
From that before us we give a specimen of the work, Th« Skff" 

tttlt, tttation «ap|a. 


of Foolisl T«stbig. A discourse follows, xvith quotations from 
Aulus Gellius, Saint Jerome, Virgil, Ezekiel, Epicurus, Seneca, 
Horace, and Juvenal ; and the discourse is crowned by twenty- 
four lines of Latin elegiacs, entitled " 'l'[l'llflltlt l[ftflti011il 
fattiç,"--The Oarsman's c 7 for sillj, 7"ast&tE,--thus exhorting-- 

"Slothful chicftains of the gullet ! 
Offspring of Sardanaplus ! 
In sweet sleep no longer lull it,-- 
Rouse ye, lest good cheer should fail us. 
Gentlc winds to pleasures calling 
\Vaft to regions soft and slow ; 
On a thousand dishes falling, 
How out palates burn and glow ! 
Suppers of Lucillus naine hot, 
Ancient faith ! nor plate of veal ; 
Ancicnt faith to luncheon came hOt 
Crowned with flowers that age conceal. 
Let none boast of pontiff's dishes,-- 
Nor Mars' priests their suppers spread ; 
Alban banquets bless our wishes,-- 
Coesar's garlands deck our hcad. 
Now the dish of AS;sop yielding, 
Apicius all lais luxuries pours ; 
And Ptololnies the sceptres wielding 
Richest viands give in showers." 

And so on, until in the concluding stanza Badius declares- 

" If great Jove lfimself invited 
At our fcasting takes his seat, 
Jove would sa)', ' I ara delightcd, - 
Not in heaven bave I such meat.' 
Therefore, stupids ! what of sumlner 
Enters now our pinnace gay,-- 
Onward in three hours 'twill bear us 
\Vhere kingdoms blessed bid ris stay." « 

The same work was published in another form, " La nef des 
folles, selon les cinq sens de nature, composé selon levangile de 
monseigneur saint Mathieu, des cinq vierges qui ne prindrent 
point duylle avec edx pour mectre en leurs lampes:" Paris 4to, 
about I5O. 

* 13e lenient, gentle Reader, if yott chance to compare the above translation vith 
the original ; for even shottld you have leamed by heart the two very large 4to volumes 
of Forcellini's Zexicon ofall ZatbtiO, , I believe you will find some nuts ynu cannn 
crack in the l.atin verse ofJodocus Badius. 

Sc'r. llI.] _/*TRO_/II A.Z). 5oo _7'O ,5zz. 63 

Of Badius himself, born in I462 and dying in I535, it is to be 
said that he xvas a man of very considerable learning, professor 
of "belles lettres" at Lyons fronl I49i to ISII, when he was 
tempted to settle in Paris. Therc he established the famous 
Ascensian Printing Press,--and like Plantin of Antwerp, gave 
his three daughters in marriage to three very celebrated 
printers : Michel Vascosan, Robert Etienne, and Jean de Poigny. 
He was the author of several xvorks besides those that have 
been nlentioned. (Biog'. Unir. vol. iii. p. 201.) 
Symphorien Cllampier, Doctor in Thcology and Medicine, a 
native of Lyons, who was physician to AiRhony Duke of 
Lorraine when he accompanied Louis XII. to the Italian war, 
graduated at Pavia in I515, and, after layiug the foundations of 
the Lyons College of Physicians, and enjoying the highest 
honours of his native city, died about 154o. (Aikin's giog. ii. 
579.) His medical and other works are of little repute, but 
among them are two or three which may be regarded as imita- 
tions of Emblcm-books. \Ve will just name,--Balsat's work 
with Chalupicr's additions, La .Vf des t»riuccs et des Batailles 
de Arobl«ssc, &c. (Lyons, 4to goth. with woodcuts, A.D. [502.) ; 
also, La Vzf des Dames ,,crOtatscs cg, posce par 3kdsh'e Simhoriê 
Champicr, &c. (Lyons, 4to goth. with woodcuts, A.D. 1503.) 
" Bible figures," too, again have a claire to notice. A very fille 
copy of " tLr figurr tt b/fil îgrstamrnl, & tt n0uurl," which 
belonged to the Rev. T. Corser, Rector of Stand, near Man- 
chester, supplies the opportunity of noticing that it is decidedly 
ail Emblem work. It is a folio, of IOO lcaves, containing forty- 
one plates, of which one is introductory, and forty are on 
Scriptural subjects, unarranged in order either of tilne or place. 
The work was published in Paris in I5O3 by Anthoine Verard, 
and is certainly, as Brunet declares, ii. c. 1254, " une imitation 
de l'ouvrage connu sous le nom de Eiblia ]galtiPcl7tm." There 
are forty sers of figures in triptychs, the wood engravings 

64 .EJIDLEJf-I¢OOk" 1.17"F.RA T.:RZ:. [CIIAI'. Il. 

being very bold and good. Each is preceded or followed by a 
French stanza of eight lines, declaring the subject ; and has 
appended two or three pages of Exposition, also in French. 
The Device pages, each in three compartments, are in Latin, 
and may thus be described. At the top to the left hand, a 
quotation flore the Vulgate appropriate to the pictorial repre- 
sentation beneath it; in the centre two niches, of which David 
ahvays occupies one, and some writer of the Old Testament 
the other, a scroll issuing flore each niche. The middle com- 
partment is filled by a triptych, the centre subject from the New 
Testament, the right and left from the Old. At the bottom are 
Latin verses to thc right and left, with two niches in the centre 
occupied by biblical vriters. The Latin verses are rhyming 
couplets, as on fol. a. iiij, beneath Bloses at the burning bush, 
"urtt ri igttfri/, fr t0n rulu igt raltfril,"--[t shi«cs atd 
jqa]]lcs, btt! tire btts/t is ]tot hcat«d by thc .flrc. In triptych, on 
p. i. fez,. are, Enoch's Translation, Christ's Ascension, and the 
Translation of Elijah. 
The Aldine press at Venice, .«.1. I5O5, gave the world the 
first printed edition of the " HIEROGL\'PIIICA" of Horapollo. 
It was in folio, having in the saine volume the Fables of «Esop, 
of Gabrias, &c. See Leemans' Jora/2ollo, pp. xxix--xxxv. A 
Latin version by Bernard Trebatius was published at Augsburg 
in 55, at Bâle in I518 , and at Paris in 52; and another 
Latin version by Phil. Phasianinus, at Bologna in 15 I7. Previous 
to Shakespeare's birth there xvere translations into French in 
1543, into Italian in I548 , and into German in I554,--and down 
to 616 sixteen other editions may readily be counted up. 
John Haller, who had introduced printing into Cracow in 
I5OO, publishcd in 5o 7 the first attempt to teach logic by 
means of a gaine of cards; it was in Murner's quarto entitled, 
" CHARTILUE)IUM logic seu Logica poetica vcl memorativa 
cure jocundo Pictasmatis Exercimento,"--- Card-gamc of Logic, 

SECT. III.] t?RO«]I 1.I). I500 TO 1522. 

or Loic octical or mcmorial, zvith tlw ?l«asaltt LVa;crcisc of ic- 
tm'cd Rcrcscttatiom It is a curious and ingenious work, and 
reprints of it appeared at Strasburg in 15o 9 and 1518 ; at Paris, 
by Balesdens, in 1629; and again in 1650 , 4to, by Peter 
Guischct. As an imitation of Brandt's Shi of Foo&, so far as 
it relates to the follies and caprices of mankind, mention should 
also be ruade of Murncr's "arrrll "*  » - " 
ttl)0rung, Exorctsm 
of Fools,Strasburg, 4to, 1512 and 1518 ; which certainly at 
Francfort, in I62O, gave origin to Flitner's " NEBVLO NEBVLO- 
NVM,"or, Rascal of Rasca&. 
"çrrulfi aririrrum theologycis Consolationibus Fratris 
Ioannis de Tambaco,"Thc Iicmr of aticnce ,itlt the tlwo- 
logical Cnsolations of rotlzcr ]ohn Tambaco,Nuremberg, 
MCCCX., 4to, is a work of much curiousness. On the reverse 
of the title is an Emblematical device of Job, Job's wife, and 
the Devil, followed by exhortations to patience; and on the 
reverse of the introduction to the second part, also an Emble- 
matical device,the Queen of Consolation, with her four maidens 
by her side, and two men kneeling before ber. The chapters on 
consolation are generally in the form of scTnoncttcs, in which 
the maidens, three or four, or even a dozen, expatiate on 
different subjects proper for reproof, exhortation, and comfo. 
The devices in this volume are understood to be from the pencil 
of Albert Durer. 
This same year, 15o 9, witnessed two English translations, or 
paraphrases, of Brandt's "arrrn rÇif,"the one Tlw Sh3pe 
of Foo[cs, taken from the French by Henry Watson, and printed 
by De Worde ;the other rendered out of Latin, German, and 
French, Tlw Ship of Foolcs, by Alexander Barclay, and printed 
by Pinson. Of Watson little, if anything, is known, but Barclay 
is regarded as one of the improvers of the English tongue, and 
to him it is chiefly owing that a true Emblem-book was ruade 
popular in England. 

66 E_/]rtLE_I_tOOK LITER.4 TU_RE. [CHAPo 

Of the "al0gll (glcattlrartllll," written in the fourteenth 
century by Nicolas Pcrgaminus, and printed by Gerard Leeu, 
at Gouda, in I48O, an English version appeared about I52O, 
"The dialogue of Creatures moralyzed, of late translated out 
of Latyn in to out English tonge." 
The famous preacher and the founder of the first public 
school in Strasburg was John Geyler, born in I5. e was 
highly esteemed by the Emperor Maximilian, and after a 
minist of about thirty years, died in I5O. Two Emblem- 
books were left by him, both published in I5I by James 
Other;the one " abirtaa fibc pcrulC aturlm,"The 
little Ship or Iirror &E Fools ; the other, "abirula rnitnltr," 
The l#tle S]ti & «tdt«ttce. To the first there are  IO em- 
blems and I 2 devices, each having a discourse delivered on one 
of the Sabbaths or festivals of the Catholic Churchthe text 
always beinff, Stzdtortm hnittts est," Infinite is the number 
of fools." The second, not strictly an Emblem-book, is devoted 
"to the praise of God and the salvation of souls in Strasburff," 
and consists really of a series of serinons for Lent and other sea- 
sons of the year, but ail having the saine text, Ecce ascctdim«ts 
Hicrosoli»mm,--" Behold we go up to Jerusalem." There xvere 
several reprints of both the works, and two German translations ; 
and the edition of I52O, folio, with wood engravings, is remark- 
able for being the first book to which was granted the "Imperial 
privilege." It is said that the flymes of Brandt's Siç of Fools 
which Geyler had translated into Latin in 1498 , not unfrequently 
seed him for texts and quotations for his sermons. Alas  we 
have no such lively preachers in these sleepy days of perfect 
propriety of phrase and person. Our prophets, in putting away 
"locusts and wild honey," too often forger to cry, "Repent, for 
the kingdom of heaven is at hand." 
Next, hoxvever, to the famous preacher, we naine a notorious 
prophet, the Abbot Joachim, who died between the years I2O 

SECTo III.] -/?-O.d[ z/..O. ISO0 TO I2. 6 7 

and I202, but whose works, if they really were lais, did hot 
appear in print, until the folio edition was issued about I475, 
Rcvclations conccrning thc Store of thc chif _Pontiffs. An Italian 
version, " PROPHETIA dello Abbate Joachimo circa li Pontefici 
& Re," appeared in I5 I5 ; and another Latin edition, with wood 
engravings, by Marc-Antoine Raimondi, in 1516.* Many tales 
are related of the Abbot and of lais followers ; suffice it to sa¥, 
that the¥ maintained the Gospel of Christ would be abolished 
A.D. Ie60; and thenceforward Joachim's "true and everlasting 
Gospel" was to be prevalent in the world. 
According to the Blandford Catalogue, p. 6, we should hcre 
insert P. Dupont's SaO,riqucs Grotcsqucs (Desseins Orig.), 8vo, 
Paris, I5 I3 ; but it may be passed over with thc simplest notice. 
If we judge from the wonderfull¥ beautiful copy on finest 
vellum in the Hunterian Museum at Glasgow, the next 
Emblem-book surpasses all others we have named; it is the 
"rtrannri9 "--or, Dtwr-thougkt,--usually attributed to Mel- 
chior Pfintzing, a German poet, born at 1Nuremberg in 148 I, and 
who at one time was secretary to the Emperor l\Iaximilian. 
The poem is allegorical and chivalric, and adorned with 118 
plates, some of which are considered the workmanship of _Albert 
The Tewrdanck was intended to set forth the dangers and 
love adventures of the emperor himself on occasion of lais 

* For a very good account of Joadfiln's supposed works, consult a paper in 
dVotes and Qeeries, September, 1862, pp. 181-3, by Mr. Jones, the excellent 
Librarian of the Chetham Library, Manchester; and for an account of the man, 
Aikin's General 2Yio.fradkj,, v. pp. 478-8o. 
"i" The "{f}mt[ert¢," or Triu»hal ,qrch, about 1515, and the "fffium,T)«en," or 
TrktmdS/tal Car, A.D. I522 , both in honour of Maximilian I., are among the noblest 
of Durer's engravings ; but the Yiograib/de Unwerselle, t. 33, P- 582, attributes the 
engn-avings in the '"evrt«nndf" to Hans Shaeufflein the younger, who was born at 
Iquremberg about I487 ; and with this agrees Stanley's ict. ofEngravers, ed. I849, 
p. 7o5. There are other works by ]Durer which, it may be, should be ranked among 
the Emblematical, as tocalyisis cure Figuris, Iquremberg, I498 ; and t«ssio .13omini 
nosD'i esu, ISO 9 and I5II. It is, bowever, nov generaily agreed that ]Durer 
designed, but did hot engrave, on wood. See Stanley, p. 224. 

68 E3ItLE3I-tOOK LITERA TU_gE. [c'. lI. 

marriage to the great heiress of that day, Mary of Burgundy. 
There are some who believe that Maximilian was the author, or 
at least flat he sketched out the plan which Pfintzing executed. 
As, however, the espousals took place in x479, before the poet 
was born, and Mary had early lost her life from a fall,---the 
probability is that the emperor supplied some of the incidents 
and suggestions, and that lais secretary completed the xvork. 
The splendid volume was dedicated to Charles V. in 517, and 
published the same year, a noble monument of typographic art. 
Of a later vork known under the naine of +` |irlli¢l'tllirl+'-- 
T/ce TotrJ«aitcJtt-booX',--by George Rtixncr, nalnely, 17tbmig, 
Sotrcc, and Progrcss of Tourtamcts iu thc Gcrmat ,zatioz 
(Siemern, S. Rodler, 53 o, folio, pp. 4o-'), lqrunet informs us 
(fallltd, VO1. iV. C. MT), "There are found for the most paloE in 
this edition printed at the castle of Simmern" (about twenty- 
rive miles south of Coblentz) " in x53o, the characters already 
employed in the two editions of the Tcwrdanucklt of  5 7 and 
x59; there may also be remarked numerous engravings on 
wood of the same kind as those of the romance in verse we have 
just cite&" The edition of x53 - "printed at the saine castle," 
is not in the saine characters as that of 53o. 
CEBES, the Theban, the disciple of Socrates, though men- 
tioned at pp. 2, 3, must again be introduced, for an edition of 
his little work in Latin had appeared at Boulogne in 497, and 
at Venice in 5oo; also at Francfort, "by the honest men 
Lamperter and Murrer," in 5o7, with the letter of Jolm .ZEsti- 
campianus; the Greek was printed by Aldus in x5o3, and 
several other editions followed up to the end of the century ; 
indeed there were translations into Arabic, French, Italian, 

German, and English.* 

* Belonging to one of the earlier editions, or else as an Imagination of the Tablet 
itself, is a wonderftflly curious woodcut, in folio, of which out Plate I. b is a smaller 

SECT. III.] .Fjrd. O.z[ ¢q..D. 1522 TO 1543. 69 

I I.--ANDREW ALCIAT, the celebrated jurisconsult, remark- 
able, as some testify, for serious defects, as for his surpassing 
knowledge and power of mind, is characterized by Erasmus as 
"the orator best skilled iii law," and "the lawyer most cloquent 
of speech ;"--of his composition there was published in I522, at 
Milan, ai1 Embl«matum Libdhts, or "Little Book of Emblems."* 
It established, if it did hot introduce, a new style for Emblem 
Literature, the classical iii the place of the simply grotesque 
and humorous, or of the heraldic and mythic. It is by no 
means certain that the change should be namcd an unmixed 
gain. Stately and artificial, the school of _/klciat and lais fol- 
lowers indicates at every stanza its full acquaintance with 
mythologies Greek and Roman, but itis deficient in the easy 
expression which distinguishes the poet of nature above him 
whom learning chiefly guides: it seldom betrays cither enthu- 
siasm of genius or depth of imaginative power. 
Neverthcless the style chimed in with the taste of the age, 
and the little book,--at least that edition of it which is the 
earliest we have seen, Augsburg, A.D. I53I, contained in eighty- 
eight pages, small 8vo, with niIiety-seven Emblems and as 
many woodcuts,won its way from being a tiny volume of 
 '5 square Juches of letterpress on each of eighty-eight pages, 
until with notes and comments it was comprîsed only in a large 
4to of IOO4 pages with thirty-seven square Juches of letter- 
press on each page. Thus the little one that had in it only 
IO2 square Juches of text and picture became a mountain, a 

 The title is rather conjectured than ascertained, for owing, as it is said, to 
Alciat's dissatisfaction vith the work, or from some other cause, he destroyed what 
copies he could, and hot one is now of a certainty known to exist. For solving the 
doubt, the Editor of the Holbeiu Society of lIanchester has just issned a note of 
inquiry to the chief libraries of Europe, Enquête o,tr déco,tvrir la première Edition 
«tes Emblêmes d'Audré Alciat, ilhtslre ffturiscons»tlte Italien. lIilan, A.P. ISZZ. 
+ A copy was in the possession of the Rev. Thos. Corser, and has passed through 
the hands of Dr. Dibdin and Sir Fraucis Freeling ; also another copy is at Keil-, 
Sir Willialn Stirling lIaxwell's ; both in admirable condition. 

70 t?irBLt?[-BOOK LITt?RITURtL [¢HP. II. 

monument in Alciat's honour, numbering up 37, I28 square 
inches of text, picture, and conmaent. The lilllc book of A-ugs- 
burg, I53I, may be read and digested, but only an immortal 
patience could labour through the entire of the grcat book of 
Padua, t6--t. In that interval of ninety years, however, edition 
after edition of the favourite emblematist appeared ; with trans- 
lations into French 536, into German 54z, into Spanish and 
Italian in I549, and, if we may credit A_mes' Mtliquitirs of 
l)riulhlg, Herbert's edition, p. I57O, into English in 5;5;t. The 
total number of the editions during that period was certainly hot 
less than I3O, of seventy of which a pretty close examination 
has been ruade by the writer of this sketch. The list of editions, 
as far as completed, numbers up about 5o, and lnanifests a 
persistence in popularity that has seldom been attained. 
The earliest French translator was John Lefevre, an ecclesi- 
astic, born at Dijon in I493,--Lcs tmblcmcs arc A[ais#-e A¢dre 
Alciat: Paris, 536. He was secretary to Cardinal Givry, 
whose protection he enjoyed, and died in t565. Bartholomew 
A-neau, himself an emblematist, was the next transla.tor into 
French, I549; and a third, Claude lIignault, appeared in 583. 
Wolfgang Hunger, a Bavarian, in 542, * and Jeremiah Held 
of N6rdlingen, were the German translators ; Bernardino Daza 
Pinciano, in 549, Los tmblcus are Alcialo, was the Spanish; 
and Giovanni Iarquale, in 547, the Italian,Divcrse I»rese. 
The notes and comments upon Alciat's Emblems manifest 
great research and very extensive learning. Sebastian Stock- 
hamer supplied commculariola, short comments, to the Lyons 
edition of 556. Francis Sanctius, or Sanchez, one of the 
restorers of literature in Spain, born in 5z3, also added com- 
»«cztaria to the Lyons edition of I573- A-bore all we must 

* CLARISSlMI VIRI D. ANDRE2E ALciati ntblematunt libelhts, uiffilatler recog- 
ttilus, et igï recours 2er IIrolkg'azg'tot fftozfferttllz tattarum, rhylktis Go'matticis «erstts. 
PAR1SIIS, altd Ckrisliauut ll'ckdtot, 'c.» Aristo I.D.XLII. 

SECT. III.] _[2_t01" ./1..D. I522 TO 1543. 71 

name Claude Mignault, whose praise is that "to a varied 
leaming he joined a rare integrity." He was born near Dijon 
about 1536, and died in 16o6. His comments iu full appeared in 
Plantin's * Antwerp edition, 8vo, of 1573, and may be appealed 
to in proof of much patient research and extensive erudition. 
Lorenzo Pignoria, born at Padua in 1571 , and celebrated for his 
study of Egyptian antiquities, also compiled notes on _Alciat's 
Einblcms in MDCXItX.'r The results of the labours of the three, 
Sanchez, Mignault, and Pignorius, were collected in the Padua 
editions of 1621 and 1661. Itis scarcely possible that so many 
editions should bave issued from the press, and so much 
learning bave been bestowed, without the knowledge of Alciat's 
Emblems having peuetrated evcry nook and corner of the 
literary world. 
Vith a glance Olfly at the "PROGNOSTICATIO," of Theo- 
phrastus Paracelsus, the alchemist and entlmsiast, written in 
I536, and expressed in thirty-two copperplates, we pass at once 
to the Dancc of D«ath, by Hans Holbein, which Bewick, I789, 
and Douce, I833, in London, and Schlotthauer and Fortoul, 
I832, in Munich and Paris, bave made familiar to English, 
Gcrman, and French readers. Of Holbein himself, it is sufficient 
here to say that lac vas born at Baie in I495, alld died in 
London in i543. 
Mr. Corser's copy of the first edition of the Dance of Dcatb, 
and which was the gift of Francis Douce, Esq., to Edward 
Vernon Utterson, supplies the following title, "LES SIMUL- 
mêt pourtraictes, que artificiellement imaginées: _A Lyon, soubz 

* "OMNIA ANDRE3E ALCIATI V. C. EMBLEMATA. Adiectis commentariis, &c. 
Per Clavdivm Minoim 13iuionesem. ANTVERI'I.E, Ex officina Christophori Plantini, 
Architypographi Regij, M.I).LXXlII. ;" also, "Editio tertia nmlto locupIetior," 
+ "Emblemata v. CI. Andreœe Alciatinotulis extemîoraris Zaurattij 29ignm'ij 
29alauinL 29atauij, aibud 29eL 29auhan Toezium, M.DClIX," sm. 8VO." 


l'escu de Coloigne, Ir.D.XXXVlII." Thc volume is a small quarto 
of lO4 pages, Ulmulnbered, dedicated to Madalne Johanna de 
Touszele, the Reverend _Abbess of the convent of Saint Peter at 
Lyons. There are forty-one elnblems, each headed by a text 
of scripture from the Latin version; the devices follow, with a 
French stanza of four lines to each; and there are sundry 
Dissertations by Jean de Vauzelles, an eminent divine and 
scholar of the saine city. But who can speak of the beauty of 
the work ? The designs by Holbein are many of them wonder- 
fully conceived,--the engravings by Hans Liitzenberge, or 
Leutzelburger, as admirably executed.* 
Rapidly was the work transferred into Latin and Italian, and 
before the end of the century at least fifteen editions had issued 
from the presses of Lyons, Baie, and Cologne. 
Scarcely less celebrated are Holbein's Iistorical Figures 
of t/w Old Tcstamcnt, which Sibald Beham's had preceded in 
Francfort by only two years. Beham's whole series of Bible 
Figures are contained in 348 prints, and were published between 
1536 and 154o. Dibdin's D«amcron, vol. i. pp. 176 , I77, xvill 
supply a full account of Holbein's " ttistoriarum Veteris Instru- 
menti icones ad vivum expressoe una cum brevi, sed quoad 
fieri potuit, dilucida earundem expositione:" Lyons, small 4to, 
1538. The edition of Frellonius, Lyons, 1547, is a very close 
reprint of the second edition, and from this it appears that the 
work is contained in fifty-two leaves, unnumbered, and that 
there are ninety-four devices, which are admirable specimens of 
wood-engraving. The first four are from the Dace of Dcat/t, 
but the others appropriate to the subjects, eack being accom- 
panied by a French stanza of four lines. 
,lk Spanish translation xvas issued in 1543; and in 1549, at 

« The Holbein Society of Manchester have just completed, lXlay, 1869, a Photo- 
lithographic Reprint of the whole work, with an English Translation, Notes, &c., by 
the Editor, Henry Green, M.A. 

SICT. III.] 31703[ 2gI.D. I522 T) 543" 73 

Lyons, an English version, "The Images of the Old Testament, 
lately expressed, set forthe in Ynglishe and Frenche, vuith a 
playn and brief exposition." All the editions of the century 
were about twelve. 
Hans Brosamer, of Fnlda, laboured in the same mine, and 
between 55 and 1553, copying chicfly from Holbein and 
Albert Durer, produced at Francfort lais " tàitllit' ti;10r/rn 
tuntlir fftrgrma[rt,"--tible Histories artistically ictm'«d 
(3 vols. in ). 
\Ve will, though somewhat earlier than the exact date, 
continue the subject of Bible-Figure Emblcm-books by alluding 
to the Q«tadrb«s historiq«ws de" la ibl;--" Ilistoric Picture- 
frames of the Bible,"--for the most part engraved by "Le Petit 
Bernard," alias Solomon Bernard, xvho was born at Lyons in 
I52. Of these works in French, English, Spanish, Italian, 
Latin, Flemish, and German, therc were txventy-two editions 
printed between 553 and 583. Their general nature may be 
known from the fact that to each Scripture snbject there is a 
device, in design and execution equally good, and that it is 
followed or accompanied by a Latin, Italian, &c. stanza, as the 
case may be. In the Italian version, Lyons, 554, the Old 
Testament is illustrated by 222 engravings, and the New by 
The first of the series appears to be Q«tadri«s historiqttcs dtt 
Gcn#sc, Lyons, 1553; followed in the saine year by Q«tadrh«s 
historiqztcs de l'E'odc. There is also of the saine date (see 
Brunet, iv. c. 996), "The true and lyuely historyke Pvrtreatures 
of the woll Bible (with the arguments of eache figure, translated 
into english metre by Peter Derendel): Lyons; by Jean of 
To conclude, there were Fim-cs of thc t?ibl; illustrated by 
French stanzas, and also by Italian and by German ; published 
at Lyons and at Venice bctwecn 564 and 582. (Sec Brunct's 

Iamtcl, ii. c. 255.) Also Jost Amman, at Francfort, in  564 ; 
and Virgil Solis, from 56o to 1568, contributed to German 
works of the saine character. 
Two names of note among emblematists crown the years 
539 and 54o, both in Paris : they are William de la Perrière, 
and Giles Corrozet; of the former we know little more than 
that he was a native of Toulouse, and dedicated his chief work 
to "'Margaret of France, Queen of Navarre, the only sister 
of the very Christian King of France;" and of the latter, 
that, born in Paris in 5Io, and dying there in 568, he was 
a successfll printer and bokseller, and distinguished (see 
Brunet's hmcl, ii. cc. 2993o8 ) for a large number of works 
on History, Antiquities, and kindred subjects. 
La Perrire's chief Emblem-work is Le Thcatrc des bots 
Etgis, auqt«l sot cotoms cott Embh'm : Paris, 8vo, 539- 
There are o leaves and really o emblems, each device 
having a pretty border. His other Emblem-works areThe 
Hdrcd Thottghts of Loz% 543, with woodcuts to each page ; 
Thoughts o thc ffour IVorlds, " namely, the divine, the angelic, 
the heavenly, and the sensible," Lyons, 552; and "LA 
IOROSOœeIE,"Tk« IVisdo»z of Folljçontaining a hundred 
moral emblems, illustrated by a hundred stanzas of four lines, 
both in Latin and in French. 
Corrozet's " HECATOMGRAPHIE," Paris, t 540, is a description 
of a hundred figures and histories, and contains Apophthegms, 
Proverbs, Sentences, and Sayings, as well ancient as modern. 
Each page of the IOO emblems is surrounded by a beautiful 
border, the devices are neat woodcuts, having the same borders 
with La Perrière's Thcatre of good Co«o'iz,anccs. There is also 
to each a page of explanato W French verses. 
It requires a stricter inquiry than I bave yet been able to 
make in order to determine if Corrozet's lasots domestiqttcs; 
lason du Io3,s & May ; and Taisscric & l'Eglise ch,zsticmc 

S-CT. III.] -203[ .,q.Z). 1543 TO 1564. 75 
& cathaEoEue, bear a decided emblematical character ; the titles 
have a taste of emblematism, but re by no means decisive of 
the fact. 

III.--Maurice Sceve's Dclic, Objet de tlus ltaulte Vo'tu, 
Lyons, 544, with woodcuts, and 458 ten-lined stanzas on love, 
is included in the Blandford Catalouc ; and in the Keir Collec- 
tion are both Tac z,cry admh'ablc, z,cry maniflcicnt a,td trium- 
?haut Fnt» 7 of Prizce Philip of Spabz into ztutzc, c'p Dz I549,* 
by Grapheus, alias Scribonius; edition 55o: and Gueroult's 
_Prcmicr La,re dcs Fmblcmcs; Lyons, 155o. The saine year, 
55o, at Augsburg, bas marked against it 
 u r[I,"--_Pcdiffrcc-booh,--which recu rs in 1580. 
Claude Paradin, the canon of t3eaujeu, a small town on the 
Ardiere, in the dcpartmcnt of the Rhone, published the first 
edition of lais simple but very interesting Jgcviscs hcroiqu«s, 
with 18o woodcuts, at Lyons in 1557 . It was afterwards 
enlarged by gatherings from Gabriel Symeoni and other writers; 
but, either under its own naine or that of S.t'mbola hcroica 
(edition 1567) was very popular, and before 16oo was printed at 
Lyons, Antwerp, Douay, and Leyden, hot fewer than twelve 
rimes. The English translation, with which it is generally 
admitted that Shakespeare was acquainted, was printed in 
London, in emo, in 591, and bears the title, T/oe H«roicall 
Jgez,iscs of 3L Clavdiz,s _Paradin, Cauoz of )Rcauicu, " Whereunto 
are added the Lord Gabriel Symeons and othcrs. Translated 
out of Latin into English by P. S." 
To another Paradin are assigned Quach'hzs historiqucs de la 
)Riblc, published at Lyons by Jean de Tournes, 1555 ; and of 
which the saine publisher issued Spanish, English, Italian, 
German, and Flemish versions. 

* Za tres admirable, .&c., entrée du t'rince _Phili2e d'spaiffnesot la ville 
d'4te;o's, aeeo I549. 4to, Anvers, I55 o. 

76 E_/][IZE_/I[-BOOK Z[TERATLT?E. [cuAv. II. 

The rich Emblem Collection at Keir furnishes the first 
edition of each of Doni's three Emblem-works, in 4to, printed by 
Antonio Francesco Marcolini at Venice in I552-53 ; they are : 
1. " I MONDI,"--Lc., Th« ll'orlds, ccl«stial, tcrrcstrial, aud 
fcrnal,--2 parts in I, with woodcuts. 2. "I IARMI,"--Tke 
l[arblcs,-- 4 parts iii I, a collection of pleasant little tales and 
interesting notices, with woodcuts by the printer; who also, 
according to Bryan, xvas an engraver of " considerable merit." 
3. " LA MORAL FILOSOFIA,"--2][oral ]]tilosolhy drazwt from 
l/w ancicnt lVrilcrs,--2 parts in I, with woodcuts. In it 
are abundant extracts from the ancient fabulists, as Lokman 
and Bidpai, and a variety of little narrative tales and alle- 
Of an English translation, two editions appeared in London 
in 157o and I6OI, during Shakespeare's lifetimc; laalncly, 
" it3t" ïFt0rall [3t)il0i0t3Çir of Doni, englished out of italien by sir 
Th. North,"* 4to, with cngravings on wood. 
Under the two titles of " PICTA POESIS," and " LIMAGINA- 
TION POETIQUE," Bartholonaew Aneau, or Anulus, published his 
" exquisite little gem," as lIr. Atkinson, a former owner of the 
copy which is now before me, describes the work. It appeared 
at Lyons in I552 , and contains Io6 emblems, the stanzas to 
xvhich, in the Latin edition, are occasionally in Greek, but in the 
French edition, "vers François des Latins et Grecz, par l'auteur 
nlesnle d'iceux." 
Achille 13occhi, a celebrated Italian scholar, the founder, in 
546, of the Academy of Bologna, Virgil Solis, of Nuremberg, 
an artist of considerable repute, Pierre Cousteau, or Costalius, of 
Lyons, and Paolo Giovio, an accomplished writer, 13ishop of 
Nocera, give naine to four of the Emblem-books which were 

* North's translation of Plutarch's Zives, we may remark, was the great treasury 
o which Shakespeare often applied in sonne of his Historical Dramas ; and we nmy 
assmne that other productions from the same pen would hot be unlnown to him. 

SECT. III.] FI?OI[ A.]_). 1543 ïO 1564. 77 

issucd in the year I555. That of Bocchius is entitled " SçstnO- 
and numbers up I46 , or, more correctly, 5o emblems in 34o 
pages: the devices are the work of Giulio Bonasone, from 
copper-plates of great excellence. In 556, ononiw Sam- 
bigucius put forth I crmalh«w«m occhi«m Iz«tcrc«io, which 
is simply a comment on the oend elnblem of Bocchius. Virgil 
Solis published in 4to, at Nuremberg, the same year, "LIBELLUS 
Sartorum, seu Signorum publicorum," litAl« ook of (obbl«x, 
or ofptblic S@ls. Cousteau's " PEGIa,"* which some say ap- 
pcared first in 552, is, as the naine dcnotes, a Slrltcllt'c of 
elnblcms, ninety-five in numbcr, with kilosoçical narraliz,cs, 
each page being surrounded by a pretty border. And Giovio's 
"IALOGO dcll' Imprese Militari et Amorc,"Dialogztc of 
&-mb&ms of IVar aml of Loi,c; or, as it is sometilnes named, 
" AGIONAMENTO, iSCOUl'SC cotcoTtitg lC VOî'«ts and dcz,iccs 
of arms and of 1o% Mch arc common& mmcd Emb&ms,"is 
probably the first rcgular treatise on the subject which had yct 
appeared, and which attained high popularity. 
Its estimation in England is shown by the translation which 
was issued in London in 585, entitled, " THE Worthy tract of 
Paulus Iouius, contayning a Discourse of rare inuentions, both 
blilitarie and Amorous, call«d I»rcsc. l'c,unto is addcd a 
Preface conta3,-ning the Arte of composing them, with maty 
ot/to" notab& d«uiscs. y Samztcll Danicll l«te Satdazt in 
Ilatimately connected with Giovio's little work, indeed often 
constituting parts of the saine volume, were Ruscelli's "DS- 
CORSO" on the saine subject, Vcnice, 556; and Domenichi's 
" RAGIONAMENTO," also at Venice, in 556. From the testi- 

* " IETRI COSTALII IEGMA 1/Z narralionibus thilos@hicis." 8vo, LVGDVNI, 
"LE 13EGME DE PIERRE COVSTAV auec les Narr. philosophiqves." Svo, A Lyon, 
.M.D. LX. 

78 Eel[ILE3I-IOOK LITE2?ATURE. [Crmv. Il. 

mony of Sir Egerton Brydges (Res Lit.), " Ruscelli xvas one of 
the first literati of his time, and vas held in esteem by princes 
and all ranks of people." 
Very frequently, too, in combination with Giovio's Dialogue 
on Emblems, are to be found Ruscelli's " IMPRESE ILLVSTRI," 
Venice, 1566 ; or Symeoni's " IMPRESE IIEROICtIE ET MO- 
RAI.q" Lyons, 1559; and "SENTENTIOSE [MPRESE," Lyons, 
Roville's Lyons edition, of I574, thus unites in one title- 
page Giovio, Symeoni, and Domenichi, " DIALOGO DELLIM- 
PRESE MILITARI E AIHOROSE, De Monsignor Giouio Vescouo 
di Nocera 't dal S. Çabricl S3,»¢co¢i [:iorc»Nw, Con vn 
ragionamento di IV[. Lodouico Domenichi, riel medesimo sog- 
Taking together all the editions in Italian, French, and 
Spanish, of these four authors, single or combined, which I have 
had the opportunity of examining, there are no less than 
two between I555 and 585, besideff rive or six other editions 
named by Brunet in his .Ma«ucl du Li&'airc. Roville's French 
edition, 4to, Lyons, 1561 , is by Vasquin Philieul, "Dialogve des 
Devises d'Armes et d'Amovrs dv S. Pavlo Iovio, 
Discom's d« _ai. Lo3,s Dombdquc--et les Dadscs Hcroiq««'s et 
2!oraA's du Scigatr Gabricl Si'raton." 

At this epoch xve enter upon ground which has been 
skilfully upturned and cultivated by Claude Francis Menes- 
trier, born at Lyons in 63, and "distinguished by his 
various works on heraldry, decorations, public ceremonials, 
&c." (Aikin's Go«. t?iog, vil. p. 41.) In his " PmLOSOHLOE 
IMAGINUM,"_Philosoh 3., of lmagcs,an octavo volume of 860 
pages, published at Amsterdam, 1695 , he gives, in ninety-four 
pages, a "JUDICIUM," i.c., a jlld,lllCilt rcsCCll'llff all allt/lors z¢'ko 
h«z'e writtc,z on S3'mbdic Art ; and of those Authors whom ve 

SEc'I'. III.] FROI|I" A.D. 1543 TO t564 . 79 

have named, or may be about to name, xvithin the Period to 
which out Sketch extends, he mentions that he has exalnined 
the works of 

x555 .« 



Franc£scus Caburaccius, p. I 2. 
Abrahamlts Fransius, p. 15. 
rulius Ccesar Caacius, ibid. 
D.  lbe2us ¢rnardctti, p.  7. 
Torquatus Tassus, p. 4. 
acobus Sassus, p. 8. 
A ,«dreas Clffoccus, ibid. 
Hcrcul«s Tassus, p. 19. 
1 ». oratius A[onla[dc, p. 23. 
ohanncs aplista l"crsom ib. 
Franciscus dL4mboz3e, ibid. 

It m.ay also be gathercd ri'oto the "JuDIcIUii " that Ments- 
trier had read with care what had been written on Emblems by 

the following authors : 

1551 • 
1565 . 

Gabricl Simeoni, p. 63. 
Claudius Paradinus, p. 68. 
A[auritius Sevus, p. 55. 
'. t?a2btisht tittonius, p. 7o. 
Clatdius A[inos, p. 54. 

1588. l?ernardinus l'erciva[le, p. 64. 
,, tgrinci2bius Fabricius, p. 76. 
16oo. 'ohannes tgined/, p. 6o. 
16o 9. 'acobus Le l'asseur, p. 9 I. 
63. '. Franciscusde Villava, p. 55- 

Excluding the editions bcfore enumerated, the books of 
emblems which I have noted from various sources as assigned to 
the authors in the above lists from Menestrier, amount to from 
lwotO'-five to thirO,, with the titles of which there is no occasion 
to trouble the reader. 
Returning from this digression, Vincenzo Cartari should next 
be named in order of rime. At Venice, in 1556 , appeared his 
" IMAGINI DEI Dei dcgli Antic/d,"--Imagcs of t/w Gods of the 
A,wicnts,--4to, of above 5oo pages. It contains an account of 
the Idols, Rites, Ceremonies, and other things appertaining to 

* The dates bave been added to Menestrier's list. 

80 E.)D3LE3I-t?OOK LITERITUJ?E. [CH.«V. I[. 

the old Religions. It was a xvork often reprinted, and in 1581 
translated into French by Antoine du Verdier, the saine who, 
in I585, gave in folio a Catalogue of all who have written or 
translated into French up to that time. 
A folio of I IOO pages, which within the period of our sketch 
was reprinted four times, issued from BMe in 556; itis, 
" HIEROGLYPHICA,"  icrogl3hics, or, Commcnt«rics o¢z ic 
Sacrcd Litcratm'c & t/w fffl#limls,--by John Pierius Valerian, a 
man of letters, born in extreme poverty at Belluno in I477, and 
untaught the very elements of learning until he was fifteen. 
(Aikin's Gcu. iog. ix. 537.) He died in 558. As an exposition 
of the Eyptian hieroglyphics, his ve learned work is little 
esteemed ; but it contains emblems innumerable, comprised in 
fifty-eight books, each book dedicated to a person of ngte, and 
treating one class of objects. The devicessmall xœeoodcuts 
amount to 365. 
Eienne Jodelle, a poet, equally versatile whether in Latin or 
in French, was skilled in the ancient languages, and acquainted 
with the arts of painting, sculpture, and architecture, as well as 
dexterous in the use of arms. He published, in 558, a thin 
quarto "RECUEIL," or Çollcctiot of the inscriptions, figures, 
devices, and masks ordained in Paris at the H6tel de Ville. 
The same year, and again in 569 and 573, appeared the large 
folio volume, in rive parts, " AUSTRIACIS GENTIS IMAGINES," 
ortraits of the Az«strian fimily,full lengths, engraved by 
Gaspar ab Avibus, of Padua. At the foot of each portrait are a 
four-lined stanza, a brief biographical notice, and some emblema- 
tical figure. Of similar character, though much inferior as a 
work of art, is Jean Nestor's HISTOIRE des Ollllllt'S illstrcs de 
la 3Iaison &- 2][«dici," a quarto of about 24o leaves, printed at 
Paris in I564. (See the Keir Catalog2w, p. i43. ) It contains 
"twelve woodcuts of the emblems of the different members of 
the House of Medici." 

SV.CT. III.] ]"lrO.,I] " A.D. 543 TO 564 . 8 

Hoffer's " ICONES CATECHESEOS," or ])ict«lrcs of iz«str«ctiozt, 
and of virtues and vices, illustrated by verses, and also by 
seventy-eight figures or woodcuts, was printed at Wittenberg in 
156o. The ncxt year, I56I--if not in I556 (sec Brunet's 
2l«nucl, vol. il. cc. 930, 93I)--John Duvet, one of the earliest 
engravers on coppcr in France, at Lyons, published in twenty- 
four plates, folio, lais chief work, " LAPOCALYPSE FIGUREE ;" 
and in I562, at Naples, the Historian of Florence, Scipione 
Ammirato, gave to the vorld "IL ROTA OVERO DELL' ISt- 
PRESE," or, Dialogue of thc SiOE ScitVonc A mmirato, in which he 
discourses of many emblems of divers excellent authors, and of 
some rules and admonitions concerning this subject written to 
the Sig. Vincenzo Carrafa. 
Were it less a subject of debate between Dutch and German 
critics as to the exact character of the "PELEN VAN SINNE,"* 
which were published by the Chambers of Rhetoric at Ghcnt in 
1539, and by those of Antwerp in 1561 and 1562 (see Brunet's 
2krmwl, vol. v. c. 484), we should claire these works for our 
Emblem domain. But whether claimed or hot, the exhibitions 
and amusements of the Chambers of Rhetoric, especially at 
their great gatherings in the chief cities of the Netherlands, werc 
often very lively representations by action and accessory devices 
of dramatic thought and sentiment, from "King Herod and lais 
Deeds," " enacted in the Cathedral of Utrecht in 48," to what 
Motley, in lais .Dzttch Rcpublic, vol. i. p. 80, terres the " magnifi- 
cent processions, brilliant costumes, living pictures, charades, 
and other animated, glittering groups,"--" trials of dramatic and 
poetic skill, ail arranged under the supcrintendence of the 

* A friend, Mr. Jan Hendrik Hessells, now of Cambridge, well acquainted with 
his native Dutch literature, informs me the " Sclen v«n Sinnen (Sinnespelen, Zinne- 
spelen) vere thus called because allegorical personi.fications, Zinnebeildige îa'so«at 
(in old Dutch, Simt«bens), for instance reason, religion, virttte, were introduced." 
They were, in fact, " allegorical plays," similar to the " Interludes" of England in 
former time.. 

82 tï_alBLtL'1I-.BOOK LITtïRATURE. [CAP. II. 

particular association which in the preceding year had borne 
away the prize." 
"The Rhetorical Chambers existed in the most obscure 
villages" (Motley, i. p. 79); and had regular constitutions, being 
presided over by officers with high-sounding titlcs, as kings, 
princes, captains, and archdeacons, -- and each having "its 
peculiar title or blazon, as the Lily, the Marigold, or the Violet, 
with an appropriate motto." After 493 they xvere "incorpo- 
rated under the general supervision of an uppcr or mother- 
society of Rhetoric, consisting of fifteen members, and callcd by 
the title of' Jesus xvith the balsam flower.'" 
As I have been informed by Mr. Hessells, Siegenbeek, in his 
Gcschicd«nis d«r Ncd«rla,tdschc L«ttv-leumh; says," Besides the 
ordinary meetings of the Chambers, certain poetical feasts were 
in vogue among the Rhetor-gevers, whereby one or other subject, 
to be responded to in burdens or short songs (li«dcleats), ac- 
cording to the contents of the card, ,,vas announced, with the 
promise of prizes to those who would best answer the proposed 
question. But the so-called tTttlrics deserve for their magnifi- 
cence, and the diversity of poetical productions which they give 
rise to, especially our attention. 
"It happened from rime to rime that one or other of the most 
important Chambers sent a card in rhyme to the other Chambers 
of the saine province, vhereby they xvere invited to be at a 
given rime in the town where the senders of the card xvere 
established, for the sake of the celebration of a poetical feast. 
This card contained further everything by which it was desired 
that the Chambers, which were to make their appearance, should 
illustrate this feast, viz., the performance of an allegorical play 
(hmcstcl) in response to some given question ;* the preparation 
of csbalcmcntc (drawings), faa;tics (jests), prologues; the 

* As " Wat den mensch aldermeest tot' conste verwect ?"--lirai toast of aH 

Secs. III.] t;'JOAZ A.D. i543 TO i564 . 83 

execution of splendid eutries and processions ; the exhibitions of 
beautifully paiuted coats of arms, &c. These entries were of 
two kiuds, l, zndiztzvcd«n, and haagsl«l«n ;--the hr,ljczc,cls were 
the most splendid, and xvere performed in towns; the hcdgc- 
thrA,s belonged properly to villages, though sometimes in towns 
these followed the performance of a landjewel." Originally, 
hrmlj«wd meant a prize of honour of the land; called also 
landpo,s (land-prize). 
Such xvere the periodic jubilees of a neighbouring people, 
their " land-jewels," as they were termed, when the birthtime of 
out greatest English dramatist arl'ived. And as we mark thc 
wide and increasing streams of the Elnblem Literature flowiug 
over every European laud, and hoxv the commou tongue of 
Rome gave one language to all Christendona, can xve deem it 
probable that any man of genius, of discernment, and of only 
the usual attainmeuts of his COlnpeers, would lire by the side of 
these streams and never dip lais fiuger into the waters, nor wet 
even the soles of his feet where the babbling emblems flowed ? 
Some there have been to maintain that Shakespeare had 
visited the Netherlands, or even resided there ; and it is conse- 
quently within the limits of no unreasouable conjecture that he 
had seen the hr¢dj«wcls distributed, and at the sight felt hilnself 
inspirited to win a nobler faine. 

ll'ltitt«cA', 586. 

84 ff.3IjZEI-tOOIt" ZITER4 TUIdff.. [CAP. I 

A./). 66. 

N the year at xvhich this Section begins, 
Shakespeare was born, and for a whole 
ccntury the Emblem ride never ebbed. 
There was an unintcrrupted succession of 
new writers and of new editions. Many 
emincnt names have appeared in the past, 

and nalnes as eminent will adorn the future. 
The fifty years which remain to the period comprised within 
the lilnits of this Sketch of Emblem Literature we divide into 
two portions of twenty-five years each : st, up to 59o, when 
Shakespeare had fairly entered on lais dramatic career ; and 
2nd, from I59O to I615, xvhen, according to Steevens (edition 
1785, vol. i. p. 354), his labours had ended with The Tw«lfth 
2Vight, oi; ll'hat Yo« lVill. As far as actual correspondences 
between Shakespeare and the Emblem \Vriters dcnand, our 
Sketch might finish with 6IO, or even earlier : for some time 
will of necessity intervene, after a work has been issued, before 
it will modify the thoughts of others, or enter into the phrases 
which they employ. However, there is nothing very incon- 
gruous in lnaking this Sketch and the last of Shakespeare's 
dramas terminate with the saine date. 
I.--In 564, at Rome, in 4to, the distinguished Latinist, 
Gabriel Faerno's Fablcs werc first printcd, IOO in nulnbcr ;--it 

SECT. IV ] FROg][ .4. D. 564 TO 59 o. 85 

was three years after his death. The plates arc from designs 
which Titian is said to have drawn. Out English Whitney 
adopts several of Faerno's Fables among his Elnblems, and on 
this authority we class them with books of Emblems. From 
time to rime, as late as to 1796, new editions and translations of 
the Fables have been issned. A copy in the Free Library, 
Manchester, " Rom Vincentius Luchinus, I565," bears the 
title, Fa3z,lac Cntvm c.r antiqz,is a'vctori&,s dd«ctac, et a Çabricl« 
F«cruo, Crcmon«usi carmbd&,s c.rfllicatae. 
Virgil Solis, a native of Nnremberg, whcre he was born in 
1514, and where he died in 157o ; and Jost Æmman, who was 
born at Zurich in 1539, but passed his lire at Nuremberg, and 
died there in I59I , were both artists of high repute, and contri- 
buted to the illustration of Emblem-works. The former, 
between 1560 and 1568 , produced 125 _/Ve'Iv Figm'csfor tac 
TcshzllltVlt, and At Artistic littlc tTookof Ahlmls ; and the 
latter, from I56. _ tO 1586 , contributed veI T largely to books of 
tTiblic«l t;i«m'cs, of "Animals," of "Genealogies," of "Heraldry," 
and of the Habits and Çostamcs of All Ranks of the Cl«rgy of 
thc Roman Chm'ch, and of lUomcz of every " Condition, profes- 
sion, and ac," throughout the nations of Europe. 
From the press of Christopher Plantin, of Antwerp, there 
issued nearly fifty editions of Emblem-books between 1564 and 
1590. Of these, one of the earliest was, " EMBLEMATA CVM 
ALIQVOT NVMIIS ANTIQVIS,"--mblcms wit/z somc atci«nt 
Coh«s,--4to, I564, by the Hungarian, John Sambucus, born at 
Tornau in 153 I. A French version, Lcs lmblcmcs de 
Samb¢tcus, issued from the saine press in 1567 . Among 
Emblematists, none bears a fairer name as " physician, anti- 
qnary, and poet." According to De Bry's lconcs, pt. iii., ed. 
1598 , pp. 76--83, he obtained the patronage of two emperors, 
Maximilian II. and Rudolph II., under wholn he held the offices 
of counscllor of statc and historian of the empire. To him also 

86 Elll7LE3[-DOOKLITER.dTURE. [C.r. Il. 

belonged the rare honour of having his work commented on by 
one of the great heroes of Christendom, Don John of Austria, 
in I572. 
Lcs Solzg«s drolatiqvcs dc Paztagrz,cl, by Rabelais, appeared 
at Paris in 1565, but its emblcmatical character has been 
doubted. Not so, however, the ten editions of the " EMBLE- 
I,IATA " of Hmh'ialt .ï«¢l«œe¢s, a celebrated Dutch physician, of 
which the first edition appeared in I565, and justly claims tobe 
"the most elegant which thc presses of Plantin had produced at 
this period." 
We may now begin to chronicle a considerable number of 
works and editions of Emblems by ITAI.IAN writers, which, to 
avoid prolixity and yet to point out, we present in a tabulated 
form, giving only the earliest editions :-- 


• Imibrese didivcrs@riuciibi, dttchi, 8-'c. sm. fol. Venice . 
Discorsi d«/li /rio»oE, giostre, d.,c. 4to Monica. 
[11te de gl[ «4cad,'mici occv[/i, c. . 4to Brescia . 
6?llcm'io dcll' h:t»«ata ridtllio«e ....... 
Le firime imrcse dol coule Or[audo 4to Venice . 
Dialogo 8vo Venice . 
RoEiouamcutos@ra la çr@ri«ta Fol. Pavia . 
dcllc I@resc, dc. 
Fiorino's . @t'z ttto«a, dc. 4to Lyons • 77 
Palazza's . I Discorsi--I»«prese, dc. . 8vo Bologna  577 
Caburacci's. Tallato,doc si dimostra il veto 4to Bologna I58o 
e uovo modo difzre le 

i 566 X-. 
i 568 b. 
1568 b. 
57 '- 
572 '. 

* The works to which a/ is appended are ail in the very choice md yet most 
extensive collection of Emblem-books at Keir, ruade by the Author of The Cloister 
Lift of Charles I:, Sir V'illimn Stirling Iqaxwell, Bart. ; c, in the Lib-ary formed by 
the Rev. Thomas Corser, Rector of .Stand, neŒEr Iqanchestcr ; t, in that of Henry Yates 
Thompson, Esq., of Thingwall, near Liverpool. I have had the opportunity, most 
kindly given, of examining very many of the Emblem-works at Keir, and nearly ail 
of those at Stand and Thingwall. The three collections contained at the rime of 
my examination of them 934, 2o4, and 248 volumes, in the whole 386 volumes. 
Deductillg duplicates, the number of distinct editions in the three libraries is above 9oo. 
Where I have placed a v, it denotes that the sources of information are various, but 
those sources I possess the means of verifying. I naine these things that it may be 
seen I have hot lightly nor idly undertaken the sketch which I present in these pages• 

SZ«-l.. lV.] FROAI A.D. 564 O 59 o. 87 

Guazzo's . Dialoghi ;hiacevoH 4to 
Calnilli's. I»@rese--co i di«car«i, et cou l« flœrur« 4to 
Cimolotti's . Il sltpcrbi . 4to 
Fabrici's. . D«ll« allusioni, imbrcse .&* cmbl«mi 4to 
«@fa h vila, &-w., di G'«ffo'io .VIII. 
Rinaldi's . Il moslrttosissimo 8vo 
Porro's . çl pri»to libro 4to 
Pezzi's . La l)'ffta dol .5"i«nore--Sacr«menli, 4to 
laradiso, Limbo, &-c. 
Bargagli's . D«ll' I»tbrcse 4to 

Vcnice . 585 k. 
Vcnice . 586 b. 
Pavia  587/,'. 
Roma  588 b. 

Ferrara. 588 b. 
Milano . 589 b. 
Venetia. 1589 L 

Venetia. 589 ,. 

So, briefly, in the order of time, may we naine several of the 
French, Latin, and Gcrman Elnblcln-writers of this pcriod, 
together with the Spanish and English : 

Chartier's . 
Droyn's « 

Grevin's . mbleme's d'Adriat La 
Vander Noot's Thot,z. . . . les inconuc,thvts 
misoz's qui suiucnl h's mondaius 
et vicicu.r, 
De Montenay's :mbl*'mcs ou d«7,ises c[tr«stiotn's . 
• Les 171asons de" wrtu ;bar 
• La Grand nef des fois du monde 
• Les I)'cris 'ourtraits dcs I-folltlltt's 
• Les imas des anciens dièu.z" (par 
V. Cartari). 
• La jo.t«'use et maffltoE otD'c¢e de 
Ions. Françoys, duc d« tr«- 
baril, A njou, &'c., eu z,ille 

6mo Anvcrs . 1568 "z,. 
8vo Londres. 568 ,. 

4to Lyon. 571 b. 
4to Aurelioe. 574 
fol. à Lyon . 579 c. 
4to Genue 1581 b. 

4tO Lyon 58 '. 

fol. .à Anvers 1582 

L'Anglois . Discours des hicroff. é.gybtiens, ent- 4to Paris. .  583 b. 
bl&nes, .&c. 
Messin . . Emblêmes htins de '. . Boissard, 4to Metis 1588 c. 
a2,ec l'Dtl«rihz'lalion fi'ançoise. 

Of these xvorks, Vander Noot's was translated into English, 
says Brunet, (v. c. IO72,) by Henry Bynneman, I569, and is 
remarkable for containing (see At/z. Cantab. il. p. 258) certain 

* First printed at I,vons in 498. 

poems, termed sonnets, and epigrams, xvhich Spenser wrote 
before his sixteenth year. Mademoiselle Georgette de Montenay 
was a French lady of noble birth, and dedicated her IOO 
Emblems "to the very illustrious and virtuous Princesse, 
Madame Jane D'Albret, Queen of Navarre." Charrier, a 
painter and engraver, flourished about 1574; L_Anlols is hot 
mentioned in the Hi«roglj']zics of Dr. Leemans, nor do I find 

Hesius, G. 
Lonicer, J. A. 
Emblemata . 
ttortinus . 

any notice of Messin. 
Schopperus . navorMa, omNum illibcralium 
m«chaffcarum, c. 
,, . ])c omH3us illi3cli3us si2,e 
m«chatNcis artius. 
Arias Montanus. 
Sanctius Commet«ria 
Furmerus . . fie 827"llHl llXll C abll$1l . 
Lonicer, Ph.. . ]«xigTM 
Estienne, Henri. Mdologia 
Freitag . 3[),lvlog) «lica . 
Beza .... [cotesacce«ttttl «neb[entala . 
. ¢bletala saoz 
. mb&zala--fiarlim cth[ca et 
pbysica, c. 
. .4urcolor«tm Eblc»z. libcrshz- 
ff u laris. 
I éta/us ci A ItClI[tllIt [COItibHs 
. £mM«mata E,«tgdica ad.Vil. 
six, a, c. 
. mbl«»m/« ,a». «d..Vil. 
S«ua ca'lcsNa. 
Icozes ocrum, 
Libcr-- ordi[.ç Ecclcshtsli«i 

8vo Francof. . 568 ,. 
8vo Francof. . 1574 t. 
4to Antverpioe . I572 ],'. 
8vo Lugduni • 573/"- 
4to Antverpi,'e •  575 L 
4to Francof. • 579 
8vo Francof. • 579 b. 
4to Antverpioe • 579 l. 
4to ...... t 579 
4to Antverpioe . 1592 ,(-. 
4to (;enevoe . 58I c. 
4to Francof. . 158I ,. 
4to Francof. . I58I b. 
8vo Argentor . . 591 t. 
4to Francof. . 1582 
4to Antverpiœe • 584 t. 
fol ...... 1585 
4to Francof. . I585 7,. 
4to ROl'rlœe . i585 ],-. 
8vo Francof. • 1585 l. 

IV.] .FROA[ A.D. I564 TO I59. 89 

Zuingcrus. . 1589 t. 

Arias Montanus, born iii Estremadura in I527, was one of 
the very enainent scholars of Spain; Furmerus, a Frieslander, 
flourishcd during the latter half of the sixtecnth century, and 
lais work was transiated into Dutch by Co6rnhert in x585; 
Henri Estienne, one of the cclcbrated printers of that naine, was 
born in Paris in I528, and died at Lyons in I598 ; a list of lais 
works, many of them of high scholarship, occupies eight pages in 
Brunet's A[«nu«ldz« Librah'c. The naine of Beza is of similar 
renown ;--both Etienne and he had to seek safety froln pcrsecu- 
tion ; and when Etienne's effigy was being burnt, he pleasantly 
said "that he had never fclt so cold as on the day when he was 
burning." Laurence Haechtanus was the author of the tgarvus 
3[undzts, 1579, which Gerardt de Jode dent licfh«bbcrs dcr 
const«n, the loyer of art, has so admirably adorned. Nicolas 
Reusnel" was a man of extensive learning, to whom the emperor 
Rudolph Il. decreed the poetic crown. Francis Modius was a 
Fleming, a learned jurisconsult and Latinist, who died at Aire 
in Artois, in 597, at the age of sixty-one ; Theodore Zuinger 
was a celebrated physician of Bàle; and Joachin Camerarius, 
born at Nuremberg in 534, also a celebrated physician, one of 
the first to form a botanical garden, "attained high reputation 
in lais profession, and was consulted for princes and persons of 
rank throughout Germany." 
An edition of a work reputed to be emblcmatic belongs to 
this period--to x587; it is the tgh3'siologist, by S. Epiphanius, 
to whom allusion has bcen inade at p. 28. 

9 ° £,MBLE_/]I-BOOIç LITE.R,4TURE. [CHAP. [[. 

Stimmer . Neuê A'unstlichê triuren tib- 
Feyrabend . S[am und ll'afienbuclt 
Schrot . . It",fiênbuclt 
Lonicer, J. A.. StandundOrdot dcrheiliffênb'- 
mischen Catholischen Aïrchen. 
Clamorinus . Tkurnier-buch 

4to 13esel. • 1576 t. 

4to Franckfurt. I579 k. 
8vo blunich . . I58 b. 
4to Francfurt . I585 '. 

4to Dresden. . I59o b. 

Tobias Stimmer xvas an artist, born at Schaffhausen in I544, 
and in conjunction with lais younger brother, John Christopher 
Stimmer, executed part of the xvoodcuts in the Bible of 13asle, 
1576 and 1586. The younger brother also prepared the prints 
for a set of Emblems, Icones tffabrw, published at Strasburg in 
1591. Sigismund Feyrabend is a naine of great note as a de- 
signer, engraver on wood, and bookseller, at Francfort, towards 
the end of the sixteenth century. Who Martin Schrot vas, does 
not appear from the ]3iogralhic Univcrscllc; and Clamorinus 
may probably be regarded as only the editor 6f a republication 
of Rtixner's look of Tournaments that vas printed in 153o. 
Van Ghelen . Flemish translation, lravis stul- ... Anvers . i584 ,. 
Co6rnhert . . Recht Ghebruyck cade il[isbruyck 4to Leyden • 585 
OE,an O,dlycke I-lave. 
Manuel. . Elconde Lucaaor (apologues & 4to Sevilla . i575 ,. 
Boria . E»rese A[oral«s 4to Praga . • I58 b. 
Guzman • Triumfihasmorales(nueuamente 8vo Medina • 587 t. 
Horozco . Emblemas l[orales 8vo Segovia • I589 L 
Don Juan Manuel was a descendant of the famous A1- 
phonso V. t-Ils work consists of forty-nine little tales, with a 
moral in verse to each. It is regarded, says the 1io. Un&,. 

SECT. I¥.] .F.NOAI A.D. 564 Y'O 59 o. 9x 

vol. xxvi. p. 54I, "as the finest monument of Spanish literature 
in the sixteenth century." There are earlier editions of Fran- 
cisco de Guzman's A[oral Triu»hs, as at Antwerp in I557, but 
the edition above named claires to be more perfect than the 
others. Horozco y Covaruvias was a native of Toledo, and died 
in 6o8 ; one of his offices was that of Bishop of Girgenti in 
Sicily. In x6ox he translated his Emblems into Latin, and 
printed it under the title of S.t,mbolce Sacrce. 

Bynneman's . Transhtlion of Van«r A'ool's 8vo London . 569 v. 
North . The Alorall Philosobhie of 1)oM 4to London •  570 
Daniell. . T]te eï, orl]ty lracl of Paulus 8vo London . I585 b. 
Whitney . A Choice ofEmblemes, c. 4to Leyden . I586 b. 

Henry/3ynneman, whose naine is placed before thc version 
of Vander Noot's Thealrc, is hot known with any certainty to 
have been the translator. I-Ie was a celebrated printer in 
London from about 566 to x583. Sir Thomas North, to whose 
translation of Plutarch, Shakespeare was largely indebted, 
was probably an ancestor of the Lord Keeper of the Great 
Seal under Charles II. Samuel Daniell enjoyed consider- 
able reputation as a poet, and on Spenser's death in 598, was 
appointed poet-laureate to the Queen. Of Whitney it is known 
that he was a scholar of Oxford and of Cambridge, and that lais 
name appears on the rolI of the university of Leyden. He was 
a native of Cheshire, and died there in 6o. It may be added 
that an edition of ]3arclay's Shi of Foolcs was in I57O 
" Imprinted at London in Paules Churchyarde by John Cawood 
Printer to the Queenes Naiestie." 
Thus, in the period between Shakespeare's birth and his full 
entry on his dramatic career, we lave named above sixty 
persons, many of great eminence, who anmsed their leisure, or 

9 2 I'Æ)IBL}M-BOOA" LITA'A 'UR}. [cuP. I1. 

indulged their taste, by composing books of Emblems ; had we 
named also the editions of the saine authors, within these 
twenty-five years, they would have amounted to I56, exclusive 
of many reprints froln other authors who wrote Emblems 
between A.D. I500 and A.D. I564. 

II.--Shakespeare's Dramatic Career comprises another 
period of twenty-five years,--froln I59O to 1615. From the 
necessity of the case, indeed, few, if any of the Emblem writers 
and compilers towards the end of the tilnc could be known to 
him, and any correspondence bctween them in thoughts or 
expressions must have been purely accidental. For the com- 
pletion of out Sketch, however, we proceed to the end of the 
period we had lnarked out. And to save space, and, we hope, 
to avoid tediousness, we will continue the tabulated form 
adopted in the last Section. 

Bernardetti. Ghwnal« prima dell' InlSrese ...... about  592 '. 
Capaccio Dalle Impresc lrallalo, in tre 4to Napoli. • 594k 
[ibri diTdso. 
Tasso . Discorsi dol Potine 4to Napoli . . 1594 k. 
Porri . l-"aso di 7,eril«.. ddl' a,zlichristo 4to Venetia • a 597 '- 
Dalla Torre Dialo, go 4to Trivegi. • 598 k. 
Caputi . La Pomiba . 4to Napoli . • 599 k 
Zoppio . La, 4to Bologna 6oo k. 
Belloni . l)iscorso 4to Padova . 6oi k. 
Chiocci . . Ddl« imfi-csc, c dt'l 2,cm modo di ...... 6o . 
Pittoni . lmprese di div«rsi principi, &'c. fol. Venezia . 6o__. v. 
Ripa . . Iconologi«, &-,c., Co«c,'lli, E»t- 4to Rolna . • 6o 3 V. 
blcmi, ed Imprese. 

Voenius . 


,, ,, ,, ,, 4to Siena • 1613 t. 
• Amorum 'mblemal«, in Latin, obl. 4to Antverp. . 16o8k. 1. 
English, and Italian. 
• Discorsi mor«li.., contra il 4to Venetia . 6o 9 7,. 
dispiacer de/morD-«, .-c. 

sEcï. IV.] #']d03[ A.D. 59 o _7'0 161.5. 93 

Giulio Cesare Capaccio, besides lais Neapolitan History, and 
one or two other works, is also the author of I1 2Prbtci«, 
Venetia, I62O, a trcatise on the I£mblems of ±\lciatus, with more 
than 2oo political and moral notices. Torquato Tasso is a 
naine that needs no praise here. Of Alessio l'orri I bave found 
no other 1nention ; and I may say the saine of Gio. Dalla Torre, 
of Ottavio Caputi, and of Gio. Belloni. lXIelchior Zoppio, born 
in 1544 at Bologna (Bio. UnA,. vol. lii. p. 43o), was one of the 
founders of the Academia di Gelati, in lais native town. Battisti 
Pittoni was a painter and engraver, who flourished between I56 
and I585. The extensive work of Cesare Ripa of Perugia, 
which has passed through about twenty editions in Italian, 
Latin, Dutch, Spanish, German, and English, is alphabetically 
arranged, and treats of nearly 8oo different subjects, with about 
;oo devices. Otho van Veen, or Voenius, belongs to Holland, 
hot to Italy,--and lais naine appears here simply because lais 
Fmb]cms of Loz,e were translated into Italian. Fabio Glissenti 
in I6O9 introduced into his work (Brunet, iii. c. 256, 7) twenty- 
four of the plates out of the forty-one which adorned an Italian 
edition of the Images of ,wtl¢ in 1545" 

Desprez . Théatre des animau.r. . . actiots 
de la ,ie humaine. 
Boissart. . .[ascarad«s r«cueilli«s, Geyn 
(J. de) Opera. 
Embleslnes. Em3[esmes sus les A ctions--dtt 
Hynmes . Hymnes des vertus.., ri, o" belh's 
cl délicah's figures. 
Voenius . . Amorum mb&maht (Latin, 
Italian, and French). 
Vasseur . . Les Devises des E@ereurs 
Romains, c. 
,, Les Dcdses des Rois de France. 
Valencc . . 'mb[«smcs sur les .4,ldousdtt 
Sç¢wr &pagnoL 

4to Paris . 1595 v. 
4to ... 1597 7,. 
l'2mo Mildelbourg. I6o 5 k. 
8vo Lyon I6O 5 z,. 
4to Antverpiœe 1608 
8VO Paris I6o8 t. 
... Paris I6O 9 v. 
8vo ... 16o8 

94 .EA[]¢ZE_/][-.OOA" ZITE]¢A TU]ïE. [CISAPo ] I. 

Rollenhagen Les 15mblemes . . . mis et e,ers 4to 
Dinet . Les cizq Livres des Hi¢rogly - 4to 
De Bry . . 1-'ottrtraicl de la çosmogra;bhie 4to 

Coloniœe 161 I 
Paris 1614 
Francfort 6x4 

Robert Boissart, a French engraver (Bryan, p. 9 o) flourished 
about I59o, and is said to bave rcsided some rime in England. 
Of Vœenius, so well known, there is no occasion to speak here. 
Jacques de Vasscur was archdeacon of Noyolb cclebrated as the 
birth-place of Calvin, and in 6o8 also published another work 
in French verse, Alt¢i¢hiscs, oz, Çou¢rcobztcs du Ciel & dt" la 
Tcrre. Desprez and Valcnce are unknown save by their books 
of Emblems. Pierre Dinet is very bricfly named in Bioff. UMz,. 

vol. ii. p. 37; and Rollenhagen and 
Callia . . 2F»zblemaht sacra, e libris 3mo 
AIosis e.rcer;bta. 
Borcht . t 9. O7,idii _A'asonis 
Stimmer . . l«ones A.bre 
Mercerius . Embleiala . 
De Bry . 2Fmblemata uobililale el 
r,ulffo scilu di, çna. 
,, . Ei«blemata secularia . 
Freitag . F'iridiaritm A[oralis tghiL 
er f«bdas, 8c. 
Taurellius . »«blema;b]sico-ellzica, 8_c. 8vo 
Boissard . Theah'um "vit« 1-[ttmat(e 4to 
Franceschino Hori A;bollinis selecht hiero- 6mo 

De Bry will be mentioned 

Ait'la- obl. 16mo Antverpiœe 

Heidelbergœe 59Lk. 
• I591 L 
... Strasburg . 1591 "i',. 
4to I3ourges . . 59 - L 
obl. 4to Francof. . 1592 ,. 
4to ,, 1593 
4to Coloniœe . . 1594  
lorimbergœe 1595 -. 

lkletz . 596 l. 
Romœe . 1597 z,. 

4to Francof.. . 1596 t'. k. 

4to lXlorimbergœe 597b.c.L 
4to Francof.. , 1597 " 
4to Antverpirc . 16Ol l. b. 

Scv. IV.] FROAf A..D. 59 o TO I6i 5. 95 


• Occas/o arrehz, neff/ecla,c. 
• Z'ancarlbiu»t 3[ari«nu»t 
• ,][essis myrrhœe el aroma- 
,, . Paradisus sousi et 
,, . Dvodecim SecvA, c. 
Sadder, g. Smbola Dh,ina 
Pont fmer., c. 
,, Symb. Div. eL ltm., 
lsaffoffe ac. T)olii. 
Passoeus . A[«hmorbosen Ouidiana- 
rltnt O'ç c. 
Epidigma . mb&matum hilomilæ 
Thilonie idigma. 
Vœenius . . Horatii mb&»taht, imaffi- 
nibus (ciii.) in oes incisis. 
, . Atorz,t ltblemaht, i- 
ffvris oeneis incisa. 
,, . Amoris Divini tble'ntata 
Pignorius . I Cuslissimoe 
sao'is ffAtiort«m 
lacris celait ealicalio. 
,, Cltaracleres «oeAtH .. per 
o. Th. et 1o. Isr. de 
Sadeler, g. Theah'um torltm. Arlliche 
ffesrd«h d«r Thœeer met 
wah.n Hislorœen, c. 
Broecmer . »tblemala moralia et oeco- 
Aleander . Explicatio attiçU Fabuloe 
ltarlltol'¢ Solis 
smbolisque ea'sculloe, c. 
Rollenhagen Aclevs Emb&m«tum 

Hillaire. . Sec,lvm HeroicT,m--Ho- 
À Bruck . Emblemala moraliaetbellica 

4to Antverpioe . 16o 5 c. l. 
8vo ,, I6o7 L 
8vo ,, 16o7 . 
8vo ,, i6o 7 k. 
8vo ,, 16IO l. 
fo1. Prague . I6OO k. 
fol. Francof.. . i6oi, 2, 3 k. 
obl. 4to ... I6O2 t. 
4to ... 16o 3 v. 
4to Antuerp . . 6o 7 k. 
4to Antuerpiœe . 6o8 L b 
4to Antuerpiœe . 16 5 t. 
4to Venetia . . 6o 5 v. 

4to Francofurti I6O8 v. 
4to Pragœe . I6O8. 

4to Arnhemi. . 16o 9 L 
4to Romoe . 16I k. 

4to Coloniœe . . I6II=I3C.L 
4to Arnhemi . 6 5 k. 
4to Traject. Bat. 613 c. 
4to Argentinoe . 6 5 

Peter Vander ]3orcht, born at ]3russels about A.D. I540, 
engraved numerous works, and among them I78 prints for this 

96 E3It?LEIII-]7OOA" LITER.d TUt?E. [ÇnAv. 1 I. 

edition of Ovid. The Stimmers have been mentioned before, 
p. 90. Jean Mercier, born at Uzès in Languedoc, wrote the 
Latin version of the l-[icrogl3'thics of Horapollo, Paris, x548,-- 
but probably it was lais son Josias whose Emblems are mcn- 
tioned under the year x59-', and who dates them from Bruges. 
Theodore De Bry, born at Liege in 5z8 (Bryan, p. x t9), carried 
on the business of an engraver and bookscller in Francfort, 
where he died in x598. He was greatly assisted by lais sons 
John Theodore and Jolm Israel. Thc Proccssio of the IçMght« 
of t/ce G«rt'r b 566, and that at the tt«cral of Sir Philit 
Sidnc3', are his workmanship. Nicolas Taurellius was a 
student, and afterwards professor of Physic and Mcdicine in 
the University of Altorf in Franconia. An oration of his appears 
in the tYmblemata _dnM.z,o'sarh, of that institution. He was 
named " the German Philosopher." Denis le Bey de Batilly 
appears to have been royal president of the Consistory of lIetz. 
John David, born at Courtray in Flanders, in 546, entered the 
Society of the Jesuits, and was rector of the colleges of Courtray, 
Brussels, and Ghent; he died in x6 3. Aïgidius Sadeler, 
known as the Phcenix of engravers, was a native of Antwerp, 
born in 57o, the nephew and disciple of the two eminent 
engravers John and Raphael Sadeler. He enjoyed a pension 
from three successive emperors, Rodolphus II., l\Iatthias, and 
Ferdinand II. Of Crispin de Passe, born at Utrecht about 56o, 
Bryan (p. 548) says, " Ite was a man of letters, and not only 
industrious to perfect himself in his art, but fond of promoting 
it." His works were nllnel-OUS, and have examples in the 
Emblem-books of his day. Otho van Veen, of a distinguished 
family, was born at Leyden in 556. After a residence of seven 
years in Italy, he established himself at Antwerp, and had the 
rare claire to celebrity that Rubens became his disciple. In his 
Emblem-works the designs were by himself, but the engravings 
by his brother Gilbert van Veen. (Bryan, p. 853, 4-) Lawrencc 

SECTo IV ] //O.|I M.D. 59 o TO 6 5. 97 

Pignorius, born at Padua, I57I , and educated at the Jesuits' 
school and the university of that city, gained a high reputation 
by several learned vorks, and esp£cially by those on Egyptian 
antiquities. He died of the plague in I63I. The vork of 
Richard Lubboeus Broecmer, is little more than a reprint of one 
by Bernard Furmer, in I575, Ou thc Usc altd Abusc of lVcalth. 
Jerome Aleander, nephew of one of Luther's stoutest opponents, 
the Cardinal Aleander, was of considerable literary reputation at 
Rome, being a member of the society of Itumourists, estab- 
lished in that city,--his death was ill 63I. According to 
Oetlinger's brief notice, Bibliog. iogra?h. Udv., Gabriel Rollen- 
hagen, of Magdeburg, was a German schoohnaster, born in 
I542, and dying in 6o9; his Kcrud of Fmb[«,¢s is well illus- 
trated by Crispin de Passe. The saine "excellent engraver" 
adorned Tac $Zirror of ]crocs, founded on Homer's Iliad by "le 
sieur de la Rivière, Isaac Hillaire." Both Latin and French 
verses are appendcd to the Emblems, and at their end are curious 
" Epitaphs on the Heroes who fell in the Trojan war," too late, 
it is to be feared, to afford any gratification to their immediate 
friends. To Jacobus à Bruck, surnamed of Angermunde, a tmvn 
of Brandenberg, there belongs another Emblem-book, Fmblc- 
mata Politica, Cologne, I68. In it are briefly demonstrated the 
duties which belong to princes; it is dedicated "to his most 
merciful Prince and Lord, the Emperor Matthias I., 'semper 

De Bry. 



• Emblemata Secvlaria--rhylhmis 4to 
G¢,wtanicis, &'c. 
,, ,, ,, ,, 4to 
• Sha¢sfliel 3[etschliches Leb«,ts 4to 
Theatrum morltllt. A rtliche 4to 
ge@rdch do" Thier, &'c. 
• Cltristclii«be 4to 

Francofurti 596 v. 
Oppenhemii 1611 t. 
Franckf.  597 v. 
Praga 6o8 ,, 

Antuerp 16o 3 Z: 

98 E3[t?LE3[-t?OOK LITERA TURE. [ClaAP. II. 

4to Amstel. • I6O 3 
obl. 4to Amsterod. • 16o6 
obl. 4to Lugd. Bat.. 1613 
4to Amstelred. • 16o8 
obl. 4to ... I6IO 
obl. 4to Amsterd. I 61 I 
Amstcrdam. 1613 

4to Amsterdam. 1614 
I2mo Amsterdam. 1614 

De Bry, Sadeler, David, and Vzenius have been mentioned 
in page 96 . Theocritus à Ganda is known for this work, 
The [irror of virtuotts lUomit, for wlfich Jost de Hondt 
executed the fine copper-plates that accompany it; and also 
for t?mblcmata .dmatoria Nova, published at Amsterdam in 
6o8, and at Leyden in 6I 3. The LittIe lUorld, by Jan 
Moerman, is of the saine class with Le [icrocosmc, Lyons, 56-', 
by Maurice de Sceve; or with " MIKPOKOEMO-, '' Antwerp, 
1584 and 594, and which Sir Wm. Stirling-Maxwell attributes 
to Henricus Costerius of Antwerp. Thc _/Vczv .firror of Yottt]t, 
16IO ; The Z)clincations, 6I I ; T/w gohtcn Ship of t/w Art- 
lovUtg Nctherlamtcr .flnished, 1613; and Bcllcro2hon, or l:'lca- 
sure of |Visdom, I614; are ail anonymous. Roemer van 
Visscher, born at Amsterdam in 1547 (Biog. Unir. vol. xlix. 
p. 276), is of high celebrity as a Dutch poet,with Spiegel 
and Co6rnhert, he was one of the chief restorers of the Dutch 
language, and an immediate predecessor of the two illus- 
trious poets of Holland, Cornelius van Hooft and Josse du 

SECT. IV.] FOI A.1). 159o 'O 1615. 99 

De Soto . Embh'mas 3[oralizad«s. 8vo Madrid . 1599 t. b. 
Voenius . .dtorttTlt otb[emaht. (Latin and 4to Antucrpiœe . 16o8 v. 
Spanish verses). 
,, . tmoris divini tDtb .... his2batice , 4to ,, 1615  
Orozco . .Emblemas 3[oralcs 4to Madrid . . 1610/. k, 
Villava . .E»rt'sas .Esjbirilual«sy «[oral«s. 4to Baeça 1613 b. 

Hernando de Soto xvas auditor and comptroller for the 
King of Spain in lais house of Castile. A_t the end are stanzas 
of three verses each, in Latin and Spanish on alternate pages, 
"to our Lady the Virgin." Don Sebastian de Couarrubias 
Orozco was chaplain to the King of Spain, schoohnaster and 
canon of Cuenca, and adviser of the Holy Office. Both Soto and 
Orozco dedicate their works to Don Francisco Gomez de Sala- 
doual, Duke of Lerma. Juan Francisco de Villava dedicates his 
first Elnblem "to the Holy and General Inquisition of Spain." 
Neither of the three names occurs in the Biographies to which 
I have access. 

P. S.. The tt«roicall D««,ises of 3L 
Clavdi,s Paradt)t. 
XVyrley . T/te lrlte use of.4 i"inorie, shêwed 
by kisloric, and blainly 
pro,ed by exale. 
V'illet . SacroroE,in mbleinalT,in Cen- 
l,ria vlta, g,c. 4 C«nlury 
of Sacrt'd titbliits. 
Crosse . Crose his CooE,crt, or a Proso- 
ib@a'icaH Tre'aNse. 
Vœenius . . Amorum Emblemata (Latin. 
English, and Italian). 
Guillim . . A Di@lay of Heraldly . 
Peacham . .]IinêrŒE,a )3ritanna, or a Gardcn 
of Heroical Deuises, 
Yates, MS.. The Emblcms of Alcia[us Dz 
English ,crsc. 

8vo London . . I591 c. 
4to London . . 1592 '. 

4to Cambridge. , 598 ,. 

MS.. About i6oo c. 
4to Antverpioe . 16o8 b. L 
fol. London . . I6I I . 
4to London . . 1612 '. t'. . 
MS.. About I61o L 


William Wyrley's True use of Arms, was reprinted in I853. 
In Censm'a Lit., i. p. 313, Samuel Egerton 13rydges gives a 
pleasing account of the character of Andrew \Villet, whom 
Fuller ranks among England's worthies (vol. i. p. 238). Of John 
Crosse himself, nothing is known, but his MS. is certainly 
hot later than Elizabeth's reign, for the royal arms, at p. 33, 
are of earlier date than the accession of the Stuarts ; and the 
allusion to the Belgian dames, pp. 2--6, agrees with her rimes. 
The work contains 12o shields and devices, and was lent me by 
my very steadfast friend in Emblem lore, Mr. Corser of Stand. 
At pp. Io and 37, it is said,-- 


" In Troynovant a famous schoole was founde 
By famous Citizens ; whilome the grounde 
Of noble Boone "" 

"To traine vp youth in tongues fewe might compare 
XVith Mulcaster, whose faine shall never fade." 

Now it was in I56I Richard Mulcaster, of King's College, 
Cambridge, and of Christchurch, Oxford, was appointed head 
toaster of Merchant-Taylor's School in London, then just 
founded. (Warton, iii. 282.) Thus it is shown to be very 
probable that Crosse his Covert may take date hot later than 
A.P. 6oo. It may be added that at the end of the MS. the 
figure of Fortune, or Occasion, on a wheel, is almost a fac-simile 
from Whitney's Device, p. 81, which was itself struck ff'oto the 
block (Emb. 12I. p. 438 ) of Plantin's edition of A_lciatus, 
MDLXXXI. Jolm Guillim's work on ]-Iiraldy passed through 
rive editions previous to that of Capt. John Logan, in 1724 ; the 
original folio is one of the book-treasures at Keir. Henry 
Peacham, ]I_ç - of Artes, as he terres himself, was a native of 
Leverton in Holland, in the county of Lincoln, and a student 
under "the right worshipfull Mr. D. Laifeild," in Trinity College, 
Cambridge. He has dedicated his work "to the Right High 

SECT. IV.] RO./]/- .,z]../. 1590 TO 16I S. lOI 

and Mightie Henrie, Eldest Sonne of our Soveraigne Lord the 
Singular it is, that except the IIS. which belonged to the late 
Joseph B. Yates, of Liverpool, there is hot known to exist any 
translation into English of the once famous Embl«ms of 
Alciattts. That IIS. (see Tratsact. Liï,er:ool L. atd I ). SocicO', 
Nov. 5, I849)"appears to be of the time of James the First." 
The Devices are dravn and coloured, and have considerable 
resemblance to those in Rapheleng's edition of Alciatus, I6O8. 
As a specimen we add the translation of Emblem XXXIII. 
P- 39, "Signa fortium." 

" O Saturn's birde ! what cause doth thee incyte 
Upon Aristom's tombe so highe to sitt ? 
' As I ail other birds excell in mighte-- 
So doth Aristom, Lords, in strength and witt. 
Let fearful Dores on cowards' tombs take test- 
\Ve Eagles stoute to stoute men give a crest.'" 

How pleasant to feel that this Sketch of Emblem-books and 
their authors, previous to and during the times of Shakespeare, 
has been brought to an end. "Vina coronant," fill a bt«,«r, 
" let the sparkling glass go round." 
The difficulty really has been to compless. The materials 
collected xvere most abundant. From curiously or artistically 
arranged title pages,--from various dedications,--from devices 
admirably designed or of wondrous oddity,--and from the 
countless collateral subjects among which the Emblem writers 
and their commentators disported themselves, the temptations 
were so rich to wander off here and there, that it was necessary 
continually to remember that it was a veritable sketch I was 
engaged on and not a universal history. I lashed myself there- 
fore to the mast and sailed through a whole sea of syrens, deaf, 
though they charmed ever so sweetly to make me sing with 
them of emperors and kings, of popes and cardinals, of the 

L/TE, RATURE. [C,P. Il. 

learned and the gay, who appeared to believe that everyone's 
literary salvation depended on the contrivance of a device and 
the interpretation of an emblem. 
Had I known where to refer my readers for a general view of 
my subject, either brief or prolix, I should have spared myself the 
labour of compiling one. The results are, that, previous to the year 
I616, the Emblem Literature of Europe could claim for its oxwa 
at least 300 authors, not including translators, and that above 
770 editions of original texts and of versions had issued from 
the press.* 
If Shakespeare knev nothing of so wide-spread a literature it 
is very wonderful ; and more wondrous far, if knowing, he did 
not inweave some of the threads into the very texture of his 
In this Sketch of Emblem writers, it will be perceived, 
though their names are seldom heard of except among the 
nntiquaries of letters, that, as n class, they were men of deep 
erudition, of considerable natural power, and of large attain- 
ments. To the literature of their age they were as much 
ornaments as to the literature of out modern rimes are the 
works, illustrated or otherwise, with which out hours of leisure 
are wont tobe both amused and instructed. No one who is 
ignorant of them can possess a full idea of the intellectual 
treasures of the more cultivated nations of Europe about the 
period of which the works of _Alciatus and of Giovio are the 
types. We may be learned in its controversies, well read in 
its ecclesiastical and political history, intimate even with the 
characters and pursuits of its great statesmen and sovereins, 
and strong as well as enlightened in out admiration of its 

* Since the above was written I have good reasons for concluding that the fact is 
very much understated. I ara now employed, as rime allows, in forming an Index to 
my various notes and references to Emblerr, writers and their works : the Index so 
far ruade comprises the letters A, ]3, C, D (ver), prolific letters indeed), and they 
present 33o writers and translators, and above 9o0 editions. 

SEca-. IV.] tz]dOilf A.Z). 59 o 2"0 I6 5. 303 

painters, statuaries, poets, and other artistic celebrities, but ve 
are not baptized into its perfect spirit unless ve knov what 
entertainment and refreshing there vere for men's minds when 
serious studies were intermitted and the veighty cares and 
business of life for a while laid aside. 
Take up these Emblem writers as great statesmen and 
victorious commanders did ; read thcm as did the recluse in his 
study and the man of the vorld at his recreation ; search into 
them as some did for good morals suitable to the guidance of 
their lives, and as others did for snatches of vit and learning 
fitted to call forth their merriment; and see, amid divers 
conceits and many quaintnesses, and hot a few inanities and 
vanities, hov richly the fancy vas indulged, and hov freely the 
play of genius vas alloved; and then vill you bc better 
prepared to estinaate the vhole litcrature of the nations of that 
busy, stirring rime, when authorities were questioned that had 
reigned unchallenged for centuries, and men's minds were 
avakened to ail the advantages of learning, and their tastes 
formed for admiring the continually varying charms of the 
poet's song and the artist's skill. 
True; those strange turns of thought, those playings upon 
mere words, those fan_ciful dreamings, those huntings up and 
down of some unfortunate idea through ail possible and impos- 
sible doublings and vindings, are not approved either by a purer 
taste, or by a better-trained-judgment. Ve have outgrovn the 
customs of those logo-maniacs, or word-vorshippers, vhom old 
Ralph Cudvorth, in his True Zutell«ctual S,stcz of thc Univcrse, 
p. 67, seems to have had in viev, when he affirms, "that they 
could not make a Rational Discourse of anything, though never 
so small, but they must stuff it vith their Quiddities, Entities, 
Essences, Hoecceities, and the like." 
But at the revival of literature, vhen the ancient learning 
vas devoured without being digested, and the modern investiga- 

 04 ']I'Z',]/-13 OOA" JLITIRA I'UI¢tL [c" HAP. I l. 

tions were hot always controlled by sound discretion,--when the 
child was as a giant, and the giant disported himself in fantastic 
gambols,--we must hOt wonder that compositions, both prose 
and poetic, were perpetrated which receive unhesitatingly from 
the higher criticism the sentence of condemnation. But in 
condemning let not the folly be committed of despising and 
undervaluing. "Ve may devotedly love out more advanced 
civilization, out finer sensibilities, and out juster estimate of 
what true taste for the beautiful demands, and yet we may 
accord to out leaders and fathers in learning and refinement the 
no unworthy commendation, that, with their means and in their 
day, they gave a mighty onxvard movement to those literary 
pursuits and pleasures in which the powers of the fancy heighten 
the glow of out joy, and the resources of accurate knowledge 
bestoxv an abiding worth upon out intellectual labours. 

,-çap»tbucz«s, x564. 

Cmxp. III.] ;tL4ASPIçIR'S ATTALLrF.V7"S. io 5 



MONG some warm admirers of Shake- 
speare it has hot becn unusual to depre- 
ciate lais learning for the purpose of 
exalting his genius. It is thought that 
intuition and inborn power of mind 
accomplished for him what othcrs, less 
favoured by the inspiration of the all- 
directing \Visdom, could scarcely effect 
by their utmost and lire-patient labours. The worlds of nature 
and of art were spread before hin|, and out of the materials, 
with perfect ease, he fashioned new creations, calling into 
existence forms of beauty and grace, and investing them at will 
with the rare attributes of poetic fancy. 
On the very surface, however, of Shakespeare's writings, in 
the subjects of lais dramas and in the structure of their respective 
plots, though we may not find a perfectly accurate scholarship, 
we have ample evidence that the choicest literature of his native 
land, and, through translations at least, the ample stores of 
Greece and of Italy were open to lais mind. \Vhether his scenes 
be the plains of Tro}5 the river of Egypt, the walls of Athens, or 
the capitol of Rome, lais learning is amply sufficient for the 
occasion; and though the critic may detect incongruities and 


errors,* they are probably hot greater than those which many a 
finished scholar falls into when he ventures to describe the 
features of countries and cities which he has hot actually visited. 
The heroes and heroines of pagan mythology and pagan 
history, the veritable actors in ancient times of the world's great 
drama,--or the more unreal characters of fairy land, of the 
veird sisterhood, and of the vizard fl-aternity,--these ail stand 
before us instinct with life.f .And from the old legends of 
Venice, of Padua and Verona,--flom the traditionary lofe of 
England, of Denmark, and of Scotland,or from the more 
truth-like delineations of his strictly historical plays, we may of 
a certainty gather, that his reading was of wide extent, and that 
with a student's industry he ruade it subservient to the illustra- 
tion and faithfulness of poetic thought. 
Trusting, as we may do in a very high degree, to Douce's 
Illtstralions of Shakspcare and of A,tci,'nt _aAz,mcrs (2 vols., 
London, x8o7), or to the still more elaborate and erudite work 
of Dr. Nathan Drake, Shal«spcarc and his Timcs (2 vols., 4to, 
London, I817) , we need hot hesitate at resting on Mr. Capel 
Lofft's conclusion, that Shakespeare possessed "a very reason- 
able portion of Latin ; he was hot wholly ignorant of Greek ; he 

« We select an instance conlmon to both Holbein and Shakespeare ; it is pointed 
out by \Voltmann, in his Iollmiz and his Time, vol. il. p. 23, where, speaking of the 
llolbein painting, The Z)eath ofLucr«ti«, the writer says,--" The costmne is here, as 
ever, that of Holbein's own time. The painter remlnds us of Shakespeare, who also 
conceived the heroes of classic antiquity in the costume of his o n days ; in the fidius 
Cœeesar the troops are drawn up by beat of drum, and Coriolanus cornes forth like an 
English lord : but the histc.rical signification of the subject nevertheless does in a 
degree become understood, vhich the later poetry, with every instrument of 
archoeological learning, troubles itself in vain to reach." 
It may be noted that in other instances both Wornmn, the English biographer of 
Holbein, and Woltmann, the German, compare Holbein and Shakespeare, or, 
rather, illustrate the one by the other. 
+ As when Cooper, at the tomb of Shakespeare, describes it, 
'" The scene then chnng'd from thls romantic land, 
To a bleak waste by bound'ry unconfin'd, 
"Where three swart sisters of the welrd hand 
Were mutt'ring curses to the troub]ous wind." 

had a knowledge of French, so as to read it xvith ease; and I 
believe not less of the Italian. He was habitually conversant 
with the chronicles of lais country. He lived with wise and 
highly cultivated men, with Jonson, Essex, and Southampton, 
in familiar friendship." (See Drake, vol. i. pp. 32, 33, 
And again, " It is not easy, with due attention to lais poems, to 
doubt of lais having acquired, when a boy, no ordinary facility 
in the cl«ssic Ianguage of Rome; though his knowledge of it 
might be small, comparatively, to the knowledge of that great 
and indefatigable scholar, Ben Jonson." 
Dr. Drake and !Ir. Capel Lofft differ in opinion, though hOt 
very widely, as to the extent of Shakespeare's knowledge of 
Italian literature. The latter declares, " !Hy impression is, that 
Shakespeare was not unacquainted with the most popular 
authors in ]tali«zz¢ irosc, and that his ear had listened to the 
enchanting tones of P«r«rca, and some others of their great 
poets." _And the former affirms, that " From the evidence which 
lais genius and lais works affol'd, lais acquaintance with the 
French and Italian languages was hOt merely confined to the 
picklng up a falMliar ?lcrasc ot" tzc, o from the conversation or 
writings of others, but that he had actually commenced, and at 
an early period too, the study of these languages, though, from 
lais situation, and the circumstances of his lire, he had neither 
the means, nor the opportunity, of cultivating them to any 
considerable extent." (See Drake, vol. i. pp. 54, 1cote, and 
57, 58.) 
Now the Emblem-writers of the slxteenth century, and 
previously, made use chiefly of the Latin, Italian, and French 
languages. Of the Emblem-books in Spanish, German, Flemish, 
Dutch, and English, only the last vould be available for Shake- 
speare's benefit, except for the suggestions which the engravings 
and woodcuts might supply. It is then well for us to under- 
stand that lais attainments with respect to language were 

sufficicut fo enable him to study this branch of literature, which 
before his da3-, aud in his da3,, was so widely spread through all 
the more civilized couutries of Europe. He possessed the 
mental apparatus which gave him power, should inclination or 
fortune lead him therc, to cultivate the ,z,iridiaria, the pleasant 
blooming gardens of emblem, device, and symbol. 
Even if he had hot been able to read the Emblem writers in 
their original languages, undoubtedly ho would mect with their 
works in the society in which he moved and among the learned 
of his native land. As we have seen, he was in familiar ffiend- 
ship with the Earl of Essex. To that uobleman \Villet, lu 1598, 
had dcdicated his çacrat mbl«ms. Of men of Devereux's 
stamp, several had become acquainted with the Emblem Litera- 
ture. To lais rival, Robert Dudley, the Earl of Leicester, 
Whitney devoted the ç'/wic« f .-bl«mcs, 586; in 58o, Beza 
had honoured the young Jalnes of Scotland with the foremost 
place iu lais l»ortraits of Ilhstrious [cu, to which a set of 
Emblems were appended ; Sir Philip Sidney, during lais journey 
on the continent, 57I575, became acquainted with the 
xvorks of the Italian emblematist, Ruscelli; and as early as 
t 549, it was " to the very illustrious Prince James earl of Arran 
in Scotlaud," that " Barptolemy Aneau " commended his French 
version of Alciat's classic stanzas. 

Aud were it hot a fact, as we can show it to be, that Shake- 
speare quotes the very mottoes and describes the very drawings 
which the Emblem-books contain, we might, from his highly 
cultivated taste in other re.pects, not unreasonably conclude 
that he must both have known them and have used them. His 
information and exquisite judgment extended to works of 
highest art,--to sculpture, painting, and music, as well as to 
literature. There is, perhaps, no description of statuary extaut 
so admirable for its truth and beauty as the lines quoted by 

CHAP. 1II.] A.VD OPPO]I'U.NI}']Eç. io 9 

Drake, p. 617, from the ll'illl,'r's Talc,* " where Paulina unveils 
to Leontes the supposed statue of Hermione." 

« PaulDza. As she lived peerless, 
So her dead likeness, I do well believe, 
Exccls vhatever yet you look'd upon, 
Or hand of lnan hath donc ; therefore I keep it 
Lonely, apart. But here it is : prepare 
To see the life as lively mock'd as ever 
Still sleep mock'd death : behold, and say 'tis well. 
[PAt'LNA dra2vs a curtain, and di«cers 
standing lime a statue. 
I lime your silence, it the more shows off 
Your wonder : but yet speak ; first, you, my liege. 
Cornes it hOt SOlncthing ncar  
Leon&'s. l Icr natural posture 
Chide me, dear stone, that I lnay say indeed 
Thou art Hermione ...... 
O, thus she stood,ç 
Even with such life of majesty, warm life, 
As nov it coldly stands, when first I woo'd her  
I ara ashamed : does not the stone rebuke me 
For being more stone than it ? 

Paul No longer shall you gaze on't, lest your fancy 
May think anon it moves. 
Lco,t. Let be, let be. 
XVould I were dead, but that, methinks, already-- 
XVhat was he that did make it ? See, my lord, 
XVould you not deem it breathed ? and that those veins 
Did verily bear blood ? 
Paul Masterly done : 
The very life seems warm upon ber !ip. 
Lcon. The fixure of ber eye has motion in't, 
As we are mock'd with art ..... 
Still, methinks 

a, Act v. sc. 3, lines 14--84, Cambridge edition, vol iii. pp. 422-25 . 
"i- The ivory statue changed into a woman, which Ovid describes, .a[etamorAhoses, 
bk. x. fab. viii. 12 --I6, is a description of kindred excellence to that of Shakespeare: 
" Sœepe manus operi tentantes admovet, an sit 
Corpus, an illud ebur : nec ebur tamen esse fatetur. 
¢ lscula dat, reddique putat ; loquiturque, tenetq le ; 
Et credit tactis digitos insidere membris : 
Et metuit, presos veniat ne livor in artus." 

IIO 57[.4k'SPMldE'S ATT.dlNII[£2VTS [CHAr. III. 

There is an air colnes ri'oto her: what fine chiscl 
Could ever yet cut breath ? Let no n,'tn mock me, 
For I will kiss ber. 
tattl. Good my lord, forbear : 
The ruddiness upon ber lip is wet ; 
You'll mar it if)'ou kiss it ; stain your own 
"With oily painting. Shall I draw the curtain ? 
Leon. No, hOt these twenty years. 
t'«rdil«. So long could l 
Stand by, a looker on." 
This exquisite piece of statuary is asclibed by Shakespeare 
(lVintcr's Talc, act v. sc. 2, 1. 8, vol. iii. p. 420) to " that rare 
Italian toaster Julio RonaallO, vcho, had he himself eternity, and 
could put breath into lais work, would beguile Nature of her 
custom, so perfectly is hc her ape: he so near to Hermione 
bath done Hermione, that they say one would speak to her, and 
stand in hope of answer." 
According to Kugler's " GESCHICHTE DER ,]ALEREI,"-- 
History ofPabzthg (Berlin, I847, vol. i. p. 64I),--Julio Romalao 
was one of the most renowned of Raphael's scholars, born about 
1492, and dying in 1546. "Giulio war ein Ktinstler von 
ristigem, lebendig, bewegtem, keckem Geiste, begabt mit einer 
Leichtigkeit der Hand, welche den Mihnen und rastlosen 
]3ildern seiner Plmntasie tiberall Leben und Dasein zu geben 
xvusste." * 
His earlier works are to be round at Rome, Genoa, and Dres- 
den. Soon after Raphael's death he xvas employcd in Mantua 
both as an architect and a painter; and here exist some of his 
choice productions, as the Hunting by Diana, the frescoes of the 
Trojan War, the histories of Psyche, and other Love-tales of the 
gods. Pictures by him are scattered over Europe,--some at 
Venice, some in the sacristy of St. Peter's, and in other places in 

* "Julio was an artist of vigorous, lively, active, feafless spirit, gifled with a light- 
ness of hand which knew how to impart life and being to the bold and restless images 
of his fancy." The saine volmne, pp. 64I-5, continues the acconnt of Romano. 


Rome ; some in the Louvre, and some in the differcnt collections 
of England,* as the Jupitcr among the Nymphs and Corybantes. 
Whether any of lais works were in England during the reign of 
Elizabeth, we cannot affirm positivcly ; but as there were "sixtcen 
by Julio Romano" in the fine collection of paintings at Whitehall, 
ruade, or, rather, increased by Charles I., ofwhich Henry VIII. 
had formed the nucleus, it is very probable thcre were in England 
some by that toaster so early as the writing of the lVbzter's Tah; 
or even belote, in which, as we have seen, he is expressly namcd. 
It may therefore be reasonably conjectured that in thc statue of 
Hermione Shakespeare has accurately described some figure 
which he had scen in one of Julio Romano's paintings. 

The saine rare appreciation of the beautiful appears in the 
Cymbdb¢e, act ii. sc. 4, lines 68--74 ' 81185, 87--9 I, vol. ix. 
pp. 2o7, 2o8, where the poet describcs the adornmcnts of Imogen's 

chmnber :-- 

" It was hang'd 
\Vith tapestry of silk and silver ; the story 
Proud Cleopatra, when she met her Roman, 
And Cydnus swell'd above the banks, or for 
The press of boats, or pride : a piece of work 
So bravely done, so rich, that it did strive 
In workmanship and value ...... 
And the chimney-piece 
Chaste Dian, bathing :ç never saxv I figures 
So likely to report themsclves : the cutter 
\Vas as another naturc, dumb ; outwent her, 
Motion and breath left out ....... 
The roof o' the chamber 
With golden cherubins is fretted : her andirons-- 
I had forgot them--were two winking Cupids 
Of silver, each on one foot standing, nicely 
Depending on their brands." 
* " An important one," says Kugler, " at Lord Northwick's, in London " 
1" Two of Titian's large paintings, nov in the Bridgewater Gallery, represent 
" Diana and her Nymphs bathing." (See Kugler, vol. il. p. 44.) 

No, in the T«mh«g of the Shr,'w, act il. sc. I, lines "'e--'A8 
,3.3 D'-t- , 
vol. iii. p. 45, Gremio enumcrates the furniture of his house in 

Padua :-- 

" Virst, as you know. my house within the city 
ls richly furnishcd with plate and gold ; 
Basins and ewers to lave ber dainty hands ; 
My hangings ail of Tyrian tapestry ; 
In ivory coffcrs I have stuff'd my crowns ; 
In cypress chcsts my arras counterpoints, 
Costly apparcl, tents, and canopies, 
Fine linen, Turkey cushions boss'd with pcarl, 
Valance of Venice gold in needlework, 
Pewter and brass and all things that belong 
To house or housckeeping." 

And Hamlet, when he contrasts his father and his uncle, 
act iii. sc. 4, lines 55--62, vol. viii. p.  t I, what a force of artistic 
skill does he not display! It is indeed a poet's description, but 
it has all the power and reality of a most finished picture. The 
very form and features are presented, as if sonle limlmr, a 
perfect master of his pencil, had portrayed and coloured them :-- 

See what a g-race was seated on this brow ; 
Hyperion's curls, the front of Jove himself, 
An eye like Mars, to threaten and command ; 
A station like the herald Mercury 
New lighted on a heaven-kissing hill ; 
A combination and a form indecd, 
Where every god did seem to set his seal 
To give the world assurance of a man." 

In the A[«rchant of lénicc, too, act iii. sc. 2, lines I I5--I28 , 
VO1. ii. p. 328, when Bassanio opens the leaden casket and dis- 
covers the portrait of Portia, who but one endowed with a 
painter's inspiration could speak of it as Shakespeare does !-- 

" Fair Portia's counterfeit ! What demi-god 
Hath corne so near creation ? Move these eyes ? 
t lr whether, riding on the balls of mine, 

C t^P. I I l. ] A A-l-) OPPOR TUzXTTIF.S.   3 

Seeln they in motion ? Here are sever'd lips, 
Parted with sugar breath : so sweet a bar 
Should sunder such sweet friends. Here in ber hairs 
The painter plays the spider, and bath woven 
A golden mesh to entrap the hearts of men, 
Faster than gnats in cobwebs ; but ber eyes,-- 
How could he see to do them ? Having made one, 
Methinks it should bave power to steal both his 
And leave itself unfllrnish'd." 

Such power of estimating artistic skill authorises the suppo- 
sition that Shakespeare himself had ruade the painter's art a 
subject of more than accidental study ; else whence such expres- 
sions as those which in the ,41¢oi0,, act ii. sc. -, lines oI--2o9, 
vol. ix. p. 38, are applied to Cleopatra ?-- 

• ' For her own person. 
It beggar'd all description : she did lie 
In her pavilion, cloth-of-gold of tissue, 
O'er-picturing that Venus where we see 
The fancy outwork nature : on each side her 
Stood pretty dimpled boys, like smiling Cupids, 
Vith divers-colour'd fans, whose wind did seeln 
To glow the delicate cheeks which they did cool, 
And what they undid did." 

Or, even when sportivcly, in Tzt,«Ifth Night, act i. sc. 5, lines 
21423o, vol. iii. p. 240, Olivia replies to Viola's request, 
" Good Madam, let nie see your face,"--is it not quite in an 
artist's or an amateur's style that the answer is given ? "\Ve 
will draw the curtain and show you the picture. Look you, sir, 
such a one I was this present : is't not well done ?" 

" I-ioL Excellently done, if God did ai1. 
Oli. 'Tis in grain, sir ; 'twill endure wind and weather. 
l'io. 'Tis beauty truly blent, whose red and white 
Nature's own sweet and cunning hand laid on : 
Lady, )'ou are the cruerst she alive, 
If you will lead these graces to the grave 
And leave the world no copy. 


OIL O, sir, I will not be so hard-hearted ; I will give out divers schedules 
of my beauty : it shall be inventoricd, and every particle and utensil labelled 
to my will : as, item, two lips, indifferent red ; item, two grey eyes, with lids 
to theln ; item, one neck, one chin, and so forth." 
But from certain lines in the T«m&g of thc Shrcc, (Induc- 
tion, sc. z, lines 4758), it is evident that Shakespeare had seen 
either some of the mythological pictures by Titian, or engravings 
from them, or from similar subjects. Born in 477, and dying in 
576, in his nincty-ninth year, the great Italian artist was COla- 
temporary with a long stries of illustrious men, and his fame 
and works had shonc far bcyond their native sky. Our distant 
and thon but partially civilised England awoke to a perception of 
their beauties, and though few--if any--of Titian's paintings so 
early found a domicile in this country, yet pictures were, we are 
assured,* "a frequent dccoration in the rooms of the wealthy." 
Shakespeare even represents the Cotmtess of _Auvergne, 
 //curry 1:/., act ii. sc. 3, lines 36, 37, vol. v. p. 33, as saying to 
" Long rime thy shadow hath been thrall to me, 
For in my gallery thy picture hangs." 
The formation of a royal gallery, or collection of paintings, 
had engaged the care of Henry VIII.; and the ]3ritish nobility 
at the rime of his daughter Elizabeth's reign, " deeply read in 
classical learning, familiar with the literature of Italy, and 
polished by foreign travel," "were well qualified to appreciate 
and cultivate the true principles of taste." 

Titian, as is vell known, " displayed a singular mastery in 
the representation of nude xvomanly forms, and in this the 
witchery of his colouring is manifested with fullest powër." 
Many instances of this are to be found in his works. Two are 

* See Drake's Shakspcare and his Times, vol. ii. p.  9- 
5" See D. Franz Kugler's Hatdbuch der Geschichte der ,qh«ler«i, vol. ii. pp. 44-6. 


presented by the renowned Venus-figures at Florence, and by 
the beautiful Danae at Naples. The Cambridge gallery con- 
tains the Venus in whose form the Princess Eboli is said to 
bave been portrayed, playing the lute, and having Philip of 
Spain seated at ber side. In the Bridgewater gallery are two 
representations of Diana in the bath,--the one having the story 
of Actoeon, and the other discovering the guilt of Calisto ; and 
in the National Gallery are a Bacchus and Ariadne, and also a 
good copy, from the original at Madrid, of Vellus striving to 
hold bacl¢ Adonis from the chase. To these we may add the 
.&rming of Cupid, in the Borghese palace at Rolue, in which he 
quictly permits Venus to bind his eyes, while another Cupid 
whispering leans on ber shoulder, and tvo Graces bring forward 
quivers and bows. 
It is to such a School of Painting, or to such a toaster of 
lais art, that Shakespeare alIudes, when, in the Induction scene 
to the TamiJtg of t/w Shr«w, Christopher Sly is served and 
waited on as a lord :-- 

" Sec. Serz,. Dost thou love pictures ? we will fetch thee straight 
Adonis paintcd by a running brook. 
And Cytherea ail in sedges hid, 
XVhich seem to more and warlton with hcr breath, 
Even as the vaving sedges play with wind. 
Lord. We'll show thee Io ,as she was a maid, 
And how she was beguiled and surprised, 
As lively painted as the deed was done. 
Th»d ','t'rv. Or Daphne romning through a thorny wood, 
Scratching lier legs that one shall swear she bleeds, 
And at that sight shall sad Apollo weep, 
So worknaanly the blood and tears are drawn." 

.&mong Shakespeare's gifts xvas also the po,ver to appreciate 
the charms of melody and song. Their influence he felt, and 
their effect he most eloquently describes. He speaks of them 
with a sweetness, a gentlencss, and force which must bave had 

t16 S]]AA'Iï'S.I].'.4_R'S A TZ4 IW3IEWTS [ç'Ual'. 1II. 

counterparts iii his own nature. As ill the [idsummcr Wigrht's 
Dream, act il. sc. I, line I48, vol. il. p. 2I 5, when Oberon bids 
Puck to corne to her, 
"Thou rememberest 
Since once I sat upon a promontory, 
And heard a mermaid, on a dolphin's back, 
Uttering such dulcet and harmonious breath, 
That the rude sea grew civil at her song, 
And certain stars shot madly from their spheres 
To hear the sea-maid's music." 

And again, in the ][crcha,zt of l'ch/ce, act v. sc. , lines 
2 and 54, vol. ii. p. 360, hmv exquisite the description ! 

" \Vhen the sweet wind did gently kiss the trees, 
And they did make no noise." 

Lorenzo's discourse to Jessica is such as only a passion-warmed 
genius could conceive and utter :-- 

Hov sveet the moonlight sleeps upon this bank 
Here will we sit, and let the sounds of music 
Creep in our ears : soit stillness and the night 
Become the touches of sweet harmony. 
Sit, Jessica. Look how the fioor of heaven 
ls thick inlaid with patines of bright gold : 
There's hot the smallest orb which thou behold'st 
But in his motion like an angel sings, 
Still quiring to the young-eyed cherubins ; 
Such harmony is in immortal souls." 

And Ferdinand, in the T«mpcst, act i. sc. 2, 1. 387, vol. i. p. 20, 
after listening to Ariel's song, " Corne unto these yellow sands," 
thus testifies to its power :. 

" Where should this music be ? i' th' air, or th" earth ? 
It sounds no more : and sure it waits upon 
Some god o' th' island. Sitting on a bank, 
XYeeping again the king my father's wreck, 
This music crept by me upon the vaters 

CH^P. 1 1 I.] .4 YD OPPORY'UVITIF.A:   7 

Allaying both their fury and my passion 
With its sweet air : thence have I follow'd it, 
Or it hath drawn lne rathcr." 

Thus, from his sufficicnt command over the requisitc lan- 
guages, from his diligent reading in the litcrature of lais country, 
translated as well as original, from his opportunities of frequent 
converse with the cultivated minds of his age, and still more 
from what we havc shown him to have possessed,--accuratc 
taste and both an intelligent and a warm appreciation of thc 
principlcs and beauties of Imitative .Art,--wc conclude that 
Shakespeare found it a study congenial to his spirit and powcrs, 
to examine and apply, what was both popular and learned in 
its day,--the illustrations, by the graver's art and thc poct's pcn, 
of the proverbial wisdom which constitutes ahnost the essence of 
the Emblematical writers of the sixteenth ccntury. To him, as 
to others, their works would be sources of interest and amuse- 
ment ; and even in hours of idlcncss many a SCltilnent would 
be gathered up to be afterwards ahnost unconsciously assimi- 
lated for the mind's nurture and growth. 
When we maintain that Shakespeare hot unfrequently made 
use of the Emblem writers, we do hot mean to imply that lac 
was generally a direct copyist from them. This is seldom the 
case. But a word, a phrase, or an allusion, sufficiently demon- 
strates whence particular thoughts have been derived, and how 
they have been coloured and clothed. They have been 
gathered as flowers in a country-walk are gathered--one froln 
this hedge-side, another ri-oto that, and a third from alnong the 
standing corll, and others from the margin of some murmuring 
stream; but all have their natural beauty heightened by the 
skill with which they are blended so as to impart gracefulness 
to the vhole. Flora's gems they may be, but the enwoven 
coronal borrows its chief charm from the artistic power and 
fitness with which its parts are arranged : break the thread, or 


cut the string with which Genius has bound them together, and 
they fall into inextricable confusion--a mass of disorder--no 
longer a pride and a joy" but let them remain, as a most 
excellent skill has placed them, and for ever could we gaze on 
their loveliness. A_ matchless beauty has been achieved, and 
all the more do we value it, because upon it there is also stamped 
eternal youth. 

CHAP. IV.] /3/rB/fi].J/r-.tOO/:: I 9 




ONUMENTS, or mcmorial stones, with 
emblcmatical figures and characters 
carved upon them, are of ancient date 
in Britain as elsewherc--probably ante- 
cedent even to Christianity itself. Manu- 
scripts, too, ornamented with many a 
symbolical device, carry us back several 
hundred years. These we may dismiss 
from consideration at the present moment, and simply take up 
printed books devoted chiefly or entirely to Emblems. 
I.--Of printed F.mblem-books in the earlier time down to 
1598, when Willet's Cclztm'y of Sacr«dEmbh'ms appeared, though 
there were several iii the English language, there were only few 
of pure English origin. Watson and Barclay, in 1509, gave 
English versions of Sebastian Brant's Fool-frcight«d Shi?. Not 
later than 1536, nor earlier than 15 I7, Thc Dialogue of Crcaturcs 
moralyscd was translated " out of latyn in to our English tonge." 
In 1549, at Lyons, The Images of thc Old Testament, &c., were 
" set forthe in Ynglishe and Frenche;" and in 1553, from the 
saine city, Peter Derendel gave in ]ïnglish metre Thc tr¢w 
O'vcly histoo'/«c Portrcatm'cs of thc woll BibA'. 
7"hc lUorkcs of Sh" Thomas 21[orc Iç,og«ht, somcO'mc Lord" 

',o EM.tTZEM-.B O0'S [C^r. Ix'. 

Ç]laltllCd]oltr of titglalzd, were published in small folio, London, 
1557, and in theln at the beginning (signature c ijz,ciiij) are 
inserted what the author names "nyne pageauntes," which, as 
they existed in his father's house about .. 496, were certainly 
Emblems. To this list Sir Thomas North, in London, 1570, 
added Thc A[orall Philosohic of DoM, "out of Italien ;" 
Daniell, in 585, Thc c,or¢/o' Tract of Pazthts oz,hts, which 
Whitney, in 586, followed up by A Choicc of mbh'mes, 
" Englished and moralized ;" and Paradin's H«vicall D«z,iscs 
were " Translated out of I.atin into Eglish," London,  59- 
To vindicate something of an English origin for a few 
emblems at least, reference may again be ruade to the fact that 
about the year 495 or 6, " Mayster Thomas lore in his youth 
deuysed in hys fathers house in 1.ondon, a goodly hangyng of 
fyne paynted clothe, with nyne pageauntes,* and verses ouer 
of eue of those pageauntes: which verses expressed and 
declared, what the ymages in those pageauntes represented" 
and also in those pageauntes were paynted, the thynges that the 
verses ouer them dyd (in effecte) declare." In 59 z, Wyrley 
published at London The D'lit lise ¢f Al'lllOl'h'& c. ; soon after 
appeared Emblems by Thomas Combe, which, however, are no 
longer known to be in existence; and then, in 598, Andrew 
Willet's Sacrorz,m Etbl«malz,m C«tlvria z,m, c.,--" A Centu W 
of Sacred Emblems." Guillim, in I6X , supplied A D@lay of 
Hrahl3,; and Peacham, in x6I, A Gardoz of Hcroical 
Dcviccs. There were, too, in ISS., several Emblem-works in 
English. some of which have since been edited and made 
Yet we must hot suppose that the knowledge of Emblem- 
books in Britain depended on those only of which an English 

 The subjects of the "nyne pageauntes," and of their verses, are--" 
tNaul}ol, rnu an t, gr, tt, amt, mr, trmitrr," in English ; and 
" OEr grt" in Latin. 

CnAP. IX'.] IzV RITAI_z, 5oo--6oo. 

version had been achieved. To men of culture, the whole series 
was open in almost its entire extent. James Hamilton, Earl of 
Arran, had resided in France, and iii I555, bcing high in the 
favour of Itenry II., "was ruade captain of his Scotch life- 
guards." A fexv years belote, namely, in 1549, as we have 
mentioned, p. Io8, Aneau's French translation of _Alciat's 
Emb/«nzs had been dedicatcd to him as, "filz de trcs noble 
Prince Jacque Duc de Chastel le herault, Prince Gouverneur du 
Royaume d'Escoce." 
Among the rare books in the British ]usetlm is Marqualc's 
Italian Version of _Alciat's EmMewzs, printcd at Lyons in 549; 
a copy of it, a very lovcly book, in the original binding, bears on 
the back the royal crown, and at thc foot thc lcttcrs " E. VI. R.," 
--dz«ardus Sc.t'l¢lS Re.r; and, as he died iii I553, xve thus have 
evidence at hmv early a date thc work was kllown ill England. 
To the young king it would doubtlcss bc a book "for delight 
and for ornament." 
Of Holbein's lmagi, ws Iortis, Lyons, I545, by George 
AEmylius, Luther's brother-in-law, a copy now in the British 
Museum "was presented to Prince Edward by Dr. \Villiam Bill, 
accompanied with a Latin dedication, dated from Cambridge, 
I9th July, I546, wherein he recommends the prince's attention 
to the figures in the book, in order to remind him that ail must 
die to obtain immortality; and enlarges on the necessity of 
living well. Hc concludes with a wish that the Lord will long 
and happily preserve his lire, and that he may finally reign to 
all eternity with his toast Christia, fithcr. Bill was appointed 
one of the king's chaplains in ordinaw, I55 I, and was made the 
first Dean of "Westminster in the reign of Elizabeth."--Douce's 
Holb«iz, Bohn's ed., I858, pp. 93, 94- 
In 1548, Mary of Scotland was sent into France for her educa- 
tion (Rapin, ed. I724, vol. vi. p. 30), and here imbibed the taste 
for, or rather knowledge of, Emblems, which afterwards she put 

122 Pj][]TLP.I[-]OOA'S [CHAr. IV. 

into practice. To lier SOli, in his fourteenth year, emblems xvere 
introdnced by no less ai1 authority than that of Theodore Beza. 
A copy indeed of the works of Alciatus was bound for him 
when he became King of England,--it is a folio edition, in six 
volumes or parts, alld is still preserved in the British Museum ; 
the royal arms are on the cover, front and back, and fleUl-s-de-lis 
in the corncrs. It was printed at Lyons in I56O , and possibly 
the Emblems iii vol. vi., leaves 334--354, with thcir very beau- 
tifld devices, may have been the companions of his boyhood 
and early years. By the Fmlblem-works of Beza and of 
Alciat probably was laid the foundation of the king's love 
for allegorical representations, which, under the naine of 
masques, were provided by JollSOll for the Court's amusement. 
The king's weakncss iii this respect is wittily set forth iii the 
French cpigran soon after his death (Rapin's Histou, , 4to, 
vol. vil. p. 259): 

To English noblemen, iii x6o8, Otho van Veen, from 
Antwerp, commends his Amorum JEmbl«mala,--"Enablems of 
the Loves,"xvith x24 excellent devices. Thus the dedication 
runs : "To the moste honorable and woerthie brothers, IVilliam 
Earle of Pcmbrokc, and Philij2 Earle of $'ountgomv'ic, patrons 
of learning and cheualrie." In England, therefore, as in Scot- 
land, there were eminent loyers of the Emblem literature. 
But ail acquaintance xvith that literature may be regarded as 
more spread abroad and increased when Emblem-books became 

« Thus to be rendered-- 
x.Vhile Elizabeth, as king, did reign, 
England the terror was of Spain ; 
lXIow, chitter-chatter and Emblemes 
Rule, through our queen, the litde Jamcs. 

ÇItAP. IV.] A\" --J/"T«4/"\, 15oo--16oo. 12 3 

the sources of ornamentation for articles of household furniturc, 
and for the embellishlnent of country lnansions. A remarkable 
instance is supplicd from Thc Histoly of Scotlaml, edition 
London, 1655 ' " By William Drumlnond of Hauthorllden." It 
is in a letter " To his zc,ortl o, Fricml Master Belajamin Jolmson," 
dated July I, I619, respecting some needle-work by Mary 
Queen of Scots, and shows how intimately she was acquainted 
xvith several of the Emblem-boolCs of her day, or had herself 
attained the art of making devices. The whole letter, except a 
few lines at the beginning, is most interesting to the admirers of 
Emblems. Drummond thus writes :-- 

" I bave been curious to find out for you the Imbz'saes and Emblemes on 
a Bed of State'V wrought and embroidered all with gold and silk by the late 
Queen lZm'.15 mother to our sacred Soveraign, which will elnbellish greatly 
solne pages of your Book, and is worthy your remelnbrance ; the first is the 
Loadstone turning towards the pole, the word her lXlajesties naine turned on 
an Anagram, lZaria S¢u,tr¢, sa vD'tu, m'alli't', which is hOt luuch inferiour to 
l'«ri¢as armaht. This hath reference to a Crucifix, before which with ail 
her Royall Ornalnents she is humbled on ber knees inost litlely, with the 
word, umlique; an Im&'csa of 3Zay of Zorraiu, her Mother, a l'hwttLr in 
flames, the word,- en ma fin gil mon commencemenL The Imjbrcssa of an 
Apple-Tree growing in a Thorn, the word, Per vitcttltt c'escil. The Impressa 
of Hcmy the second, the 17)'enc]t l(itg, a Cressanl, the word, Douce lolum 
imbl«al orbcm. The Imlbrcssa of King Fraucis thc first, a Sahtmaldet 
crowned in the midst of Flames, the word, ,X'ttlris,o ci ea-lht.uo. The 
Imb'«ssa of Godfrey of Julloffnc, an arrow passing through three birds, the 
word, Dcd«ri! ne vht»t Casusve D«us,e. That of I«rcurius charming Mffos, 
with his hundred eyes, expressed by his Catir, cci,s, two F[tt&'s, and a Peacock, 
the vord, Eloquium lo! lu»zina clausiL Two Women upon the Wheels of 

« Through Mr. Jones, of the Chetham Library, Manchester, I applied to 
D. Laing, Esq., of the Signet Library, Edinburgh, to inquire if the bed of state is 
known still to exist. The l'eply, Dec. 3lst, 867, is-- 
" In regard to Queen Mary's bed at Holyrood, there is one which is shown to visitors, but I ara 
quite satisfied that it does no, correspond with Drummond's description, as ' wrought in silk and gold.' 
There are some hangings of old tapestry, but in a very bad state of preservation. Yesterday after- 
noon I went dovn to take another look at it, but found, as it was ge,ring dark, some of the room» 
locked up, and no person preseot. Should, hovever, I find anything further on the subject, I will let 
you know, but I do not expect it." 
+ This node of naming the motto appears taken from Shakespeare's lericles, as 
" A black -,Ethiop, reaching at the sun : 
The word, Lux tua vita mihi.'" 

 24 t3rtTL3i_tTOOIt'S [C. IV. 

Fortune, thc ont holding a Lance, the other a CoTzucofiia; which rml3r«ssa 
seemeth to glaunce at Queen Elizabetlt and herself, the word, 
6mit«s. The Imressa of the Cardinal of Lorrain her Uncle, a Pyramid 
overgrown with ivy, the vulgar word, T« stante æ,ir«bo; a Ship with ber Mast 
broken and fallen in the Sea, the word, Nsqua»t tisi rectttm. This is for 
herself and her Son, a Big Lyon and a young XVhelp beside her, the word, 
Umm qti«lem, sat Leou«n. An embleme of a Lyon taken in a Net, and 
Hares wantonly passing over hiln, the word, t [efforts tl«,,icto insultant 
Leo¢e. Canmmd in a garden, the word, Fwd¢ts ca[ca& dtt at¢fi[os. A 
l'alto Tree, the word, Pon«&ri3lts 7,b'tus [lztta rcsist#. A Bird in a Caffe, 
and a tla,,k flying above, with the word, Il mal mefl'»w el me spav«nh* a 
Peio. A triangle with a Sun in the niddle of a Circle, the word, 
n cotvel[lo'3#. A l'orcupine amongst Sea Rocks, the word, Wc 7ohtlctttr. 
The Imfizsa of king Henry the eight, a Portcttll«s, the word, all«ra sccuritas. 
The Impr«ssa of the Duke of NaoE,oy, the annunciation of the Virgin 
the word, #)t7EE]ttttto jlts Rhodum fortuit. He had kept the Isle of Rhodes. 
Flourishes of Armes, as Helms, Launces, Corslets, Pikes, Muske, Canons, 
the word, D«bff D«¢ts h# quoque flu«m. A Tree planted in a Church-yard 
environed with dead mcn's bones, thc word, t'i«las rcvoca3# a3 orco. 
Ecclipses of the Sun and the Moon, the word, Ifisa si3i htmcn qttod in,id«t 
««oEc% glauncing, as may appear, at Queen Eliza3«lh. 'rcnnus Ballances, a 
sword cast in to veigh Gold, the word, Quhl n#i )2-tis dolor / AVine tree 
watred with Wine, which instead to make it spring and grow, maketh it fade, 
the word, 3I«a s# mihi#rosanL A wheel rolled from a Mountain in the Sea, 
the word, POwer di dolor OE*«h ch" fi«rt'na. XVhich appearcth to be lier own, 
and it should be, Prccipitio scnza sfietna. A heap of Vings and Feathers 
dispersed, the word, ,lhgffatut [)inil«ts. A Trophie upon a Tree, with 
Mytres, Crowns, Hats, Masks, Swords, Books, and a XVoman with a Vail 
about her eyes or lnufficd, pointing to some about her, with this word, &7 caslts 
«h'«hv'it. Three crowns, two opposite and another above in the Sea, the word, 
. lli«mquc moratur. The Sun in an Ecc]ipse, the word, 31«dio occid«l Dit." 
" I omit the Arms of Scolland, nh*nd, and Fwnce severally by them- 
selves, and all quartcrcd in many places of this Bcd. The workmanship is 
curiously done, and above all value, and truely it may be of this Piece said, 

* In two other Letters Drummond makes mention of Devices or Emblems. 
Writing from Paris, p. 249, he describes "the Fair of St. Germain : "-- 
"' The diverse Merchandize and ,Varesof the lnany nations at that Mart ;" and adds, "Scarce could 
the wandcrlng thought light upon any Storie, Fable, Gayetie, which was hot here represented to viev." 
.\ letter to the Earl of Perth, p. 256, tells of various Emblems :-- 
" AI" tJOLE Loo,--After a long inquiry about the Arms ofyour Lordhips antient House, and 
the turning of sundry Books of ImlSr«sacs and Herauldry, I round your V N 13 E S. famous and very 
" In out neighbour Countrey of ]'ng'land they are born, but inversed upslde clown and diversified. 

CIAr. IV.] IN .BI¢I.7'.,dlN, 5oo--6oo. 12 5 

It vould be tedious to verify, as might be done in nearly 
every instance, the original authors of these twenty-nine 
prcscs and Emblems. Several of ,hem are in our own Whitney, 
several in l'aradin's Dcviscs hcroiqws, and several in Dialogve 
dcs ])crises d'armes ci d'amovrs dr S. ]az,lo :oz'io, &c., 4to, A 
Lyon, 156I. 
From the last named au,hot we select as specimens two of 
the Emblems with which Queen Mary embellished the bed for 
ber son ;--the first is "the Imtrcssa of King Francis the First," 
who, as the Dialoga; p. 24, affirms, "chaugca la ficrtd 
dadscs de" g«wrr« «z la do«wcar & ioç,,wsctd amom-casc,"--" And 
to signify that he was glowing with the passions of love,- 
and so plcasing were they to hiln, that he had the boldness to 
say that he found nourishment in them ;--for this reason he 
chose the Salamander, which dwelling in the flames is not con- 
sumed." (See woodcut next page.) The second, p. 25, is "the 
I@rcssa of H«my the second, the Fre¢ck Kbtg," the SOli and 
successor of Francis in 1547. (See woodcut, p. IZ7. ) 
He had adopted the motto and device when he was Dauphin, 
and continued to bear ,hem on lais succession to the throne 
in the one case to signify that he could no, show lais en,ire 
worth un,il he arrived at the herltage of the kingdom ; and in 
the other that he mus, recover for lais kingdom what had been 
lost to it, and so complete its whole orb. 
It may appear almost impossible, even on a "Bed of State," 
to work twenty-nine Emblems and the arms of Scotland, 
England, and France, "severally by themselves and all quartered 
in many places of the bed,"--but a bed, probably of equal 

Torquato Tasso in his Rinaldo maketh mention ofa Knight who had a Rock placed in the XVaves, 
with the XVorde 2om/e c]dil lkercote. And others hath the Seas waves with a Syren rising out of 
them, the word dla AIaria, whlch is the naine of some Courtezan. Anonio Perenoo, Cardinal 
Graztella, had for an Imlkresa the sea, a Ship on it, the word l)urae out of the first of the ASneades, 
l?urate et ztosmeg rebus 8er,ate 8ecundis. Tommo de «l[ari, d, Duca di terra nova, had for his 
Imkresa the x, Vaves with a sun over them, the word, 2xrunquam siccabitur oestu. The Prince of 
Orange used for his Imre«a the II'a«,es xvith an Halcyon in the raids, of them, the word, Iedii« 
t'anquillu« it undis, which is rather an Emblème than Imi#resG because the fitre is in the word." 

antiquity, was a few years since, if not now, existing at Hinckley 
ill Leicestershire, on which the saine number "of emblematical 
devices, and Latin mottoes ill capital letters conspicuously 
introduced," had round space and to spare. _Ail these cmblems 
are, I believe, taken from books of Shakespeare's rime, or before 

t'aolo ovio» x56x. 

him ; as, "_Ai1 ostrich with a horseshoe iii the beak," the word, 
Spirilus «hcrissi»m coqMt; "a cross-bow at full stretch," the 
word, Izgo¢io sciera! z,ircs. "A hand playing with a serpent," 
the word, QMs co«lra «os ? "The tree of lire springing from the 
cross on ail altar,"* the word, Sale z,iz,it Dz illa. (See Goll«- 
,mm's A&gaaim; vol. lxxxi, pt. 2, p. 416, Nov. t8I .) 
Of the use of Emblematical devices in the ornamenting of 
houses, it will be sufficient to give the instance recorded iii 
* Sec device at a later part of out vohune. 

ÇIIAI'. IV.] /.iV IJR[T.4[A , 15oo--16oo" 

"The I listory and Antlquities of Haxvsted and Hardwick, in the 
county of Suffolk, by the Rev. Sir John Cullum, Bart :" the 211d 
edition, royal 4to, London, I8I 3, pp. 59--65. This History 
makes it evident that in the reign of James I., if hOt earlier, 
Eblems xvere so known and admired as to have been freely 

I)aolo )'oE,io) x56x. 

employed in adorning a closet for the last Lady Drury. "They 
mark the faste of ai1 age that delighted iii quaint wit, and 
laboured conceits of a thousand kinds," says Sir John; never- 
theless, there xvere or[j,-olzc of them in " the painted closet" at 
Hawsted, and which, at the time of his writing, xvere put up in a 
small apartment at Hardwick. To all of them, as for King 
James's bed, and for the "very antient oak wooden bedstead, 
much gilt and ornamented," at Hinckley, there xvere a Latin 
motto and a device. Some of theln we now present to the 

12 8 FAHTLEAZ-B 00KS [C . v. I V. 

reader, adding occasionally to our author's account a further 
notice of the sources whence they were taken : 
Emblem . Ut larta /'«&mt«r,--"As procured they are 
slipping away." "A monkey, sitting in a window and scattering 
money into the streets, is among the emblems of Gabricl Simeon :" 
it is also iii out own English Whitncy, p. 6 9, with the word, 
$lalparta «al delabmtur,--" Badly gotten, badly scattered." 
Emblcm 5- Q¢tb awdis ?--" Whither art thou going ? " "A 
humala tongue with bats' wings, and a scaly contorted tail, 
nlountillg into thc air," " is among the H«roical De,iscs of Para- 
«ti¢¢ : " leaf 65 of edition Anvers,  562. 
enough. "Some trees, 
Elnblem 8..TaCot s«tis,--" Already " " 
leafless, and torn up by thc roots ; with a confused landscape. 
Abovc, thc sun, and a rainbow ;" a note adds, "the most faire 
and bountififi queen of France Katherine used thc sign of the 
rainbow for her armes, which is an infallible sign of peaceable 
calmeness and tranquillitie."--Paradin. Paradin's words, ed. 
i562 , leaf 38, are "_/][adamc Catlwri,¢c, t'«sclLrcti«,l¢w Rci¢tc de 
Francc, a pour Dadsc I'A rc ccl«sl«, ou A rc z' ciel: qzti t'st l« vrai 
soE«ltC de clcl"c so'cMt? & tralzqMlilé dc gala'." 
Emblem 2o. Detll« tr«its[s, timG--" Vhile thou art crossing, 
fear." "A pilgrim traversing the earth: with a staff, and a light 
coloured hat, with a cockle shell in it." In/]aml«/, act iv. sc. 5, 
1. 23, vol. viii. p. I29,-- 

" Hmv should I your true love know 
From another one ? 
By his cockle bat and staff, 
And his sandal shoon." 

" Or," relnarks Sir John Cullum, "as he is described in Greenc's 
Noyer too Laie,  6 x o ; "-- 

"With Igal ofstraa,, like to a swain, 
Shelter for the sun and rain, 
With scallop-shdl before." 

IV.] IN I?I?ITMIrN, xSoo__6oo, i2 9 

Emblem 24. t;'roltt« tzdla fi«h's,--" No trustworthiness on the 
broxv." The motto with a different device occurs in Vhitney's 
t?mbl«ms, p. IOO, and was adopted by him from the Emblems 
of John Sambucus; edition Antwerp, I564, p. I77. The device, 
however, in "the painted closet " was "a man taking the dimen- 
sions of his own forehead xvith a pair of compasses ;" "a contra- 
diction," inaptly remarks Sir J. Cullum, " to a fancy of A.ristotle's 
that the shape and several other circumstances, relative to a 
man's forehead, are expressive of lais temper and inclination. 


Symeoni, 56- 

Upon this supposition Symeon,* before mentioned, has inventcd 
an Emblem, representing a human head and a hand issuing out 
of a cloud, and pointing to it, with this motto, t:ro¢zs homitcm 
prcefcrt,--" The forehead shows the man." 

* See Symeon's Z)ettises JI'l'oiÇttes & ]fora[es edition, 4to, Lyons, I56 , p. 246 , 
where the lnotto and device occur, folloxved by the explanation, " Ceux qui ont escrit 
de la k3'siogto.tie,  mesme Aristote, disott par» O, d'attD-es choses fte le ri'out de 
l'hoquette esl cdto', ar luell' ot .'ttl fitciIemotl coguoisD'e ht fttalilé de ses mŒEttrs, 
G  la comlexiot de sa za&tre," &c. 

 3 ° E[BLEAI'-]YOOA'S [CnAv. V'. 

Emblem 33- Spcravi cttcrii,--" I hoped and perished ;"--the 
device, " A bird thrusting its head into an oyster partly open." 
A very similar sentiment is rather differently expressed by 
Whitney, p. 1-'8, by Freitag, p. 69, and by Alciat, edition 
Paris, 16o2, emb. 94, P. 437, from whom it was borrowed. 
Here the device is a mouse invading the domicile of an oyster. 
the motto, ClViv«ts oh ,«#am,--" A prisoner through gluttony ;" 
and the poor littl mouseJ 

"" That longe did feede on daintie crommes, 
And safelie search'd the cupborde and the shelfe : 
At lengthe for chaunge, vnto an Oyster commes, 
\Vhere of his deathe, he guiltie was him selfe : 
The Oyster gap'd, the Mouse put in his head, 
Where he was catch'd, and crush'd till he was dead." 

Now, since so many Emblems from various authors were 
gathered to adorn a royal bed,* "a very antient oak wooden 
bed," and "a lady's closet," in xvidely distant parts of Britain, 
the supposition is most reasonable that the knowledge of them 
pervaded the cultivated and literary society of England and 
Scotland ; and that Shakespeare, as a member of such society, 
would also be acquainted with them. The facts themselves are 
testimonies of a generally diffused judgment and taste, by which 
Emblematic devices for ornalnents would be understood and 

And the facts we have lnentioned are not solitary. About 
the period in question, in various mansions of the two kingdoms, 
 It may be named as a curious fact that a copy of Alciat's Eml, le»«es en Ltit et 
,'n Francois lCs ]5ottr l'ets, 161110, Paris, 1561 , contains the autogmph of the Pro- 
locutor against Mary Queen of Scots, W. PVKERYNGE, 1561 , wlfich would be about 
rive years before Mary's son was bore, for whom she wrought a bed of state. The 
edition of Pamdin, a copy of which bears Gefl?ey Whitney's autograph, was printed 
at Antwerp in 1562 ; and one at least of his Emblems to the motto, T'id,., «tt«ceo, 
was written as early as 1568. 


Device and Emblem were employed for their adorning. In 
1619, close upon Shakespeare's time, and most likely influenced 
by his writings, there was set up in the Jncient Hall of the 
Leycesters of Lower Tabley, Cheshire, a richly carved and very 
curious chimney-piece, which may be briefly described as emble- 
matizing country pursuits in connection with those of heraldry, 
literature, and the drama. In high relief, on one of the upright 
slabs, is a Lucrece, as the poet represents the deed, line I723,--- 

" Even here 
A harmflfl 
On the other slab is 
her hand, though hot 
the asp ;act. v. sc. 2, 

she sheathed in her harmless breast 
knife, that thence her soul unsheathed." 

a Cleopatra, with the deadly creature in 
at the very moment when she addressed 
I. 305, vol. ix. p. 15 I,-- 

" Peace, peace ! 

Dost thou not see my baby at llly breast, 
That sucks the nurse asleep ?" 

The cross slab represents the hunting of stag and hare, xvhich 
with the hounds have wonderfully human faces. Here might 
the words of Titus Ændronicus, act. ii. sc. 2, 1. I, vol. vii. p. 456, 
be applied,-- 
"The hunt is up, the moon is bright and gray, 
The fields are fragrant, and the voods are green ; 
Uncouple here, and let us make a bay, 
And vake the empcror and his lovely bride, 
And rouse the prince, and ring a hunter's peal 
That ail the court may echo with the noise." 

The heraldic insignia of the Leycesters surmount the whole, 
but just below them, in a large medallion, is an undeniable 
Emblem, similar to one which in 16:4 appeared in Hermann 
Hugo's tia Z)«sid«ria, bk. i. emb. xv. p. I i7; .Dgfc£iœe [Il do[ol'£ 
vita mca et a,mi moi in gcmiti&ts (tsal. xxx. or rather tsal. 
xxxi. IO),--"bly life is spent with grief, and my years with 
sighing." Appended to Hugo's device are seventy-six lines of 

* 3 z EAIBLEAI'-B O0.KS [cn^v. 1 V. 

Latin elegiac verses, and rive pages of illustrative quotations 
from the Fathers ; but the character of the Emblem will be seen 
from the device presented. 

Dl'ayton in his l]avus' IVars, bk. ri., published in I598, 
shows how the knowledge of out subject had spread and was 
spreading; as when he says of certain ornaments, 
"About the border, in a curious ri'et, 
Emblems, impressas, hieroglyphics set." 
There is, however, no occasion to pursue any further this 
branch of out theme, except it may be by a short continuation 
or extension of our Period of rime, to show how Milton's greater 
Epic most curiously corresponds with the title-page of a Dutch 
Emblem-book, which appeared in 64, several years before 
Paradi«e Lost was written. (See Plate X.) The book is, 
Iandcr ccns Zht)ubccl«fi'n, oft Adams Ad,--"John Vander 
Veen's Emblems, or Adam's Apple,"--presenting some Dutch 
doggercl lines, of which this English doggerel contains the 
« When wounded Adam lay from the sin and the fMI, 
Out of the accursed wound flowed corruption and gall ; 
Hence is ail wickedness and evil bred, 
As here in print ye see the Devil fashioned." 
And again, 
" Out of Adam's Apple springs 
Misery, Sin, and deadly things." 
Singularly like to Milton's Introduction (bk. i. lines --4), 
"Of Man's first disobedience, and the fruit 
Of that forbidden tree, whose mortal taste 
Brought death into the world, and all out woe, 
With loss of Eden." 
With equal singularity appears in Boissard's Thcatrum 
tumanw,"Theatre of Human Life,"--cdition Metz, 596, p. 19, 

çoeleses Ge»ios peta lute creatos 
Peccatum horrendo perdidit exirio. 
ub Pl]eetloonte Sata n Cocyt meritur undis : 
P œen eaderâ re[iqui addit doemonibm. 

Cri.w. IV.] LV ;I¢.IT.,,tI.[V, ISoo--I6OO. 13 3 

the coincidence with Milton's Fall of the rebel Angels. We have 
here pictured and described the Fall of Satan (see Plate XI.) 
almost as in modern days Turner depicted it, and as lXlilton has 
narrated the terrible overthrow (Paradi«c Lo«t, bk. ri.), when they 
xvere pursued 
" \Vith terrors, and with firies, to the bounds 
And crystal wall of heaven ; which, opening widc, 
Roll'd inward, and a spacious gap disclosed 
Into the wasteful deep : the monstrous sight 
5truck them with horror backward, but far worse 
Urged them behind : headlong themselves they threw 
Down froln the verge of heaven ....... 
Nine days they fell : confounded Chaos roar'd, 
And felt tenfold confusion in their fall 
Through his wild anarchy. '' 
That saine Th««trc of t[«la LoEt', p. I (see Plate XIV.), 
also contains a most apt picture of Shakespeare's lines, Ms Yo«t 
Like Il, act. il. sc. 7, I. I39, vol. ii. p. 4o%-- 
" AI1 the world's a stage, 
And all the mon and women mcrely players : 
They have their exits and their entranccs ; 
And one man in his time plays many parts, 
His acts being seven ages." 
The saine notion is repeated in the .M"«rchazt of U«Ma; act. i. 
sc. , I. 77, vol. il. p. 28, when Antonio says, 

" I hold the world but as the world, Gratiano ; 
A stage where every man must play a part, 
And mine a sad one." 

In England, as elsewhere, emblematical carvings and writings 
preceded books of Emblems, that is, books in which the art of 

* In some of the more elaborate of Plantin's devices, the action of " the olnnific 
word" seems pictured, though in very humble degree,-- 
" In his hand 
He took the golden compasses, prepared 
In God's eternal store, to circumscribe 
This tmiverse, and ail created things : 
One foot he centred, and the other turn'd 
Round through the vast proflmdity obscure."--Par. Lost, bk. vil. 

34 .'.,IBLI'3I-.BOOIç.S [C mu.. lv. 

the engraver and the genius of the poet xvere both employed to 
illustrate one and the saine motto, sentilnent, or proverbial 
saying. Not to repeat what may be round in Chaucer and 
others, Spenser's l"isiolzs of t?«lho',* alluded to in the fac-simile 
reprint of \Vhitney, pp. xvi & xvii, needed only the designer and 
engraver to make them as perfectly Enablem-books as were the 
publications of Brant, Alciatus and Perriere. Those visions 
portray in words what an artist might express by a picture. 
For example, in Moxon's edition, 1845, p. 438, iv.,- 
" I saw raisde vp on pillers of Iuorie, 
\Vereof the bases were of richest golde, 
The chapters Alabastcr, Christall frises, 
The double front of a triumphall arke. 
On eche side portraide was a Victorie, 
With golden wings, in habite of a nymph 
And set on hie vpon triumphing chaire ; 
The auncient glorie of the Romane lordes. 
The worke did shev it selfe not wrought by man, 
But rather made by his owne skilfifll banals 
That forgeth thunder dartes for Ioue his sire. 
Let me no more see faire thing vnder heauen, 
Sith I haue seene so faire a thing as this, 
With sodaine falling broken all to dust." 
Now what artist's skill would not suffice from this description 
to delineate "the pillers of Iuorie," " the chapters of Alabaster," 
" a Victorie xvith golden wings," and " the triumphing chaire, the 
auncient glorie of the Romane lordcs ;" and to make the whole 
a lively and most cunning Emblem ? 
In lais Skci]zcards Çal«udc; indeed, to each of the months 
Spenser appends what he names an " Emblem ;" itis a motto, 
or device, from Greek, Latin, Italian, French, or English, expres- 
sive of the supposed leading idea of each Eclogue, and forming 

* Derived rioto Joachim du Bellay (who died in 56o at the age of thirty-seven), 
the excellence of vhose poetry entitled him to be named the Ovid of France. There 
is good evidence to show that Du 13ellay was well acquaiuted with the Eblelnatists, 
who in his time were rising into faine. 

Cmxv. Iv.] IN ]R[TA[, 5oo--6oo. 35 

a moral toit. .The folio edition of Spenser's works, issued in 
1616, gives woodcuts for each month, and so approaches very 
closely to the Emblematists of a former century. In the month 
" FEBRVARIE," there is introduced a veritable word-picture of 
" the Oake and the Brier," and also a pictorial illustration, with 
the sign of the Fishes in the clouds, to indicate the season of 

@enser, 616. 

The Brier, 

The oak is described as "broughten to miserie :" 

For nought mought they quitten him fl'om decay, 
For fiercely the goodman at him did laye. 
The blocke oft groned under the blow, 
And sighed to see his neere overthrow. 
In fine, the steele had pierced his pith, 
Tho downe to the earth hee fell forthwith." 

" puffed up with pryde," has his turn of adversity: 

That nowe upright hee can stand no more ; 
And, being downe, is trod in the durt 
Of cattd, and brouzed, and sorely hurt." 

3 6 EII-I¢ZEAI-I¢OOKS [Cn^e. v. 

The xvholc Ecloguc, or Fable, is rotmded off by thc curious 
Italian proverbs, to which Spenser gives thê name of E- 
" Iddio, perche é vccchio, 
Fa suoi al suo essempio." 

" Niuno vecchio 
Spaventa Iddio." 

i. «., " God, although lac is very aged, makes lais fi-iends copies of 
himself," makes them aged too ; but the biting satire is added, 
" No old man is ever terrified by Jove." 


,S'fi«nser, i66. 

The Emblem for June represents a scene which the poet does 
hot describe ; it is the field of the haymakers, with the zodiacal 
sign of the Crab, and appropriate to the characters of Hobbinoll 
and Colin Clout,--but it certainly does not translate ilItO 
pictures what the poet had delineated in words of great beauty-: 

C^v. IV.] AL/'VOIU_/'V 

Lo ! Colin, here the place whose plesaunt syte 
From other shades hath weaned my wandring minde, 
Tell mee, what wants mee here to worke delyte ? 
The simple ayre, the gentle warbling winde, 
So calme, so coole, as nowhere else I finde; 
The grassie grounde with daintie daysies dight, 
The bramble bush, where byrdes of every kinde 
To the waters fall their tunes attemper right." 

No more needs be said respecting the knowledge of Emblem- 
books in Britain, unless it be to give the remarks of Tod, the 
learned editor of Spenser's works, edition 1845 , p. x. " The 
Uisio,ts are little things, done probably when Spenser was 
3,ott,zg, according to the taste of the times for Eblems.* The 
Thcatrc of lVordli1gs, I must add, evidently presents a series 
of Elnblems." 

II. We xvill now state some of the general indications that 
Shakespeare was acquainted with Emblem-books, or at least had 
imbibed " the taste of the rimes." 

Here and there in Shakespeare's xvorks, even from the xvay 
in which sayings and mottoes, in Spanish, as well as in French 
and Latin, are employed, xve have indications that he had seen 
and, it may be, had studied some of the Emblem-writers of his 
day, and participated of their spirit. Thus Falstaff's friend, the 
ancient Pistol, 2 Igcm-y lU. act. il. sc. 4, 1. I65, vol. iv. p. 405, 
quotes the doggerel line, as given in the note, Si fortu«a me 
tormozta, il s«rare ,zz« cozzlvzla,--" If fortune torments me, hope 
contents me,"---which doubtless was the motto on his sword, 

« Dibdin, in his tiblioma,tia, p. 33 I, adduces an instance ; he says, "In the 
PRAYER-BOOK which goes by the naine of QVEEn ELIZ.BTH'S, there is a portrait 
of ber lajesty kneeling, upon a superb cushion, with elevated hands, in prayer. 
This book was first printed in 575, and is decorated vith woodcut borders of 
considerable spirit and beauty, representing, al-aong other things, some of the 
subjects of Holbein's Z)anc« of Z)eatk." 

3 8 3IBLI?,«ll-BOOKS [CHAP. 

which he immediately lays down. As quoted, the line is 
Spanish; a slight alteration would make it Italian; but 
Douce's conjecture appears well founded, that as Pistol was 
preparing to lay aside lais sword, he read 
 off the motto which was upon it. Such 
mottoes were common as inscriptions upon 
swords ; and Douce, vol. i. pp. 452, 3, gives 
the drawing of one with the French line, 
"Si fortune me tourmente, L'esperance me 
Ite gives it, too, as a fact, that " Hani- 
ball Gonsaga being in the low-countries 
overthrowne from his horse by an English 
captaine and commanded to yeeld him- 
selle prisoner, X'ist his sword, and gave it to 
the Englishman, saying, ' Si forttma tte 
tormctta, il ytcran:a zc cott«th.'" Allov 
that Shakespeare served in the Nether- 
lands, and we may readily suppose that 
he had heard the motto from the very 
Englishman to whom Gonsaga had sur- 
The Clown in Tw«lft/t Nig/zt, act. i. 
sc. 5, 1. 5o, vol. iii. p. 234 , replies to the 
Lady Olivia ordering him as a fool to be 
taken avay," Misprision in the highest 
degree ! Lady, c¢tatlltts ¢zonfacit motmc/z¢«in 
[--it is not the hood that makes the monk,] 
that's as much to say as I wear not 
l)ou¢, 8o7, 
motley in my brain." The saying is one 
which might appropriately adorn any Emblem-book of the 
day ;--and the mot!ey-xvear receives a good illustration from a 
corresponding expression in Whitney, p. 8 : 


" The little childe, is pleas'de with cockhorse gaie, 
Although he aske a courser of the beste : 
The ideot likes, with bables for to plaie, 
And is disgrac'de when he is brauelie dreste : 
A motley coate, a cockescombe, or a bell, 
Hee better likes, than Jewelles that excell." 
So, during Cade's rebellion, when the phrase is applied by 
Lord Say, in answer to Y)ick the butcher's question, "What say 
you of Kent ?" 2 Hem 3, VI. act. iv. sc. 7, l. 49, vol. v. p. 97,-- 
" Nothing but this : 'Tis boira l,'rra, mala fronts;" 
or when falling under the attack of York on the field of 
St. Alban's, Lord Clifford exclaims, La .lï« coztronuc les a'ttz,rcs 
(2 H,v«y l'l. act. v. sc. 2, 1. 28, vol. v. p. 217) ; these again are 
instances after the methods of Emblem-writers; and if they 
were carried out, as might be done, would present ail the 
characteristics of the Emblem, in motto, illustrative xoodcut, 
and descriptive verses. 
It is but an allusion, and )'et the opcning scene, act. i. sc. , 
1. 50, vol. ii. p. 280, of the A[crchaut of Vc«icc might borrow that 
allusion from an expression of Alciatus, edition Antwerp, 158 I, 
p. 92, a«c bifro«s,--" two-headed Janus." (See woodcut, p. 14o.) 
IANE bifi'OttS, qui hrm lt'attsacht fttlttt'aç call«s, 
Qui retro sauJtas, sicut b-" anA', ,id«s,'-- 
"Janus two-fronted, who things past and future well knowest, 
And who mockings behind, as also before dost behold."  

* Amphfied by x, Vhitlaey, p. lO8, gsoei¢t' gt oet-o.i(g "Look back, and look 
forward." " "-1 H former parte, nowe paste, of thls my booke, 
The seconde parte in order doth insue : 
Which, I beginne with I^NVS double looke, 
That as hee see», the yeares both oulde, and nee, 
So, with regarde, I may these partes behoulde, 
Perusinge ol-te, the newe, and eeke the oulde 
And if, that faulte within vs doe appeare, 
W,thin the yeare, that is alreadie donne, 
As IANVS biddes vs alter with the yeare, 
And make amendes, within the yeare b¢g, nne, 
Euen so, my selle suruayghinge what is past ; 
With greater heede, may take in bande the laste." 

40. EA[.BZEA[- OOK ICi^e. Ix:. 

The friends of _Antonio banter him for his sadness, and one 
of them avers,-- 
"Now by two-headed Janus, 
Nature hath fi'amed strange fellows in her time : 
Some that will evermore peep through thcir eyes, 
And laugh like parrots at a bag-piper ; 
And othcr of such vinegar aspect 
That they'll hot show their teeth in way of smile, 
Though Nestor swear the jest be laughable." 

Even if Shakespeare understood no Latin, the picture itself, 
or a similar one, would be sufficient to give origin to the phrase 
"two-headed Janus." 
__«,_____= ............. »#»,!.,., He adopts the pic- 
- ture, but not one of 
"-"i... _-_-.. thesentiments; these, 
 --. however, he did not 
 __ need: it was only as 
a passing illustration 
t- .,-- =-- that he named Janus, 
• [-   and how the author 
described the god's 
qualities was no part 
of his purpose. 
.4l¢']l,, ISSI. Or if the source of 
the phrase be hot in 
Alciatus, it may have been derived either from \Vhitney's 
of EmMcmes, p o8, or from Perriere's T/watrc des l?o«s Engb¢s, 
Paris, I5;39, emb. i., reproduced in 866 to illustrate pl. 3 ° of the 
fac-simile reprint of Whitney. Perriere's French stanza is to 
this effect :-- 
• ' In old times the god Janus with two faces 
Our ancients did delineate and portray, 
To demonstrate that counsels of wise races 
Look to a future, as well as the past day ; 
In fact all time of deeds should leave the traces, 


And of the past recordance ever have ; 
The future should foresee like providence, 
Following up virtue in each noble quality, 
Seeking God's strength from sinfulness to save. 
Who thus shall do will learn by evidence 
That he bas power to lire in great tranquillity. ''' 

Another instance of Eblem-like delineation, or description, 
we have in ]çblg t]«y V. act iii. sc. 7, lines loI 7, vol. iv. 
P. 549. Louis the Dauphin, praising lais own horse, as if 
bounding from the earth like a tennis ball (see voodcut on next 
page), exclaims,-- 
"I will not change my horse with any that treads but on four 
pasterns. Ça, ha! he bounds from the earth, as if his entrails were 
hairs; le cheval volant, the Pegasus, chez les narines de feu! When 1 
bestride him, I soar, I ara a hawk: he trots the air; the earth sings 
when he touches it ; the basest horn of his hoof is more musical than the 
pipe of Hermes.]- 
Orl. He's of the colour of the nutmeg. 
iDau. And of the heat of the ginger. It is a beast for Perseus : he is 
pure air and tire ; and the dull elements of earth and water never appear in 
him, but only in patient stillness, while his rider mounts him : he is indeed a 
horse ; and ail other jades you may call beasts. 
Cou. Indeed, my lord, it is a most absolute and excellent horse. 
iDau. It is the prince of palfreys; his neigh is like the bidding of a 
monarch, and lais countenance enforces homage." 

* We subjoin the old French,-- 
' L Dieu Ianus Jadis à deux visages, 
Noz anciês ont pourtraict & trassé, 
Pour demgstrer que l'aduis des gês sages. 
¥isç an futur aussi bien qu' au passé, 
Tout temps doibt estr.ë en effect cpassé, 
Et du passé auoir la recordance, 
Pour au futur preueoir en providence, 
Suyuant vertu en toute qualité. 
Qui le fera verra par euidence» 
Qu'il pourra viure en gd tranquillité." 
"1" The illustration we immediately choose is ri'oto Sym. cxxxvii, p. cccxiiii, of 
Achilles Bocchius, edition Bologna, I555, with the lnotto-- 
Rhetoric's art threefold, it moves, delights, instructs, 
But powerfid above al1 is truth of heaven inspire& 
So the monsters of out vices doth wisdom's self subdue. 

 42 .E$[.B'L.EA[-.BOOA'S [Cmxr. IX'. 

This lively description st, its well the device of a Paris printer, 
Christian Wechel, who, in I54O,* dwelt "a l'enseigne du Cheval 

occius, x555- 

volant ;" or that of Claude Marnius of Francfort, who, before 
6o2, had a similar trade-mark. At least three of Reusner's 
Emblcms, edition Francfort, 58I, have the same device; and 
the Dauphin's paragon answers exactly to a Pegasus in the first 

 See Zes Emblemes de [aislre .4ndre .dlcia[, mis or rime fi'a.çoyse, Paris, 54 o. 

Cav. IV.] A5VOll' r 7"0 S4A'EStgEtR. 43 

Emblem, dedicated to Rudolph II., who, on the death of lais 
father, Maximilian, became Emperor of Germany. 

Non abçque Thefeo. 

l et¢'ter, 58x. 
td Diuu» Rudolphum Secu»dum 
Cefarem Romanum. 

Here* we have a Pegasus like that which Shakespeare 
praises ; it has a warrior on its back, and bounds along, trotting 
the air. In other two of Reusner's tmblcms, the Winged 
Horse is standing on the ground, with Perseus near him ; and 
in a third, entitled -P»h«ciiNs boni imago,--" Portrait of a good 
prince,"--St. George is represented on a flying steed t attacking 
the Dragon, and delivering from its fury the Maiden chained to 
a rock, that shadows forth a suffering and persecuted church. 
Shakespeare probably had seen these or similar drawings before 

« The device, however, of this Embleln is copied from Symeoni's lita et 3Zet«- 
motfoseo d'Owidio, Lyons, 1559, p. 7z ; as also are some othe used by Reusner. 
"1" In Troilus attd Cressida, act i. sc. 3, 1. 39, vol. i. p. I4, we read-- 
"Anon beheld 
Th strong-ribb'd bark through llquid mount,'dns eut, 
Bounding between the two moist elements, 
Like Perseus' horse." 

44 131l?Z1Al"-l?OOA'S [CrA. Iv. 

he described Louis the Dauphin riding on a charger that had 
nostrils of tire. 
Thc qualities of good horsemanship Shakespcare specially 
admired. Hcnce those lines in t]amlct, act iv. sc. 7, 1. 84, 
vol. viii. p. I45,M 
" l've seen myself, and served against, the French, 
And they can well on horseback : but this gallant 
Had witchcraft in't ; he grew unto his seat, 
And to such wondrous doing brought his horse, 
As ho had been incorpsed and demi-natured 
V:ith the brave beast." 
An emblem in Alciatus, edition 55, p. 2o, also gives the 
mounted varrior on the winged horse ;it is Bellerophon in his 
contest with the Chimoera. The accompanying stanza has in it 
an expression like one which the dramatist uses,-- 
"Sic tu Pegaseis recrus petis oethera permis,'- 
" So thou being borne on the wings of Pegasus seekest the air." 

Equally tasting of the Emblem-writers of Henry's and 
Elizabeth's reigns is that other proverb in French which Shake- 
speare places in the mouth of the Dauphin Louis. The subject 
is still his " paragon of animais," which he prefers even to lais 
mistress. See I-fc«y Il'. act iii. sc. 7, 1. 54, vol iv. p. 55o. " I 
had rather," he says, "have my horse to my mistress ;" and the 
Constable replies, "I had as lief have my mistress a jade." 

"Dau. I tell thee, constable, ltly mistress wears his own hair. 
Con. I could make as true a boast as that, if I had a sov to my 
1)au. Le chien est retourné à son propre vomissement, et la truie 
lavée au bourbier. Thou makest use of any thing." [" The dog has returned 
to his vomit, and the sow that had been washed, to her mire."] 

Though the Fl'ench is ahnost a literal rendering of the Latin 
Vulgate, 2 19ct. ii. 23, "Canis reversus ad suum vomitum : & sus 

c»,v. IV.] 

lota in volutabro luti ;" the whole conception is in the spirit of 
Freitag's $[ythologia Ethica, Antwerp, 1579, in which there is ap- 
pcnded to each emblcm a tcxt of Scripture. A subject is chosen, a 
description of it given, an engraving placed on the opposite page, 
and at the foot some passage ri'oto the Latin vulgate is applicd. 

It may indeed be objected that, if Shakespeare xvas wcll 
acquainted with the Elnblem literature it is surprising he should 
pass over, ahnost in silence, some Devices which partake 
peculiarly of his general spirit, and which would flrnish sugges- 
tions for very forcible and very appropriate descriptions. \Vere 
we to examine his works thoroughly, we should discover solne 
very remarkable omissions of subjects that appear to be exactly 
after his own method and perfectly natural to certain parts of 
his dramas. We may instance the almost total want of con> 
mendation for the moral qualities of the dog, whether "mastiff, 
greyhound, mongrel grim, hound or spaniel, brach or lym, or 
bob-tail tike, or trundle-tail." The whole race is under a ban. 
So industry, diligence, with their attendant advantages,q 

negligence, idleness, with their 
disadvantages, are scarcely al- 
luded to, and but incidentally 
praised or blamed. 
\Ve may take one of Perriere's 
Emblems, the IOlst of Les 3o¢s 
Etgi¢s, as our example, to show 
rather divergence than agree- 
ment,--or, at any rate, a different 
way of treating the subject. 

Perri*r«, i539. 

" En ce pourtraict pouuez veoir diligence, 
Tenant en main le cornet de copie : 
Elle triumphe,' en grand nmgnificence : 
Car de paressç onc ne fut assoupie : 

46 .EAI.BZ.EAI-BOO]t'S ICi,,p. Iv. 

Dessoubz ses piedz tiêt faminç acroupie 
Et attachéÇ en grand captiuité : 
Puis les formys par leur hastiuité 
Diligemment firent le tout ensemble : 
Pour demonstrer qu' auec oysiuité, 
hnpossiblç est que grgdz biês 1'6 assêble." 
"A portrait here you sec of diligence 
Bearing in hand full plenty's horn, 
Triumphant in her great magnificence, 
And ever holding laziness in scorn ; 
Crouching beneath her feet famine forlorn 
In fetters bound of strong captivity. 
And then the ants with their activity 
The whole most diligently along do draw,-- 
A demonstration clear that idleness 
Finds it impossible by nature's law 
\Vith stores of goods ber poverty to bless." 
Under the motto, Otiosi scmpcr cgcntcs,--" The idle alxvays 
destitute,"--Whitney, p. I75, describes the saine conditions,-- 
' HERE, Idlenes doth weepe amid her wantes, 
Neare famished : whome, labour whippes for Ire : 
Here, labour sittes in chariot drawen with antes : 
And dothe abounde vith all he can desire. 
The grashopper, the toyling ante derides, 
In Sommers heate, cause she for coulde prouides." 
The idea is in some degree approached il the Chorus of 
Henry V. act i. 1. 5, vol. iv. p. 49I, - 
"Then should the warlike Harry, like himself 
Assume the port of Mars ; and at his heels, 
Leash'd in like hounds, should fmnine, sword, and tire 
Crouch for employment." 
The triumph of industry may also be inferred from the 
marriage blessing which Ceres pronounces in the Masque of thc 
T«mcst, act iv. sc. , 1. o, vol. i. p. 57,-- 
" Earth's increase, foison plenty, 
I3arns and garners never empty ; 

CnAp. IV.] It'.l¥'OlU2V TO SttAA'ESPEARE. I47 

Vines xvith clustering bunches growing ; 
Plants with goodly burthcn bowing ; 
Swing corne to you at the farthest 
In the very end of harvest ! 
Scarcity and want shall shun you, 
Ceres' blessing so is on )'ou." 

Yet for labour, work, industry, diligence, or by whatever 
other naine the virtue of steady exertion may be known, there 
is scarcely a word of praise in Shakespeare's abundant voca- 
bulary, and of its effects no clear description. We are told in 
Cymbclizc, act iii. sc. 6, 1. 3 I, vol. ix. p. 24o,-- 

"The sweat of industry would dry and die, 
But for the end it works to ..... "Veariness 
Can snore upon the flint, when resty sloth 
Finals the dovn pillow hard." 

And in contrasting the cares of royalty with the sound sleep of 
the slave, Henry V. (act iv. sc. , 1. 256, vol iv. p. 564) declares 
that the slave,- 
" Never sees horrid night, the child of hell ; 
But like a lacquey, from the fise to set, 
Sweats in the eye of Phcebus, and ail night 
Sleelss in Elysium ; next day, after dawn, 
Doth rise, and help Hyperion to his horse ; 
And follov so the ever running year 
"With profitable labour to his grave ;" 
but the subject is never entered upon in its moral and social 
aspects, unless the evils which are ascribed by the Duke of 
Burgundy (Hczry V. act v. sc. , 1. 48, vol. iv. p. 596) to war, are 
also to be attributed to the negligence which war creates,-- 

"The even mead, that erst brought sveetly forth 
The freckled cowslip, burnet and green clover, 
XVanting the scythe, all uncorrected, rank, 
Conceives by idleness ; and nothing teems 
But hateful docks, rough thistles, kecksies, burs, 
Losing both beauty and utility." 

148 E3I-.B.LE21LI] 00'S [CtAv. I V. 

_Another instance we may give of that Emblem spirit, which 
often occnrs in Shakespeare, and at the same time we may 
supply an example of Freitag's method of illustrating a subject, 
and of appending to it a scriptural quotation. (Sec 213't/whg«ia 
EtMca, _Antwerp, I579, p. --9-) The instance is fromlçitLcm', 
act ii. sc. 4, 1. 6I, vol. viii. p. 317, and the subject, Cotraria 
i«dstrice ac d«sidicelrccmia--" The opposite rewards of industry 
and slothfuhaess." 
XVhen Lear had arrived at the Earl of Glostcr's caatle, Kent 
" How chance thc ldug cornes u ith so small a train ? 
t:oal. An thou hadst bccn sct i' the stocks for that question, thou hadst 
well deserv'd it. 
Gt'nL Why, fool ? 
I«o«L XVe'll sct thcc to school to an ant to tcach thee thcre's no labouring 
in the wfnter." 

That school we have presented to us in Freitag's engraving 
(sec woodcut Oll next page), and in the stanzas of \Vhitney, 
p. I59. There are the ne'er-do-well grasshopper and the sage 
schoolmaster of an ant, propounding, we may suppose, the 
xvise saying, Dm cetalis ver agitm': cosde brtma,--" \Vhile 
the spring of life is passing, consult for winter,"and the poet 
lnoralizes thus : 

" IN wintcr coulde, when tree, and bushe, was bare, 
And frost had nip'd the rootes of tender grasse : 
The antes, with ioye did feede vpon their fare, 
Which they had stor'de, while sommers season was : 
To whome, for foode the grashopper did crie, 
And said she statu'd, if they did helpe denie. 

Whereat, an ante, with longe experience wise ? 
And frost, and snowe, had manie winters seene : 
Inquired, what in sommer was ber guise. 
Quoth she, I songe, and hop't in meadowes greene : 
Then quoth the ante, content thee with thy chaunce, 
For to th.v songe, nowe art thou light to daunce ?'" 


Contraria induftrim ac defidim 

fi)-eitag, 579. 

Propter J'rigus piger arare noluit : men,licabit ergo ,eflate, &E non dabitur illi. 
Prouerb. zo, 4. 
"The sluggard will hOt plow by reason of the cold ; thcrefore shall he 
beg in harvesg and bave nothing." 

Freitag's representation makes indeed a change in the seasoll 
at which the " ante, with longe experience wise," administers 
hcr reproof; but it is equally the school for learning in the tilne 
of youth and strength, to provide for the infirmities of age and 
the adversities of fortune. 

_And more than similar in spirit to the Emblem writers which 
preceded, almost emblems themselves, are the whole scenes 
from the l«rc/zaltt tf lwicc, act ii. sc. 7 and 9, and act iii. sc. 2, 

150 E.z][t?LE.M-t?OOA'S [CIAP. IV. 

where are introduced the three caskets of gold, of silver, and 
of lead, by the choice of which the fate of Portia is to be 
"The first, of gold, who this inscription bears, 
' Who chooseth me shall gain what many men desire ;' 
The second, silver, which this promise carries, 
' Who chooseth me shall get as lnuch as he deserves ; ' 
This third, dull lead, with warning all as blunt, 
' Who chooseth me must give and hazard all he hath.'" 
Act ii. sc. 7, lines 4--9- 

And when the caskets are opcned, the drawings and the 
inscriptions on the writtcn scrolls, which are then taken out, 
examined and read, are cxactly like the engravings and the 
verses by which emblems and their mottoes are set forth. 
Thus, on unlocking the golden casket, the Prince of lIorocco 
"o hell ! what have we here ? 
A carrion Death, within whose empty eye 
There is a written scroll ! Fil rcad the writing. [l¢eads.] 
Ail that glisters is not gold ; 
Often have you heard that told : 
llany a man his life hath sold 
But my outside to behold : 
Gilded tombs do vorms infold. 
Had you been as wise as bold, 
Young in lilnbs, in judgment old, 
Your answer had not been inscro!l'd : 
Fare you well ; your suit is cold." 
Act ii. sc. 7, lines 6--73. 

The Prince of /krragon, also, on opening the silver casket, 
receives hot merely a written scroll, as is represented in 
Symeoni's " DSTICtI ORALI,"][oral Statzas,--but what 
corresponds to the device or woodcut of the Emblem-book; 

* The description and quotations are alnlost identical with the \Vhitney 
l)isserlalions, pp. 294-6. 

"The portrait of a blinking idiot," who presents to him "Thc 
schedule," or explanatory rhymes,-- 

The tire seven timcs tried this : 
Seven times tried that judgmcnt is, 
That did nevcr choose amiss. 
Some there bc that shadows kiss ; 
Such have but a shadow's bliss : 
There be fools alive, I wis, 
Silver'd o'er ; and so was this. 
Take what wife you will to bed, 
I will evcr be your head : 
So be gone : you are spcd." 
Act ii. sc. 9, lines 63--7-'- 

These Emblems of Shakespeare's arc thcrefore complete in 
all their parts; the mottocs, the pictures, "a carrion Dcath" 
and "a blinking idiot," and the descriptive verses. 

The words of Portia (act. ii. sc. 9, 1. 79, vol. il. p. 39), when 
the Prince of Arragon says,-- 

" Sweet adieu, Fil keep my oath, 
Patiently to bear my wroth ;" 

are moreover a direct reference 
to the Emblems which occur 
in various authors. Les Z)cvis«s 
H«roiqïes, by Claude Paradin, 
_Antwerp, 562, contains the ad- 
joining Emblem, Too livcly a 
il«asrc comlcts to arcath. 
And Giles Corrozet in lais 
"HECATOIIGRAPHIE, C'est à dire, 
les descriptions de cent figures, 
&c.,"* adopting the motto, llar 

Cofi vluo Placer condtlce à lnorte. 
taradit, t56. 

* See Whitney's F«c-simil« Rcprhtt, plate 32. 

is swcct ozlj, fo lhc bw.lcrhvwcd, presents, in illustration, a butter- 
fly fluttering towards a candle. 

Les Papillons le vont brufler 
A la chanddle qui reluy&. 
Tel veult à la bataillç aller 
Q.sfi ne fcai& combien guerre nuy&. 

"The 13utterflies themselves are 
about to burn, 
In the candle which still shines 
on and warms ; 
Such foolish, wish to battle fields 
to turn, 
Who know not of the war, how 
much it barres." 

l'5"rscs i Latbt, Ezglish, ami 

This device, in fact, was 
one extremely popular with 
the Emblem literati. Bois- 
sard and Messin's Embl«ms, 
1588, pp. 58, 59, present it 
to the mottoes, " Tcmerité 
dangereuse," or lt'lllt'I'¢ " (IÇ 
_P«ricv/osc,--" rashly and dan- 
gerously." Joachinl Camera- 
rius, in his Emblems F.- Uola- 
ti/ibus et Ius«ctis (Nuremberg, 
4to, 596), uses it, with the 
motto, rcz,is ci damzosa 
Vohtas--" A short and de- 
structive pleasure,"and for- 
tifies himself in adopting 
it by no less at, thorities 
than Aschylus and Aristotle. 
Emblcmcs of Love, wilh 
llaliaz, by Otho Voenius, 

4to, Antwerp, 6o8, present Cupid to ris, at p. lO2, as watch- 
ing the moths and the flames with great earnestness, the 
mottoes being, l?rczis ci dazzosa vohplas,--"For one plea- 
sure a thousand paynes,"--and ,rcnc gioia,--" Brief the 
There is, too, on the same subject, the elegant device which 
Symeoni gives at p. 25 of his " DISTICHI IORALI," alld which 
xve repeat on the next page. 
The subject is, Of Lovc Ioo ranch; and the motto, "Too much 
pleasure leads to death," is thus set forth, almost literally, by 
English rhymes : 

CHar. IV.] A'-/VOIV_/V 2"0 SHAIt'ESPEARE. 53 

" In moderation Love is praised and prized, 
Loss and dishonour in excess it brings : 
In burning warmth how fail its boasted wings, 
As sinple butterflies in light chastised." 


Gtovio and Symeoni, x56r. 

Il moderato amorti loda & prezza, 
Ma il troppo apporta danno  dionore, 
Et fpeffo manca nel fouerchio ardore, 
-al femplice farjàlla al lume auuezza. 

Cofi trop- 
po piacer 
conduce à 

Now can there be unreasonableness in supposing that out of 
these many Emblem writers Shakespeare may have had some 
one in view when he ascribed to Portia the words, 
"Thus hath the candle singed the moth. 
O, these deliberate fools ! when they do choose, 
They bave the wisdom by their wit to lose." 
Act ii. sc. 9, lines 79--8- 

t 54 EI]I13LE.4[-1] 00A'S [c tta v. 1 v. 

The opening of the third of the caskets (act. iii. sc. 2, 1. I 5, 
vol. ii. p. 328), that ruade of lead, is also as much ai1 Emblem 
delineation as the other two, excelling them, indeed, in the 
beauty of the language as well as in the excellence of the device, 
a very paragon of gracefidness. " What find I hcre ? " demands 
Bassanio ; and himself rcplies,-- 
" Fair Portia's counterfeit ! What demi-god 
Hath corne so near creation ? More these eyes ? 
Or whether, riding on the balls of mine 
Seem they in motion ? tlere are sever'd lips, 
t'artcd with sugar breath : so sweet a bar 
Shot, id sunder such sweet friends. Herc in ber hairs 
The painter plays the spider, and hath woven 
A goldcn ,ncsh to cntrap thc hearts of men, 
Fastcr than gnats in cobwebs :  but her cyes,-- 
How could he sec to do them ? Having ruade one, 
Mcthinks it should bave power to steal both his, 
And leave itself unfurnish'd. Yet look, how far 
The substance of my praise doth wrong this shadow 
In underprizing it, so far this shadow 
Doth limp behind the substance. Hcre's a scroll, 
The continent and summary of my fortune. 
[l¢«ads] You that choose hot by the view, 
Chance as fair, and choose as t'ue ! 
Since this fortunc fails to  ou, 
Be content and seek no new. 
If you will be pleased with this, 
And hoid your fortune for your bliss, 
"Furn you where your lady is, 
And claire her vith a loving kiss." 

In these scenes of the casket, Shakespeare himself, therefore, 
is undoubtedly an Emblem writer; and there needs only the 

 In the work of Joachim Camet-arius, just quoted, at p. 152 , to the motto, 
'«  IOLENT1OR EX1T,'--The more violent esÆaes p. 99,--there is the device of Gnats 
and V'asps in a cobweb, with the stanza,-- 
" ltnodat cdice»t, sed ,es¢e ¢e,ia tela est ; 
Sic rttupit leges vis, quibus lueret itts." 
" The gnat the web entangles, but to the wasp 
Throughout is pervious ; so force breaks laws, 
Yo which the helpless is held bound in chains.'" 

C n .« e. 1V ] Aç'tro I !'IV 7"0 .ç'HA tt'SPEA  E.  5 5 

woodcut, or the engraving, to render them as perfect examples 
of Emblcn writing as any that issued from the pens of Alciatus, 
Symeoni, and Beza. The dramatist may have been sparing in 
lais use of this tempting method of illustration, )'et, with the 
instances before us, we arrive at the conclusion that Shakespeare 
knew well what Emblems were. And surcly he had seen, and in 
some degree studied, various portions of the Emblem literature 
which vas anterior to, or contemporary with himself. 

Col, es, cd. x552. M,,ttn l'fore l'lag ,. 

i56 EMZEM'-OOI" RE_FERE_/'VCES [cr,v. v. 



HAKESPEARE'S name, in three quarto 
cditions, published during his lifetime, 
appears as author of the play of 
PrDcc of Tyrc ; and if a decision be ruade 
that the authorship belongs to him, and 
that in the main the work was his compo- 
sition, then our previous conjectures are changed into certain- 
ties, and we can confidently declare who were the Emblem 
writers he refers to, and can exhibit the very passages from 
their books which he has copied and adopte& 
The early folio editions of the plays, those of I623 and 632, 
omit the Prrides altogether, but later editions restore it to a 
place among the xvorks of Shakespeare. Dr. Farmer contends 
that the hand of the great dramatist is visible only in the last act ; 
but others controvert this opinion, and maintain, though he xvas 
hot the fabricator of the plot, nor the author of every dialogue 
and chorus, that his genius is evîdent in several passages. 
In Knight's }:'iclorial S/aX'spcrc, supplemental volume, p. 3, 
we are informed : "The first edition of P«ricl«s appeared in I6O9," 
--several years bcfore the dramatist's death,--" under the follow- 
ing title,--'The late and much admired play, called P«ricl«s, Princc 
of Tj,rc, &c. By William Shakespeare: London, Glosson, 6o9.'" 


According to the Cambridge editors, vol. ix. p. i, Preface, 
« another edition xvas issued in the saine year." The publication 
,,vas repeated in x6, x69, 63o and 635, so that at the very 
time when Shakespeare xvas living, lais authorship was set forth ; 
and after his death, while lais friends and contemporaries were 
alive, the opinion still prevailed. 
The conclusion at which Knight arrives, sup. vol. pp.  8,  x9, 
is thus stated by lfim : ""Ve advocate the belief that _P.t,rvclcs, 
or Pcriclcs was a very early work of Shakspere in some form, 
however different from that which we possess." And again, 
""Ve think tlmt the 29criclcs of thc beginning of the seventecnth 
century was the revival of a play written by Shakspere some 
twenty years earlier.... Let us accept Dryden's opinion, that 

" ' Shakespeare's own Muse his Pericles first bore.'" 

The Cambridge editors, vol. ix. p. xo, ed. x866, gave a firmcr 
judgmelat :--"There Call be no doubt that the hand of Shake- 
speare is traceable in many of the scencs, and that throughout 
the play he largely retouched, and even rewrote, the work of 
some inferior dramatist. But the text bas corne down to us in 
so maimed and imperfect a state that we can no more judge of 
wlmt the play was when it lcft the master's hand than we should 
bave been able to judge of 2o»zco azd YMict, if we had only had 
the first quarto as authority for the text." 
Out own Hallam tells us,--" tgcriclcs is gefierally reckoned to 
be in part, and only in part, the work of Shakespeare:" but 
with great confidence the critic Schlegel declares,--" This piece 
was acknowlcdged to be a work, but a youthful xvork of Shake- 
speare's. It is most undoubtedly lais, and if has been admitted 
into several later editions of his works. The supposed imperfec- 
tions originate in the circumstance that Shakespeare here 
handled a childish and extravagant romance of the old poet 
Gower, and was unwilling to drag the subject out of its proper 


sphere. Hence he even introduces Gower himself, and makes 
him deliver a prologue in lais own antiquated language and 
versification. This power of assuming so foreign a manner is at 
least no proof of helplessness." 
There are, then, strong probabilities that in the main the 
P«ricl«s was Shakespeare's own composition, or at least was 
adopted by him; it belongs to his early dramatic life, and at 
any rate it may be taken as evidence to show that the lEmblem 
writers were known and made use of between I589 and 6o9 by 
the dramatists of England. 
13ooks of Eblem are not indeed mentioned by their titles, 
nor so quoted in the t'cricl«s as we are accustomed to do, by 
making direct refereuces ; they were a kind of common property, 
on which everyone might pasture his Pegasus or his lIule with- 
out any obligation to tell where lais charger had been grazing. 
The allusions, however, are so plain, the words so exactly alike, 
that they cannot be misunderstood. The author was of a 
certainty acquainted with more than one lEmblem writer, in 
more than one language, and Paradin, Symeoni, and our own 
Whitney may be recognised in his pages. XVe conclude that 
he had them before him, and copied from them whcn he penned 
the second scene of the Second Act of Pcrid«s. 

The Dialogue is bctween Simonides, king of Pentapolis, and 
his daughter, Thaisa, on occasion of the "triumph," or festive 
pageantry, which was held in honour of her birthday. (Y«rirlrs. 
act. il. sc. ', lines 7--47, vol. ix. pp. 343, 344-) 

E'tter a Knight ; Ire passes oz,er, and Ms Squire p'csent« his sMeM fo tltc Princes.. 
.S'ittt. ,Vho is thc first that doth prefer himself? 
Thai. A knight of Sparta, my renowned father ; 
And the device he bears upon his shield 
Is a black Ethiope reaching at the sun ; 
The word,  Lux tua vita mihi.' 

CAV. V.] I2V TH PA'RICZ]çS. 59 

5"ira. He loves you well that holds his life of you. 
[ l'/te Second Knight 
Who is the second that presents himself? 
ThaL A .prince of Macedon, my royal father ; 
And the device he bears upon his shicld 
ls an arm'd knight that's conquer'd by a lady ; 
The nmtto thus, in Spanish, ' Piu por dulzura que pot fuerza.' 
[ TAe Third Knight 
SDtt. And what's the third ? 
2"bal The third of Antioch ; 
And his device, a wreath of chivalry ; 
The word, ' Me pompoe provexit apex.' 
[ The Fourth Knight assex. 
.S'Dtt. What is the fourth ? 
ThaL A burning torch that's turned upside dox n ; 
The word, 'Quod me alit, me extinguit.' 
5"ira. x.Vhich shows that beauty bath his power and will, 
Which can as well inflame as it can kill. 
[T/te Fifth Knightasses. 
ThaL The rifth, an hand environed with clouds, 
Holding out gold that's by the touchstone tried ; 
The motto thus, ' Sic spectanda rides.' 
[ Tire Sixth Knight,.ws. 
Si»t. And what's 
Thc sixth and last, the which the knight himselt 
With such a graccful courtesy dclivcr'd ? 
ThaL He seems to be a stranger ; but his present is 
A wither'd branch, that's only green at top ; 
The motto, ' In hac spe vivo.' 
• 5"im. A pretty moral ; 
From the dejected state wherein he is, 
He hopcs by you his fortunes yet may flourish." 

_As with the ornaments "in silk and gold," which hlary" 
Queen of Scotland worked on the bed of her son James, or with 
those in "the lady's closet" at Haxvsted, we trace them up to 
their originals, and pronounce them, hoxvever modified, to be 
derived from the Emblem-books of their age ; so, with respect 
to the devices which the six knights bore on their shields, we 
conclude that these have their sources in books of the saine 
character, or in the genius of the author who knexv so xvell hoxv 
to contrive and hoxv to execute. Emblems beyond a doubt they 
are, though hot engraved on out author's page, as they were on 

xoo EA£t3[EAl'-t300A" .EFEEIVCES [Cm'. v. 

the escutcheons of the knightly company. Take the device 
and motto of the gnats or butterflies and the candle ; we trace 
them from Voenius, Camerarius, and Whitney, to Paradin, from 
Paradin to Symeoni, and from Symeoni to Giles Corrozet,--at 
every step we pronounce them Emblems,--and should pass the 
saine judgment, though we could not trace them at ail. Itis 
the saine with these devices in the Triumph Scene of t«ricl«s ; 
we discover the origin of some of them in Emblem works of, or 
belote Shakespeare's era,--and where we fmi to discover, there 
we attribute invention, invention guided and perfected by 
masters in the art of fashioning pictures to portray thoughts by 
means of things. We will, hovever, in due order consider the 
devices and mottoes of these six knights who came to honour 
the king's daughter. 

The first knight is the Knight of Sparta,-- 

"And the device he bears upon his shield 
Is a black Ethiope reaching at the sun ; 
The vord, Lu.,: tua vita mihi." 
Act ii. sc. 2, lines 9--2. 

A motto almost identical belongs to an old family of Vorcester- 
shire, the Blounts, of Soddington, of which Sir Edward Blount, 
Bart., is, or was the representative ; their motto is,/;mr ttta ï,i[a 
mca,--" Th¥ light, m¥ lire ;"but their crest is an armed foot 
in the sun, not a black Ethiop reaching towards him. There 
was a Sir 'Walter Blount slain on the king's side at the battle 
of Shrewsbury, and whom, previous to the battle, Shakespeare 
represents as sent b¥ Henry IV. with offers of pardon to Perc¥. 
(H«;v lU. Pt. . act. iv. sc. 3, 1. 3o, vol. iv. p. 3-'-) A Sir James 
Blount is also briefl¥ introduced in Richard lII. act. v. sc. _% 
1. 65. The name being familiar to Shakespeare, the motto also 
might be ;--and by a very slight alteration he has ascribed it to 
the Knight of Sparta. 

CP. V.] IN" TII P)?RICL)Lç.   

I have consulted a considcrable numbcr of books of Emblems 
published before the _Pcriclcs was written, but have hot dis- 
covered either the device or "the vord " exactly in the form 
given in the play. There is a near approach to the device in 
Reusner's Emblcms, printed at Francfort in 1581 (Emb. 7, lib. i. 
P. 9)- A man is represented stretching foh his hand towards 
the meridian sun, and the device is surmounted by the motto, 
Sol admi z,irtus,"Virtue the sun of the soul." The elegiac 
verses which follmv carry out the thought with considerable 
« Sol, ocultts cœeli, rad(s illttmittat orbem : 
Et Pha'be ,wcte»z diicit alba 1l[ffl71111. 
Sal a,ti**ti ,irtlls Se,lSUS ilho,ti, tat «gos : 
t tencbras mettis disattit alz, tades. 
Si tozti vh'tzts vh'tuti rœeuh ltcel 
Pura fld, : nikil bac cho'ius csse poh'sL 
A ttrea vh'tzttis specics, fldciq., Pailippe, 
Proeradians, coelo s& tibi llto,tstrat 
Scilicct k& z,#w Sol cst,  Luc'r ,,nts : 
Hoec Pha'be, uocte7*t quœe fitffal igze suo. 
I**tauidts leuc&'as &'sicis, atq. **tctus. 
5l **taff, to Plta'b W. miceut, d Ltcr oral: 
Dura tibi sic ,b'lus htceat, atq.dcs. '' 
Among these lines is one to illustrate the first knight's motto ; 
« Sciliccl kic vile Sol esl, & Lucr vnus," 
" This in truth is the Sun of life, and the one Light-bringer." 

* Thus to 1oe rendered into symmetrical lines of English,-- 
" The Sun, the eye of heaven, with bearns the world illumes, 
And tlae pale IXloon afar scatters black night. 
So virtue, the soul's sun, out pining senses illumes, 
And genial faith dispels the darkness of the mind. 
If vlrtue to the mmd,--so leading the way to virtue shines 
Faith in her purity : nothing can be brighter than this. 
The golden splendour of virtue and faith, O Philip, 
Throwlng out bearnings, shows to thee paths to the sky. 
This in truth is the Sun of life, and the one Light-bringer, 
This in truth the Moon whch by shltxing drives away night. 
While in thy mind these lights thou seest on hlgh,--of the world 
The darkness and terrors untrembling thou dot behold. 
Sun and Bloon and the Light-bringer flash light to their orbs, 
And the while on thee shine, too, virtue and faith." 

But Plautus, the celebrated comic poet of Rome, gives in lais 
Asinaria, 3.3. -4, almost the very words of the Spartan knight : 
Crtc tu vila es mihi,--" Of a truth thou art lire to me." 
The introduction of an Ethiop was not unusual with Shake- 
speare. In the Two Gcnt[«m«u of l"crona (act. il. sc. 6. 1. 25, 
vol. i. p.  e), Proteus avers,- 
"And Sih-ia,--witness Iteaven that ruade her fair ! 
Shows Julia but a swarthy Ethiope ;" 
and in Lovc's Labonr's Lost (act. iv. sc. 3, 1.  , vol. il. p. 44), 
Dumain reads these verses, 
"Do hot call it sin in me, 
That I ara forsworn for thee ; 
Thou for whom Jove would swear 
Juno but an Ethiope werc." 
A genius so versatile as that of Shakespeare, and capable of 
creating ahnost a whole world of imagination out of a single 
hint, might very easily accomlnodate to lais OWll idea Reusner's 
suggestive motto, and make it yield the light of love to the loyer 
rather than to the reverend sage. Failing in identifying the 
exact source of the " black Ethiope reaching at the sun," we 
may then hot unreasonably suppose that Shakespeare himself 
formed the device, and fitted the Latin to it. 

In the Emblem-books of the sixteenth and seventeenth 
centuries, the Latin mottoes very greatly preponderated over 
those of other languages ; and had Shakespeare confined him- 
self to Latin, it might remain doubtful whether he knew any- 
thing of Emblem works beyond those of our own countrymen 
Barclay and Whitneyand of the two or three translations into 
English from Latin, French, and Italian. But the quotation of 
a purely Spanish motto, that on the second knight's device, 
Phi ibor da[z«tra quc ibar fiwa," More by gentleness than by 
force" (act il. sc. 2, 1. 2y},shows that lais reading and observa- 


tion extended beyond nacre English sources, and that with 
other literary men of lais day he had looked into, if he had not 
studied, the widely-known and very popular writings of Alciatus 
and Sambucus among Latinists, of Francisco Guzman and 
Hernando Soto anaong Spaniards, of Gabriel Faerni and Paolo 
Giovio alnong Italians, and of Bartholomew Aneau and Claude 
Paradin among the French. 
Shakespeare gives several snatches of French, as iii 21"zot'[ft/ 
2Vight, act iii. sc. I, I. 68, vol. iii. p. 265,-- 
"çir Andr«z. Dieu vous garde, monsieur, 
I ïol«. Et vous aussi ; votre serviteur ;" 
and in t[,wry l:act iii. sc. 4; act iv. sc. 4and 5;; actv. sc. 2, 
vol. iv. pp. 538--540, 574--5ï7, and 598--603 : in the scenes 
betxveen Katharine and Alice; Pistol and the French soldier 
taken prisoner; and Katharine and King Henry. Take the 
last instance,-- 
"Iç. I[«Jt. Fair Katharine, and most fair, 
,Vill you vouchsafe to teach a soldier terres 
Such as will enter at a lady's ear 
And plead his love-suit to ber gentle heart ? 
Iç«tlt. Your majesty shall mock at lne ; I cannot speak your England. 
lç. H«n. 0 fair Katharine, if you will love me soundly with your French 
heart, I will be glad to hear you confess it brokenly with your English 
tongue. Do you like me, Kate? 
Içatlt. Pardonnez-moi, 1 cannot tell vat is ' like me.' 
Iç. Hoz. An angel is like you, Kate, and you are like an angel. 
A'atlt. Que dit-il ? que je suis semblable à les anges ? 
Alice. Oui, vraiment, sauf votre grace, ainsi dit-il. 
Iç.//-ct. I said so, dear Katharine ; and I must not blush to affirm it. 
K«tl«. 0 bon Dieu ! les langues des hommes sont pleines de tromperies." 
Appropriately also to the locality of the Tamig of tac 
Shrczv (act i. sc. 2, 1. e4, vol. iii. p. 23), Hortensio's house in 
Padua, is the Italian quotation. 
"_pet. ' Con tutto il core ben trovato,' may I say. 
Hot. Alla nostra casa ben venuto, molto honorato, signor lnio Pctrucio.'" 

64 E211BZE3[-BOOK REFERE-ArC ES IChtyo'. v. 

We find only two Spanish sentences, those already quoted, 
one being Pistol's motto on his sword, Si rtuna me lormcnta 
spcrato me contcnta ; the other, that of the Prince of Macedon, on 
lais shield, Pbt tor dulura quc por fucla. 
Similar proverbs and sayings abound both in Cervantes, who 
died in I616, the year of Shakespeare's death, and in the 
Spanish Emblem-books of an earlier date. I have very" carefully 
examined the Emblems of Alciatus, translated into Spanish in 
1549, but the nearest approach to the motto of the Prince of 
Macedon is, Quc »tas pucd," la cloqucuçia que h fortalica (p. 124) , 
--" Eloquence rather than force prevails,"which may be taken 
from Alciat's 18oth Emblem, Floqucutia fortitudiuc trcestantio: 
Other Spanish Fmblena-books of that day are the A[oral 
Emblcms of Hernando de Soto, published at Madrid in I599, 
and Fmblcms A[oralicd, of Don Sebastian Orozco, published in 
the year 16IO, also at Madrid ; but neither of these gives the 
words of the second knight's device. Nor are they contained 
in the 3[oral Trhtvhs, as they are entitled, of Francisco 
Guzman, published in 1587, the year after Whitney's work 
appeared. The 3[owl t?mbh'ms, too, of Juan de Horozco, are 
without them,--an octavo, published at Segovia in 1589. 
But, although there has been no discovery of this Spanish 
motto in a Spanish Emblem-book, the exact literal expression 
of it is found in a French work of extreme rarity--Corrozet's 
" I-IECATOMGRAPIIIE," Paris, 154o. There, at Emblem 28, 
tglus lar do¢tlccur qttc tar force,*--" More by gentleness than 
by force,"is the saying which introduces the old fable 
of the Sun and the Wind, and of their contest with the 

 Of cognate meaning is Messin's motto in Boissard's Emblcms, 588, pp. 8-'-3, 
" Plvs par vertv qve par armes,"--tglus virtute quàn armis,--the device being a 
tyrant, with spearmen to mlard him, but singeing his beard because he was afraid of 
his barber,- 
" Et vuyde d'asseurance, il aymoit fier 
La façon de son poil au charbon, qu'au barbier. 
Tant l'la,justice au cœur ente de meffiance.'" 

'nAr,. V.] LV Ttft ]E)]CLtS. I6 5 

Contre la froidure du vent, 
L'homlne le tient clos & 1 ferre, 
Mais le Soleil le plus fouuent 
Luy fai mettre fa robç à terre. 

travellers. Appended are a symbolical woodcut and a French 
Plus par doulceur que par force. 
Corroz¢t, I540. 
which may be pretty accurately rendered by the Eglish 

" Against the wind's cold blasts 
Man draws his cloak around ; 
But while sweet sunshine lasts, 
He leaves it on the ground." 
This comment in verse foIlows Corrozet's Emblem,-- 
" Qvand le vent est fort & subit, 
Violent pour robe emporter, 
L'homme se serr en son habit, 
Affin qu'il ne luy puisse oster. 
Mais quand le Soleil vient iecter 
Sur luy ses rays clers & luysantz, 
Le cauld le faict sans arrester 
Despouiller ses habitz plaisantz. 
,v Ainsi mytié & doulceur 
Faict plus que force & violence, 
Doulceur est d'amour propre sœur, 
Qui rend l'homme plein d'excellence. 
Il ne fault doncq mettrç en silence 
Ceste tres noble courtoisie, 
Mais l'extoller en precellence ; 
Commç vne vertu bien choisie. 
,v Hommes, chassez de vous rigueur 
Qui vostre grand beaulté efface, 
Prenez de doulceur la vigueur, 
Qui enrichera vostre face. 
Doulceur ci bien meilleure g-race, 
Qui rend le visage,' amoureux, 
Que d'estre dict en toute place 
L'oultre cuidé, fol, rigoureuz." 

66 E31.£;LE31-Z]OOA" IVEFIdE.A, rCES [C:tv. V. 

There is a brief allusion to this fable in Kag 3tohu (act iv. 
sc. 3, 1. t 55, vol. iv. p. 76), in the words of Philip, the half-brother 
of Faulconbridge,-- 
"Nmv happy he whose cloak and cincture can 
Hold out this tempest." 
The saine fable is given in Frcitag's «'{YTItOLOGIA ETHICA," 
Antwcrp, x579, P- "7- It is to a very similar motto,-- 

Ioderata vis impotenti viole»tla potior,-- 

Fre[ta, 1579. 

" Moderate force more powerful than impotent violence,"--to 
which are added, below the woodcut, two quotations from the 
Holy Scriptures,-- 
« A'on quia dominamvrfidei."--2 Cor. i. 24. 
" Faclus smn hoErmis D-wtus; 7l i#Swtos h«rifacer«d'-- 1 Cor. ix. 22. 
" Not that we have dominion over your faith ;" 
"To the weak I became as weak, that I might gain the weak ; 

CHAP. vk'.] I.V ::[E ]gEId[C.[.IS. 16 7 

implying that not by the rigid exercise of authority, but by a 
sympathising spirit, the truc faith will be carried onward ullto 
Now, as the motto of the second knight existed in French, 
and, as we have seen, Emblem-books were translated into 
Spanish, the supposition is justifiable, though we have failed to 
trace out the very fact, that the author of the _P«ricl«s--Shake- 
speare, if you will--copied the words of the motto ri'oto some 
Spanish Emblem-book, or book of proverbs, that had come 
within his observation, and which applied the saying to woman's 
gentleness subduing man's harsher nature. Future inquirers 
will, perhaps, clear up this little mystery, and trace the very 
xvork in which the Spanish saying is original, _Pit2/,or dul.ttra 
qw 2or f.c=a. 

We pass to thc third, the fourth, and the fifth knights, with 
their " devices " and " words ;" and to illustrate these we have 
ahnost a superabundant wealth of embleln-lore, from any 
portion of which Shakespeare may bave ruade his choice. His 
materials may have comc from some one of the various editions 
of Claude Paradin's, or of Gabricl Symeoni's " DEVISES HEROI- 
QVES," which appeared at Lyons and Antwerp, in French and 
Italian, between the years I557 and I59O ; or, as the learned 
Francis Douce supposes, in his [ll¢tslratiots of ç]ak2Pc % 
pp. 302, 393, the dramatist may have seen the English trans- 
lation of these authors, which vas published in London in 
x59, or, with greater probabilit)-, as some are inclined to 
say, he may have used the emblems of our countryman, Geffrey 
\Vhitlmy. \Vere it llOt that Daniell's translation, iii I585, of 7"he 
lVorthy Tract of tatlts 27ovDts is without plates, we should 
include this in the lmmber. 
Of the devices in question, Whitney's volume contains two, 
and the other works the three ; but between certain expressions 

168 E[BLEA[-BOOK ]EFtï] E-hCES ICi,,e. v. 

of Whitney's and those of the P«ricl«s, the similarity is so great, 
that the evidence of circumstance inclines, I may say decidedly 
inclines, to the conclusion that for two out of the three emblems 
referred to, Shakespeare was indcbted to lais fcllow Elizabcthan 
poet, and hot to a foreign source. 
From lais use of Spanish and French mottoes, as well as 
Latin, it is evidcnt that Shakespeare, no more than Spenser, 
needcd the aid of translations to render the emblem treasures 
available to himself; and if, as somc maintain,* the Pcriclcs 
was in existence previous to the year I59, it could llOt have 
been that use was ruade of thc English translation of that date 
of the "DEVISES ]-IEOIQVES," by P. S. ; it remains, therefore, 
that for two out of the three emblcms he must either lmve 
employed one of the original editions of Lyons and of _Antwerp, 
or bave been acquainted with our Whitney's Choicc of Emblcmcs, 
and lmve obtained help from them ; and for the third emblem 
he must bave gone to the French or Italian originals. 

The third knight, named of _Antioch, has for his device 
" a wreath of chivalry,"-- 
"The word, ]lc 2bom2bcc 2brovea-it 
(Act il. sc. _, 1. 3o,) 
£ c., "The crown at the triumphal procession has carried me on- 
ward." On the I46th leaf of Paradin's "DEVISES HEROIQVES," 
edition _Antwerp,  56-% the wreath and the motto are exactly as 
Shakespeare describes them. But Paradin gives a long and 

* See tgcmty Cyclo«edia, vol. xxi. p. 343, where the 1éricles and eight other play. 
are assigned "to the period from Shakspere's early manhood to 59x- Some of those 
dramas lnay possibly then bave been created in an ilnperfect state, very different from 
that in which we have received them. If the Tiltts .eqtdrotictts and lo'icles are 
Shakspere's, they belong to this epoch in their first state, whatever it might bave 
been." See also Knight's lictori«l Shaks1ere, supplemental volume, p. x9, where, 
as before mentioned, the opinion is laid clown,--" We think that the lericlcs of the 
beginning of the seventeenth century was the revival of a play written by Shakspere 
some twenty years eal'lier." 

C.u,. V.] IN TtIE PERICZES. i6 9 

interesting account of the laurel-vreath, and of the high value 
accorded to it in Roman estimation. "It was," as that author 

remarks, "the grandest 
recompense, or the 
grandest reward which 
the ancient Romans 
could thiuk of to offer 
to the Chieftains over 
armies, to Emperors, 
Captains, and victorious 
To gratify the curio- 
sity which some may 
fecl respecting this sub- 
ject, I add the whole of 
the original. 

Me pompoe prouexit apex. 

Paradit, 56z. 

"La iblus graude rccomteuse, ou [us gr, td loyer que les antiques 
Rommaius esliutasscul fih'e aus Chez d'armee, Emficreu's, Cailaiucs, 
Chcualiers viclori«n 5 c'eslo#de les gvter  honuore'r (selon 
&u's merites, esta#, cbacs,  derer) de cerlabe's helle's Couronues." fui 
ffenerah'mêl (à cette cause) fitrent aellees A[ilitab'es. Dexçuelles (pour auoir 
estdes iudice  eusefucs de rouesse"  vo'tu) les.gux des rit@ales 
lus nobles, sont d li'es en dcuises : lanl a la louange  memoire 
l'antique noblesse, que areillemenl A la recrealion, consohzNon,  eserance 
de h modowe as»'ïl  desirT1 aussi de aweœeir aus gages  loyers 
aarleuffs  dedieg aus dfenseurs de la rccommeml«b& Reubliçue. La 
remœeere donçues mise oz renff, rcrescn#ra h Triolet& : laquelle cstanl 
tissue du ve»d Laurier, auec ses b«cques, esloil donnde au Triozleu 3 auquel 
per d«o'el du Seual, estoil licite d« h'io'r parmi h vile de Romme, sur 
charlb[, comme vic[oræus de ses cunenzt). Desquds ucaulmohts lui couuénoit 
deuanl la pompe, fah'e aawh" «& fit d(ailè, du nombre parfait de ciuf mi/c, 
e« vue scu& bataille. Za susdilc Couronne hiolc, ares louff /rait de 
h'mps (dcdiuanl l'mph'e) fitl commêcee «} esOe mes&e,  varide de" Perles 
 pierr«rie,  puis euliowtctt chanffde de Laurier natuwl eu Zaurier 
burine] é cu#u, sus vu cercle d'o': comme se void fiar les AZcdailles, de 
lusieurs monuoA,es aul@ues. '' 

* It may be mentioned that P:radin describes rive other Ronron wreaths of honour. 

7o tïAI2LtïAL2OOlt  .RtïFtïRtïlVCES [CHAr. V. 

Shakespeare does not add a single word of explanation, 
or of amplification, which he might be expected to have 
done, had he used an English translation; but simply, 
and without remark, he adopts the emblem and its motto, 
as is natural to anyone who, though not unskilled iii the 
language by which thcy are expresscd, is hot perfectly at 
home in it. 
Of chivalry, however, he often speaks,- " of chivalrous 
design of knightly trial." To 13olingbroke and IIowbray wager 
of battlc is appointed to decide thcir differences (Richard II. 
act i. sc. , 1. 2o2, vol. iv. p.  6), and the king says, 
'- Since we tan not atone you, we shall see 
Justice design the victor's chivalry." 
And (vol. iv. p. 37)John of Gaunt declares of England's 
kings ; they were, 
" Renowned for their deeds as far from home, 
In Christian service and true chivalry, 
As is the sepulchre in stubborn Jewry 
of the world's ransoln, blessed MatT's Son." 
But in the case of the fourth and fifth knights, it is not the 
simple adoption of a device which we have to consider; the 
very ideas, ahnost the very phrases in which those ideas were 
clothed, have also been given, pointing out that the Dramatist 
had before him something more than explanations in an un- 
familiar tongue. 

The device of the fourth knight is both described and 
'* A burning torch that's turned upside down ; 
The word, Qtod me alil, me cylitguil. 
\Vhich shows, that beauty hath this power and will, 
Which can as well inflame as it can kill." 
Act ii. sc. e, lines 32--35. 


Thus presented iii Symeoni's " TETRAST.ICIII 
Lyons, 1561 , p. 35,-- 


I{ORALI," edition 

Symeoni, t56 (dimlnisl, ea coi#v). 

.AI1 Italian stanza explains the dcvice,-- 

"' Nutrifce il fuoco h lui la cera i»torno, 
Et la cera l'eflin.çue, b quanti fono, 
Che dolko vn riceuuto  largo dono, 
Dal donator rlceuon danno . fcorno." 

" Qdli me Mit, 
tne extmgutt. 

The sense of which xve llO,V cndeavour to give,-- 

"The wax here within nourishes the flames 
And the vax stifles them ; how many names 
Who aftcr a large gift and kindness shown, 
Get from the giver harm and scorn alone." 

"Who nourishes me, 
extinguishes me." 

Symeoni (from edition Lyons, 
piece of history :- 
"In the battle of the Swiss, 

I574, p. 200) adds this little 
routed near Milan by King 

Francis, M. de Saint Valier, the old man, father of lladalne the 
Duchess de Valentinois,* and captain of a hundred gelltlemen 
of the king's house, bore a standard, whereon was painted a 
lighted torch with the head downward, on which flowed so much 
wax as would extinguish it, with this motto ' QvI ME ALIT, ME 
EXTINGVIT,' imitating the enlblem of the king his toaster; that 
is, 'NVTRISCO ET EXTINGVO.' It is the nature of the wax, which 
is the cause of the torch burning when held upright, that with 
the head downward it should be extinguished. Thus he wished 
to signify, that as thc beauty of a lady whom he loved nourished 
all lais thoughts, so she put him in peril of lais life. See still 
this standard in the church of the Celestins at Lyons." 
Paradin, who confessedly copies from Symeoni, agrees very 
nearly with this account, but gives the name of the Duchess 
"Diane de Poitiers," and omits mentioning " the emblem of the 
_As stated in the fac-simil« Rc:rDtt of 3,Vhitney's Emblcmcs, 
p. 3o2, Douce in lais Ilhtstratious of Shakes:car«, pp. 3o2, 393, 
advances the opinion that the translation of Paradin into 
English, 1591, by P. S., was the source of Shakespeare's torch- 
elnblem; "but it is very note-worthy that the torch in the 
Englisll translation is not a torch' that's turned upside down,' 
but one held uninverted, with the flame naturally ascending. 
This contrariety to Shakespeare's description seems fatal there- 

* Symeoni, in I559, dedicated " Ail' Illustrissima Signora Duchessa di Valen- 
tinois," his "VITA ET I.[ETAMORFOSEO D'OvIDIO," 8VO, containing iS 7 pages of 
devices, with beautiful borders. 
"t" "2Vella giornata d« SMzzeri, rolti 2bresso c [ilano dal Rè Francesco, llonsigtor 
di Sat l'alicre il Iëcchio, 2badre di ll[«&t»ta la Z?uckessa di Valeutino3% e Cafiilano di 
cento Geutt'l'AuomiM della Casa del , 2bort3 
torchio acceso cot la tesla Dt giù, sulla quale colaua la«la cera, che quasi H seKnata , 
con fueste 2barole, QVl ME ALIT» ME E!'INGVIT, imitatdo l'imresa del Vè suo 
29adrone: cio è, NVTRISCO ET EXTINGVO.  la tatttra dclla cera, la quale è cag'ione 
cite 'l torchio abbrucia stando ritto, che col ca2bo h gi?t si s2begne : volendo 2ber cib siKni fi- 
care, che conte la bellezza d'vna Z?onna, che egli amaua, nut:iua tutti i suoi 2bensieri, 
cos lo meltetta it pericolo d«lla rira, ICesi attchora ft«csto slëndardo nella Ckicsa de 
Cdestini Dt Lyone." 

CH«I,. V.] IN" THE P£RICL£S  73 

fore to the translator's claire." P. S., however, renders the 
motto, " He that nourishcth me, killeth me ;" and so may put 

in a claire to the sugges- 
tion of the line,- 
"Which can as well inflalne 
as it can kill." 
Let us next take 
Vqitney's stanza of six 
lines to the saine motto 
and the same device, 
p. I83; premisin K that 
the very same wood- 
block appears to have 
been used for the Pa- 
radin in 1562 , and for 
the Whitney in I586. 

4,d me alit, me extinguit. 

Paradin, x56u. 

" EVEN as the waxe dothe fcede, and the flamc, 
So, loue giues life ; and loue, dispaire doth giue : 
The godlie loue, doth louers croune with faine : 
The wicked loue, in shame dothe make them liue. 
Then leaue to loue, or loue as reason will, 
For, loucrs lewde doe vainlie languishe still." 

Now, comparing together Symeoni, Paradin, Whitney, and 
Shakespeare, as explanatory of the fourth knight's cmblem, we 
can scarcely rail to perceive in the PccicI«s a closer resemblance, 
both of thought and expression, to \Vhitcey than to the other 
two. Whitney wrote.-- 
« So, loue giues lire ; and loue, dispaire doth giue," 

which the Pcricl«s thus amplifies : 

" Which shows, that beauty hath this power and vill, 
Which can as well inflame as it can kill." 

We conclude, therefore, from this instance, that \Vhitney's 

74 EAIJYLE2ll--JYOOA" REFERE_/VCES [civ. v. 

Choic« of Emblcm«s was known to the author of the I)cricl«s, and 
that in this instance he has simply carried out the idea which 
-,vas thcre suggested to him. 
_A_ slight allusion to this saine device of the burning torch is 
ruade in 3 l/cm21, VL (act iii. sc. 2, l. 5 I, vol. v. p. 28), whcn 
Clarence remarks,-- 

« As red as tire ! nay, then her wax must melt ;" 

but a very distinct one in Hamlct's words (act iii. sc. 4, i. 82, 
vol. viii. p.  12),-- 

O shame ! whcre is thy blush ? Rebcllious hcll, 
If thou canst mutine in a matron's bones, 
To flaming youth let virtue be as wax 
And melt in her own tire ; proclaim no shame 
Vhen the compulsive ardour gives the charge, 
Since frost itself as actively doth burn, 
And reason panders will." 

The "AtoRw EMBLEMATA,"--Emb[cmcs of 
vo'ses i,t Latb6 E,,glish, and Italian : 41o, Antverpi, 5.Dc.x., 
gives the saine variation in the reading of the motto as Shake- 
speare does, namely, " Quod " for " Qui;" and as Daniell had 
done in Thc IVorthy Traa of Pazthts oMus, in 585, by sub- 
stituting " Qtod me alit" for " QM me aHt."* The latter is the 
reading in Paulus Jovius himself,and is also found in some of 
the early editions of this play. (See Cambridge Shabcsçcarc, 
vol. ix. p. 343.) The Amorum Emblcmata, by Otho Vmnius, 
named above, and dated 6oSone year before " PERICLES, 
PRINCE OF TVRE," was first pulished, in quartohas the Latin 
motto, "QvoD NVTRIT, EXTINGVIT," Englished and Italianised 
as follows : 

* See Essays Zit«rary and t?ibliol,,r,ribhlcal , pp. 3Ol-2, and 311, in the Fac-simile 
Reprint of Whitncy's E»«blcmes, 1866. 


"Loue hil[«d by h[s owne nourilure." 
« The torche is by the wax maintayned whyle it burnes, 
But turned vpsyde-down it straight goes out & dyes, 
Right so by Cupids heat the louer lyues lykewyse, 
But thereby is hee kild, when it contrarie turnes." 
" Quel che nutre, estingue." 
")tlre la cera il foco, e ne lo riua 
Quando  riuolto in ffiù : d'Mnor l'ardore 
Couh'ar[o 'tto 7EE,g sol suffffeHo 

_A_t a much earlier date, I54o, Corrozet's It«catomEralhic 
gives the inverted torch as a device, with the motto, " Mauluaise 
" Quelcun en prenant ses esbatz 
M'ainsi mise contrebas 
La cire le feu nourrissant 
L'estainct & le faict perissant." 

But the " device " and "thc word " of thc fifth knight,-- 
"An hand environed 
vith clouds, Sic fpe&anda rides. 
Holding out gold tlmt's by the 
touchstone tried ; 
The motto thus, Sic spectan&tfld«s," 
(Act ii. sc. 2, lines 36--38,) 

"So is fidelity to be proved," 
--occur most exactly in Para- 
edition 1562, leaf Ioo, reverse; 
they are here figured. 
Paradin often presents an 
account of the origin and 
appropriation of his emblems, 
but, in this instance, he offers 
order to 

Paradb,, ,562. 

only an application. "If, in 
prove fine gold, or other metals, xve bring thetn to the 

r76 .E_Jl.t?L.EIll-.t?OOA" R.EF.ER.EJVCES [CAœ. V. 

touch, without trusting to their glitter or their sound ;--so, to 
recognise good people and persons of virtue, it is needful to 
observe the splendour of their deeds, without dwelling tlpOn their 
mere talle" * 
The narrative which Paradin neglects to give may be sup- 
plied from other sources. This Emblem or Symbol is, in fact, 
that which was appropriatcd to Froncis I. and Froncis II., kings 
of France from 1515 to I56o, and also to one of the Henries 
probably Henry IV. The inscription on the coin, according to 
Paradin and Whitncy's woodcut, is " FRANCISCVS DEt GRATIA 
FR\N. REX ;" this is for Francis I. ; but in the I-ficro, ffra2P]da 
Icgz,z fi'raucorvz  (vol. i. pp. 87 and 88), the emblem is 
inscribed, "Franciscus II. Valesius Rex Francorum XXV. 
ChristianissilnUS." _A_ device similar to Paradin's then follows, 
and the comment, Croat»z aw« um»mm, ad L3'dhmz 
laçidc,iz de.rira hwc c.tlicat & sic, ici cst, dtris Dt rcbts fi«[cm 
c.r2ploran&m docct,--" This right hand extends to the Lydian 
stone a coin of gold which is wreathed around, and so teaches that 
fidelity in times of difficulty is put to the proof." The coin applied 
to the touchstone bears the inscription, " FRANCISCVS II. FRAN- 
CORV. IEX. A_la origilml draving,: by Crispin de Passe, in the 
possession of Sir William Stirling Maxwell, Bart., of Keir, 
presents the inscription in another form, " HENRIÇVS, D. G. 
FRANCORV. REX." The first work of Crispin dc Passe is datcd 
589, and Henry IV. was recognised king of France in 1593. 
His portrait, and that of lais qucen, Mary of Medicis, wcre 

* " Si ibottr eslrottuer la filt Or, ou attD'e lltetatts, lolt les raorle sus la Touche, 
smts qu'mz se cm(ie de leurs littlttltelts, ott de lettrs solzs, attasi 
bioz,  vel'[tats persomtages, se fzttt preudre garde à la slelzdcur de leto-s oeuul'es, sauts 
s'alT" t'stt'l" ait fiafi il. " 
 See Symbola Dhthta  tlnalla olltc,»l, [lll?era[olï,llt, R,'nz, 3 vals. folio 
in one, Franckfort, 1652. 
$ This original drawing, with thirty-four others by the saine artist, first appeared 
in Embl«ma[a Selecliora, 4to, Amsterdam, 17o4 ; also in 
Zimtebcd&t," Eight-and-thirty A rtistic Emblems," 4to, Amsterdam, 1737- 

CHA. v.] I.V T_H)? P)?IICZ)?S. :77 

painted by De Passe; and so the Henry on the coin in the 
drawing above alluded to was Henry of Navarre. 
The whole number of original drawings at Keir, by Crispin 
de Passe, is thirty-five, of the size of the following plate,--No 2 7 
of the serics. 

The lnottoes in Embhwtata Sd«cNora are,-- 
Quidquid habet mundus, regina Pecunia vincit, 
Fuhnineoque ictu fortius una ferit." 
't Geld houd den krygsknecht in zyn plichten, 
Kan meer dan't dondertuig uit richten." 

* Or it may be a fexv years later. The drawings, however, are undoubted rioto 
which the above woodcut has been executed. 

A A 


Whatever the world possesses, money rules as queen, 
And more strongly than by lightning's force smites together." 
To his duty the warrior, 'tis inoney can hold,-- 
Than the thunderbolt greater the influence of gold." 
Very singular is the correspondence of the last two mottoes 
to a scene in Timon ofAthcus (act iv. sc. 3, lines 25,377, vol. vii. 
pp..769, .783). Timon digging in the wood finds gold, and asks,-- 
"What is here ? 
Gold ! yellow, glittering, precious gold !" 
and aftcrwards, when looking on the gold, he tlms addresses it,-- 
" o thou sweet king-killer, and dear divorce 
'Twixt natural son and sire ! thou bright defiler 
Of Hymen's purest bed ! thou valiant ,Mars ! 
Thou ever young, fresh, loved, and delicate wooer, 
Whose blush doth thaw the consecrated snow 
That lies on Dian's lap ! thon visible god, 
That solder'st close impossibilities, 
And makest them kiss ! that speak'st with every tongue, 
"Fo every purpose ! O thou touch of hearts ! 
Think, thy slave man rebcls ; and by thy virtue 
Set them into confounding odds, that beasts 
May have the world in empire !" 
The Emblem which Shakespeare attributes to the fifth l«fight 
is fully described by Whitney (p. x39), with the saine device and 
the saine motto, Sic sp«ctamhfl&'s,*-- 
" "FHE touche doth trye, the fine, and purest gonlde : 
And hOt the sound, or e!s the goodly showe. 
So, if mennes wayes, and vertues, wee behoulde, 
The worthy men, wee by their workes, shall knowe. 
But gallant lookes, and outward showes beguile, 
And ofte are clokes to cogitacions vile." 

« This Emblem is dedicated to '«GEORGE I[ANXVARINGE t?squier," son of 
" Sir Arthvre lXlenwerynge," "of Ichtfeild," in Shropshire, from vhom are directly 
descended the lXlainwarings of Oteley Park, Ellesmere, and indirectly the Main- 
warings of Over-Peover, Cheshire. 

CHAP. V.] IV TZtE PtïRICLtïS.  79 

If, in the use of this device, and in their observations upon it, 
Paradin, either in the original or in the English version, and 
Whitney be compared with the lines on the subject in P«riclcs, 
it will be seen "that Shakespeare did hot derive his fifth knight's 
device either froln the French emblem or trom its Eglish 
translator, but from the Eglish Whitney which had been 
lately published. Indeed, if l)«ricl«s were written, as Knight 
conjectures, in Shakespeare's early manhood, previous to the 
year 159i , it could not be the Eglish translation of Paradin 
which fllrnished him with the three inottoes and devices of the 
Triumph Scene." 

--Ccrlabt lo7,e is scoz i atz u¢c,'rt«ilz mallcr,--Otho Vmnius, in 
his Amortm Embl«mah, 4to, Antverp, 16o8, represents two 
Cupids at work, one trying gold in the furnace, the other on the 
touchstone. His stanzas, published with an English translation, 
as if intended for circulation in England, may, as we have con- 
jectured, have been seen by Shakespeare before I6, when the 
Pericles vas revived. They are to the above inotto, 
" A)ttzzmi 7,l adullerittt e.tlorasrit}s iztdicc, fuam sit 
Illo opus: haml aliter rilè robamhts Mzor. 
Scilicet 2,t fithtium sflect«lur iz gtibus aurutt : 
Temore sic dttro est 
As gold is by the fyre, and by the fournace tryde, 
And thereby rightly known if it be bad or good, 
Hard fortune and distresse do make it vnderstood, 
Vhere true loue doth remayn, and fayned loue resyde." 
" Corne l'oro riel foco. 
S fit pk#r, e nel foco l'or si proua, 
E riel bisoffno, co»ze l'or uelfoco, 
Si dce tosDr kalc it offti logo 
l'.4tan#; c alhor si 

8o EI]IBLEM-IIOOK ..JF.]._/VC.S [Cll±'tP. v. 

The saine metaphor of attestin K characters, as gold is proved 
by the touchstone or by the furnace, is of fl-cquent occurrence in 
Shakespeare's undoubted plays ; and sometimes the turn of the 
thought is so like Whitney's as to Kive good warrant for thc 
supposition, either of a common original, or that Shakespeare had 
read the Emblems of out Cheshire poet and made use of them. 
King Richard III. says to Buckingham (act iv. sc. 2, 1. 8, 
vol. v. p. 58o),-- 
• ' o Bucldnghan, now do I play the touch, 
To try if thou be currcnt gold indeed." 
And in 7"io of z[h«us (act iii. sc. 3, 1. , vol. vii. p. 345), when 
SemprolaiUS observes to a servant of Timon's,- 
" Must he nceds trouble me in't,--hmn !--'bove all others ? 
tic might have tricd Lord Lucius and Lucullus ; 
And nmv Ventiditts is vealthy too, 
Whom he redeem'd ri'oto prison : ail these 
Owe their estates unto him." 
The servant immediately replies, 
« My lord, 
They have all been touch'd and found base metal, for 
They have all denied him." 
Isabella, too, in 3[«as¢rc for _[«'asn'e (act il. sc. ;, 1. 49, 
vol. i. p. 3"4), lnOSt movingly dcclares her purpose to bribe 
Angelo, the lord-deputy, 
" Not vith fond shekels of the tested gold, 
Or stones whose rates are either rich or poor 
As fancy values then ; but with true prayers 
That shall be up at heavên and enter there 
Ere sun-rise, prayers from preserved souls, 
From fasting maids whose minds are dedicate 
To nothing tempora!." 
In the dialogue from ](ig o/«u (act iii. sc. i, 1. 96, vol. iv. 
P- 37) between Philip of France and Constance, the saine testing 
is alluded to. King Philip says,-- 

" By heaven, lady, you shall have no cause 
To cnrse the fair proceedings of this day : 
Have I not pawn'd to yon lny majesty ?" 
But Constance answers with great severity, 
' 'OIl have beguiled me with a connterfeit 
Resembling majesty, which being touch'd and tried, 
Proves valueless : you are forsworn, forsworn." 
One instance more shall close the subject ;--it is froln the 
Coriol«utts (act iv. sc. I, I. 44, vol. ri. p. 369), and contains a very 
fine allusion to the testing of truc metal ; the noble traitor is 
addressing his lnothcr Volumnia, his wife Virgilia, and othcrs of 
his kindred, 
" Fare ye wcll : 
Thou hast years upon thee ; and thon art too 
Of thc wars' surfeits, to go rove with one 
That's yet unbruised : bring me but out at gate. 
Coin% my sweet wife, lny dearest lnother, and 
My friends of noble touch, when I ara forth, 
Bid lne farewell, and smile." 
So beautifully and so variously does the great dramatist carry 
out that one thought of making trial of men's hearts and cha- 
racters to learn the mctal of which they are ruade. 

To finish our notices and illustrations of the Triumph Scene in 
t)«rid«s, there remain to be considered the dcvice and the motto 
of the sixth--the stranger klfight--who "with such a graceful 
courtesy delivered,"-- 
'" A wither'd branch, that's only green at top,  
The motto, I hac spÆ vivo.;" (Act ii. sc. 2, lines 43, 44 ;) 
and on which the remark is ruade by Simonides,-- 
" A pretty moral : 
From the dejected state wherein he is, 
He hopes by you his fortune yet may flourish." 

* The phrase is matched by another in «[ztclz _4do aboztl «'olkiz (act ii. sc. , I. 
vol. ii. p. _2), when Benedict said ofthe Lady Ieatrice, "O, she misnsed me past en- 
dul'alace of a block ! an oak but with one green leaf on it would have answered her." 

With these I have found nothing identical in any of the 
various books of Emblems which I bave examined ; indced, I 
cannot say that I bave met with anything similar. The sixth 
knight's emblem is very simple, natural, and appropriate ; and I 
ara most of all disposed to regard it as invented by Shakespeare 
himself to COlnplete a scene, the greater part of which had been 
accommodated from other writers. 
Yet thc sixth device and motto need hot remain without illus- 
tration. Hope is a theme which Emblematists could not possibly 
omit Alciatus gives a series of four Emblems on this virtue,-- 
Emblems 43, 44, 45, and 46 ; Sambucus, three, with the mottoes 
" Spes certa," "In spe for- 
Illicitum nonJ'peran,tum, titudo," and "Spes aulica ;" 

l;'hHtwy, 586. 

and \Vhitney, thrce from 
Alciatus (pp. 53, t37, and 
139) ; but none of these can 
be accepted as a propcr 

"SPE$ ill ff lr£mfi$ noflri$ altaribus 
Scilicet vt feres non nifi qv.o,t liceat." 
The unlawful thing hot to be hoped for. 
"  ERE NEMESIS, and Hope: our 
dcedes doe rightlie trie, 
Which warnes vs, hot to hope for 
that, which iustice doth denie." HEROIQVES," so often 
quoted, we select two de- 
vices (fol. 30 and 152 ) illustrative of out subject. The one, an 
arrow issuing from a tomb, on hich is the sign of the cross, 

illustration of the /* bac 
sp« vivo. Their inapplica- 
bility may be judged of 
from Alciat's 46th Emblem, 
very closely followed by 
\Vhitney (p. 139 ). 
In the spirit, however, 
if not in the words of the 
sixth knight's device, the 
Emblem writcrs have fa- 
shioned their thoughts. 
From Paradin's " ]ï)EVISES 

CHAP. V.] lZ T THï PRICLS. z8 3 

and having verdant shoots twincd around it, was the emblem 
which Madame Diana of Poiticrs adopted to express her 
strong hope of a resurrection from the dead ;* and the saine 
hope is also shadowed forth by cars of corn growing out of 
a collection of dry bones, and ripening and shedding thcir seed. 

The first, Soh z,htit b 
illo,--" Alone oll that," Le, 
on the cross, "she lives,"-- 
we now offer with Paradin's 
explanation ; " L'cscr«ncc 
qtc faltaUle an tic oi- 
tiers Illtstre D«zchsc tic 
blcntinois, a d« la rcs«tr- 
rcctiou, & q«c sou uoblc 
gsril, colllcllt[ag les cic«zs 
oz ccttc ,ie, avtitvzdra c/1 
l'autrc ar's la mort : est 
Msc, ¢#i est d'vu Scrcucil, 
ou tombeau, du¢ud sort 'z 
trait, acomaué d« ccrtaius 
syous vcrdoj,a#s." i.c.," Thc 

l-'artutitt, i562. 

hope which Madame Diana of 

Poitiers, the illustrious Dnchess de Valentinois, has of the resur- 
rection, and which hcr noble spirit, coutemplating the heavens 
in this life, will arrive at in the other, after death" it is really 
signified by her Device, which is a Sepulchre or tomb, from 
which issues an arrow, accompanied by certain verdant shoots." 
The motto of the second is more directly to the purpose, Sites 
alt«ra vitce,-- « Another hope of lire," or " The hope of another 

* " The sixth device," say the llhtstralio#s of Shahcs2eare , by Francis Douce, 
vol. il. p. tZT, "from its peculiar reference to the situation of Pericles, may, perhaps, 
bave been altered from one in the smne collection (Paradin's), used by Diana of 
Poictiers. It is a green branch springing from a tomb, with the motto, ' SOLA "V1VIT 
IN II.LO) ) "--Alolle oit Llal shc liz,gs. 

life,"--and ifs application is thus explained by Paradin (leaf 15  
rcl,cr«o),--" Les Krai:zs dcs tl«ds, & a:ttrcs hcrbaKcs, scmcs & 
a:lssi lcs cos hieabls to:¢bàs ar ]fi»ŒE scrout rclcvs ch gloD% 
al" fft'UO'a& YCSl117"C¢t[OIl."--i.C., « The secds of whcat, and othcr 
herbs, sown and dying in thc ground, bccome grccn again, and 
take new growth : so human bodies cast down by Death will be 
raised again in glory, by the general resurrection." 
We omit the woodcut which Paradin gives, and substitute for 
it the oeth Eblcm, part i. p. lO2, from Joachim Camcrarius, 
cdition,  595,  hich bears the vcry saine motto and devicc. 


Caueraritts» i595. 

" Sccu'us lorilttr, çti scil se morte rcnasci: 
on ca ors di«i, s¢«l toua ,ila #Ol,'sl." 
" Fearless doth that man die, who knows 
From death he again shall be born ; 
Wc never can naine it as death,-- 
'Tis new life on eternity's morn." 

CtAr. V.] IN TIII'. PERICZES. 18 5 

A sentence or txvo from the comment may serve for explana- 
tion; "The seeds and grains of fi'uits and herbs are thrown 
upon the earth, and as it were entrusted toit; after a certain 
time they spring up again and produce manifold. So also out 
bodies, although already dead, and destined to burial in the 
earth, yet at the last day shall arise, the good to lire, the wicked 
to judgment."... "Elsewhere it is said, ONE HOPE SURVIVES, 
doubtless beyond the grave."* 
" IV[ORT VlVIFIANTE," of lIessin, Iii 3[ortc l:ita, of Boissard, 
edition 588, pp. 38, 39, also receive their emblematical repre- 
sentation, from wheat growing among the signs of death. 

En vain nous attendons la lnoisson, si le grain 
Ne se pourrit au creux de la terre beschée. 
Sans la corruption, la nature empeschée 
Retient toute semence au ventre soubterrain." 

At prcsent we inust be content to say that the source of the 
motto and device of the sixth knight has hot been discovered. 
It remains for us to conjecture, what is very far from being an 
improbability, that Shakespeare had read Spenser's Shcplwrd's 
Calotda; published in I579, and from the line, on page 364 of 
Moxon's edition, for January (1. 54),-- 

'« Ah, God ! that love should brced both ioy and pairie ! "-- 

and from the Emblem, as Spenser names it, A,wbora speme,-- 
" Hope is my anchor,"--did invent for himself the sixth knight's 
device, and its motto, Dz /tac spc ,ivo,--" In this hope I lire." 
The step from applying so suitably the Emblems of other 
writers to the construction of new ones would hot be great ; and 

* " IRVMENTORVM ag [gfftttttittttltt semim ac grata Dz lo-ra»z rgcta, ac illi 
I " quasi cottcredila, cerlo tetore x'ttascuttlu alqtte multilia's fiTtcttts pro- 
d/tcztnL Sic ,tostra eliam corara quamvis ja//t mo,çttta, ac lerrestri sulttt/e 
desti,tata, ha die htl, tot nltima resurffe,tg,  pio*7on qttide**z ad ,ilam, imioru#t z,ct, 
ad fitdicium." • • • "Alibi Ag«itur, SpEs VNA SVeERSTES, zi*thw**z post fit*t«zs.'" 

from what he bas actually done in the invention of Emblems in 
the 3lcrc/zaJ«t af lcicirc he would experience very little trouble 
in contriving any Emblem that he needed for the completion of 
lais dramatic plans. 

The Casa.c! Scene and the TJ'iuiiqV Scene then justify our 
conclusion that the correspondcncies between Shakespeare and 
the Emblcm writers which preceded him are very direct and 
complete. It is to be acceptcd as a fact that he was acquainted 
with their works, and profited so much from them, as to be able, 
whenever the occasion demanded, to invent and most fittingly 
illustratc devices of lais own. The spirit of Alciat was upon 
him, and in the power of that spirit he pictured forth the ideas 
to which his fancy had given birth. 

ltaratall, dl I 5 5  ] 

C)IAe. V I. ] CZ ASSII«IC.4 TIO_ V.  8 7 



AVING establlshed the facts that Shakespeare 
invented and described Emblems of his own, 
and that he plainly and palpably adopted 
several which had been designcd by earlier 
authors, we may now, with more consistency, enter on the 
further labour of endeavouring to trace to their original 
sources the various hints and allusious, be thcy more or less 
express, which lais sonnets and dramas contain in reference 
to Emblem literature. _And we may bear in mind that we 
are not now proceeding on mere conjecture; we have dug 
into the virgin soil and bave round gold that can bear 
every test, and may reasonably expect, as we continue our 
industry, to find a nugget here and a nugget there to reward 
our toil. 
But the correspondencies and parallelisms existlng in 
Shakespeare between himself and the earlier Emblematists 
are so numerous, that it becomes requisite to adopt some 
system of arraugement, or of classification, lest a mere chaos 
of confusion and not the symmetry of order should reign 
over our enterprise. .And as " all Emblemes for the most 
part," says .Vhitney to lais readers, " maie be reduced into 
these three kindes, which is f[i«toricall, Aatztrall, & 

x 88 CLASSIFICA TIO.,'V.. [CHAr. ri. 

we shall make that division of his our foundation, and con- 
sidering the various instances of imitation or of adaptation 
tobe met with in Shakespeare, shall arrange them under the 
cight heads of--I, Historical Emblems ; 2, Heraldic Emblems ; 
3, Emblelns of Mythological Characters; 4, Emblems illus- 
trative of Fables; 5, Emblems in connexion with Proverbs; 
6, Emblems from Facts in Nature, and from the Properties of 
Animals; 7, Emblems for Poetic Ideas; and 8, Moral and 
zEsthetic, and Miscellaneous Emblems. 



N S sooN as learning revived in Europe, the great 
models of ancient times were again set up on 
their pedestals for admiration and for guid- 
ance. Nearly ail the Elizabethan authors, 
certainly those of highest faine, very frequently introduce, or 
expatiate upon, the worthies of Greece and Rome,--both 
those which are named in the epic poems of Homer and 
Virgil, and those which are within the limits of authentic 
history. It seemed enough to awaken interest, " to point 
a moral, or adorn a tale," that there existed a record 
of old. 
Shakespeare, though cultivating, it may be, little direct 
acquaintance with the classical writers, followed the general 
practice. He has built up some of the finest of his Trage- 
dies, if hot with chorus, and semi-chorus, strophe, anti- 
strophe, and epode, like the Athenian models, yet with a 

SECT. I.] HI.çTORICMZ E3[tYZE3[S. i 89 

xvonderfully exact appreciation of the characters of antiquity, 
and xvith a delineating power surprisingly true to history and 
to the leading events and circumstances in the lives of the 
personages whom he introduces. From possessing fifil and 
adequate scholarship, Giovio, Domenichi, Claude Mignault, 
Whitney, and others of the Emblem schools, xvent imme- 
diately to the original sources of information. Shakespeare, 
xve may adroit, could do this only in a limited degree, and 
generally availed himself of assistance from the learned trans- 
lators of ancient authors. Most marvellously does he transcend 
them in the creative attributes of high,-genius : thcy supplicd 
the rough marble, blocks of Parian perchalace, and a few 
tools more or less suited to the xvork; but it xvas himself, 
his soul and intellect and good right arm, which have pro- 
duced almost living and moving forms,-- 

« See, my lord, 
\Vould )'ou not deem it breath'd ? and that those veins 
Did verily bear blood ?" 
lITnter's Tab., act v. sc. 3, 1. 63. 

For Medeia, olle of the heroines of Euripides, and for 
./Eneas and Anchises in their escape from Troy, Alciat 
(Emblem 54), and his close ilnitator Whitley (p. 33), give each 
an emblem. 
To the first the motto is,-- 

"i qui semd stta roderil, ali«tta cr«ti, 
"To that man who has once squandered his own, another person's ought 
not to be entrusted,"--- 

similar, as a counterpart, to the Saviour's words (L¢tkc xvi. I2), 
"If ye have not been faithful in that which is another man's, 
who shall give you that which is your own." 
The device is,-- 

 9 ° CL4SSIF[CA TIOn( ICtère. vI. 

Mht, 58. 

vith the following Latin elegiacs,-- 

COLCHIDOS itl gremio nL[um quhl congeris ? eheu 
Nefcia cur lullos tare malè cre, tis auis ? 
Dira parens Medea fuos feeuiffima natos 
Perdidit ; OE fperas parcat vt illa tuis ? 

Which Whitney (p. 33) considerably anaplifies,-- 

"  1" EDEA loe ),vith infante in hcr arme, 
*" Whoe kil de her babes, shee shoulde haue loued beste : 
The swallowe yet, whoe did suspect no harme, 
Hir Image likes, and hatch'd vppon her breste : * 
And lifte her younge, vnto this tirauntes guide, 
XVhoe, peecemeale did her proper fluicte deuide. 

Oh foolishe birde, think'ste thow, shee will haue care, 
Vppon thy yonge? V(hoe hathe her owne destroy'de, 
And maie it bec, that shee thie birdes should spare ? 
Whoe slue her owne, in whome shee shoulde haue ioy'd. 
Thow arte deceau'de, and arte a warninge good, 
To put no truste, in them that hate theire blood." 

" Swallows have built 
In Cleopatra's sails their nests : the augurers 
Say they know hot, they cannot tell ; look grimly 
And date not speak their knowledge." 
.4ni. gv  Clco1%, act 4, sc. e, 1. 3- 

Stc. I.] IIISTOIVIC.4Z. J[IgLEilfS. 


And to the saine purport, rioto Alciat's i93rd Emblcm, arc 
Vhltneys lines (p. 29), 

[EDEA nowe, and PROGNE, bhlsshe for shalnc : 
By whome, are lnent yow dames of cruell kinde 
XVhose infantcs yonge, vnto your endlesse blame, 
For lnothers deare, do tyrauntes of yow finde : 
Oh serpentes seede, each birdc, and sauage brute, 
,Vill those condelnpne, that tender hot theire frute." 

Thc stanza of his i94th Emblem is adapted by A_Iciat, and 
by Whitney after him (p. 63), to the lnotto, 

P me,tios ho./teis patri,e cùm ferret ab igne 
.4eneas humeris dulce parentis o,us : 
Parcite, dicebat : oobls fene adorea rapto 
Nulla erit, erepto fed patre fumtna mlhi. 

« AENEAS beares his father, out of Troye, 
.t . XVhen that the Greekes, the saine did spoile, and sacke : 
His father lnight of suche a sonne haue ioye, 
Who throughe his foes, did beare him on lais backe : 
No fier, nor sworde, his valiaunt harte coulde fearc, 
To flee awayc, without his father deare. 

19 2 CLASSIFICA TIO.3, z. ICi,Av. V I. 

XVhich showes, that sonnes must carefull bce, and kinde, 
For to releeue their parentes in distresse : 
And duringe lire, that dutie shoulde them binde, 
To reuerence them, that God their daies maie blesse : 
And reprehendes terme thowsande to their shmne, 
\Vho ofte dispise the stocke whereof they came." 

The two emblcms of Mcdeia and of A?;neas and _Anchises, 
Shakespeare, in 2 H«1«13, l-l. (act. v. sc. 2, 1. 45, vol. v. p. ",I8), 
brings into close juxta-position, and unites by a single descrip- 
tion; it is, when young Clifford cornes upon the dead body of 
lais valiant father, stretched on the ficld of St. _Albans, and bears 
it lovingly on lais shoulders. XVith strong filial affection he 
addresses the mangled corpse, 
" Wast thou ordain'd, dear father, 
To lose thy youth in peace, and to atchieve 
The silver livery of advised age ; 
And, in thy reverence, and thy chair-days, thus 
To die in ruffian battle ?" 
On the instant the purpose of vengeance enters his mind, and 
fiercely he declares,-- 
" Even at this sight, 
My heart is turn'd to stone ; and, while 'tis mine, 
It shall be stony. York not our old men spares ; 
No more will I their babes : tears virginal 
Shall be to me even as the dew to tire ; 
And beauty, that the tyrant oft reclaims, 
Shall to my flaming wrath be oil and flax. 
Henceforth 1 will not have to do with pity : 
Meet I an infant of the house of York, 
Into as many gobbets will I cut it, 
As wild Medea young Absyrtus did : 
In cruelty will I seek out my faine." 
Then suddenly there cornes a gush of feeling, and with most 
exqtfisite tenderness he adds, 
" Corne, thou new ruin of old Clifford's bouse : 
As did A;neas old Anchises bear, 

SECa'. 1.1 IfISTORI"CAL E«][[¢ZIAI.ç. 93 

So bear I thee upon my manly shouldcrs : 
]3ut then .,Encas bare a living load, 
Nothing so hcavy as these wocs of lnine." 

The same allusion, iii 71t/itts Ccesar (act. i. sc. ;, 1. o7, w»l. 
vil. p. 326), is also made by Cassius, whcll l:m compares his own 
natural powers with those of Cœesar, and describcs their stout 
contest in stemming " the troubled Tybel," 

The torrent roar'd, and we did buffet it 
\Vith lusty sinews, throwing it aside 
And stemming it with hearts of controversy ; 
But ere he could arrive the point proposed, 
Caesar cried, Help me, Cassius, or 1 sink !' 
1, as ALneas our great ancestor 
Did from the flames of Troy upon his shouldcr 
The old Anchises bear, so from the waves of Tiber 
l)id I the tired Coesar : and this man 
Is now become a god, and Cassius is 
A wretched creature, and must bend his body 
If Coesar carelessly but nod on him." 

Progne, or Procne, gledcia's counterpart for cruelty, who 
placed the flesh of her own son Itys bcfore his father Tcrcus, 

is represented in .Aneau's 
" PICTA POESIS," ed. x552, 
p. 73, with a Latin stanza 
of ten lines, and the motto, 
FOE3IINa," Thc 119mazof 
Dtriots Iwgcazce. In the 
Titts A zdrotic¢ts (act. v. sc. 
2, 1. x92, vol. vi. p. 522) the 
fearful tale of Progne enters 

.Mteau, x55e. 

into the plot, and a similar revenge is repeated. The tvo sons 
of the emprcss, Clairon and Demetrius, who had committed 
atrocious crimes against Lavinia the daughter of Titus, are 
c c 


bound, and preparations are made to inflict such punishment 
as the world's history had but once before heard of. Titus 
declares he will bid their empress mother, " like to the earth 
swallow her own nlcrease. 

This is the feast that I have bid her to, 
And this the banquet she shall surfeit Oll ; 
For vorse than Philomel you used my daughtcr, 
And worse than l'rogne I will be revenged." 

'Tis a fcarfld cene, and the fathcr calls, 

And llOW prepare your throats. Lavinia, corne, 
[tt« cuts tlteir tkroats. 
Receive the blood : and when that they are dead, 
Let me go grind their bones to powder small, 
And with thls hateful liquor retaper it ; 
And in that paste let their vile heads be baked. 
Corne, corne, be every one officious 
To make this banquet ; which I wish may prove 
More stern and bloody than the Centaurs' feast." 

A character from Virgil's .,/Encid (bk. ii. lines 79-80 ; I95-8 ; 
257-9),-* frequently introduced both by .Vhitney and Shake- 
spcare, is that of the traitor Sinon, who, with his false tears and 
lying words, obtained for the wooden horse and its armed men 
admission through the walls and within the city of Troy. Asia, 
he averred, would thus secure supremacy over Greece, and 
Troy find a pcrfect deliverance. It is ri-oto the "I)ICTA I°OESIS " 
of Anulus (p. I8), that Whitney (p. I4t) on one occasion 
adopts thc Emblcm of treachery, the untrustworthy shield of 

" Nec, si miserum fortuna Sinonem 
Finxit, vanum etiam mendacemque improba finget." 
" Talibus insidiis, perjurique arte Sinonis, 
Credita res : capfique dolis, lachrymisque coactts, 
Quos neque Tydides, nec Larissoeus Achilles, 
Non anni domure decem, non mille carinoe." 
" fatisque Deûm defensus iniquis, 
Incluos utero Danaos et pinea furttm 
Lruxat clautra Sinon." 

Sc). 1. l ll[STOI?ICMZ EA[BLEA£ç.  95 

Pefidz,s familiaris,-- 
" The faithless friend." 

PER medium BraJidas cvleum traieTus ab hoCe : 
.Odque foret l, efus ciue rogaltte modum. 
Cui fidel, am (inquit) penetrabilis vmbo feJèllit. 
Sc cv fnTe fi,tes cre, tita : pro,titor efl. 

Thus rendered in the Choicc af 

" "'THILE throughe lais foes, did boulde BRASID,S thruste, 
---- And thought with force, thcir courage to confotmdc : 
Throughe targat fairc, wherein he put his truste, 
His manlie corpes receau'd a mortall wounde. 
Beinge ask'd the cause, bcfore he yecldcd ghostc : 
Quoth hee, my shiclde, whcrein I trusted lnostc. 

Euen so it happes, vee ofte our bayne doe brue, 
XVhen ere wee trie, wee trust the gallante showe : 
When frendes suppoas'd, do prooue them selues vntrue, 
Vv'hen SINON false, in DA,xI«»NS shape dothe goe : 
Then gulfes of griefe, doe swallowe vp out mirthc, 
And thoughtes ofte times, doe shrow'd vs in the earthe. 
But, if thou doe inioye a faithfull frende, 
See that with care, thou keepe him as thy life : 
And if perhappes he doe, that lnay offende, 
Yet waye thy fi-ende : and shunne the cause of strife. 
Rcmembringe still, there is no -eater crosse ; 
Then of a fi-endc, for, to sustaine thc losse. 

 9 6 CL4,ç.çlFICA TIOOE [Cn^r. VL 

Yct, if this knotte of frendship be to knitte, 
And SCIplO yet, his LELIVS can not finde ? 
Content thy selfe, till solne occasion fittc, 
Allot thee one, according to thy lninde : 
Thcn trie, and truste : so maiste thou liue in test, 
But chicflic see, thou truste thy sclfc the bcstc ?" 

And again, adopting 
thc Emblem of John 
Sambucus, edition Ant- 
werp, 1564. p. 184,* and 
thc motto, 
)tsquam lula fide's,-- 
"Trustfulness is never sure," 
with the exemplifica- 
tion of the Elephant 
and the undermined tree, 

Whitncy writes (p. 150),-- 

'" NI o state so sure, no seate within this lire 
± • But that maie fall, thoughe longe the saine haue stoode" 
Here fauninge foes, here fained fi'endes are rire. 
With pickthankes, blabbes, and subtill Sinons broodc, 
Who whcn wee truste, they worke out ouerthrowe, 
And vnderlnine the grounde, wheron  ce goe. 
The Olephant so huge, and stronge to see, 
No perill fear'd: but thought a sleepe to gaine 
But foes before had vndermin'de the tree, 
And downe he falles, and so by thcn was slaine : 

* The text of Sambucus is dedicated to his father, Peter Sambukius. 
" Dvlt rigidos artus eleItas, dura membra çulete 
Sublenat, assuetis nititur arboribus : 
Quas z,bi z,enator didicit, succidit ab imo, 
aulatim r,t recubans belua mole ruat. 
Tare leuitcr caitur duri çui in ra'lia AIaqis 
Arma, z,iros, tttrrittt, tetore z, ectat oes. 
lX'ttsŒEuatll tuta fldes, nimium ne crcde çuieti, 
Sœepius oe tutis deciiere locis. 
Hiomenes #mis Schœena ricit amatam, 
Sic «liam natis Colchis acerba uecat. 
S&" nos dcciiunt dedimus çuibus omnht ncstra : 
Salt,'m conanlur dcœeente _ride." 


First trye, then truste : like goulde, thc coppcr shmves : 
And NJIO ofte, in NvlXS clothinge goes." 

Freitag's "][YT|IOLOGIA ETIIICA," pp. I76, I77, sets fOl-rb 
the well-known fable of the Countrymal and thc Viper, which 
after receiving warmth and nourishlnent attempted to wound 
its benefactor. The motto is,-- 

AIahficio batc.ficium COmleusal«m,-- 
« A good decd recompensed b¥ maliciousness." 

FrcitaK, x579. 

"Qui rc«ht[g mala bro bollt's to lt rgceth'l mahtm de domo eius."--Pvucrb.  7,  3. 
"Whoso rewaràeth evil for gooà, evil shall hot depart from his bouse." 

Nicolas Reusner, also, edition Francfort, 1581, bk. ii. p. 8I, 
has an Emblem on this subject, and narrates the whole fablc,-- 

 9 8 CLA SSIFICA TIOn.. [C ^v. vI. 

3[«rccs anff2tita,--" Reward from a serpent." 
" Frigore confcctum quem rusticus inuenit angucm 
hnprudcns fotum recrcat ecce sinu. 
Innnemor hic miseruln lcthale sauciat ictu : 
Reddidit hlc vitam ; reddidit ille necem. 
Si bcnefacta locis malè, simplcx mente, bonusq. : 
Non bencfacta quidcm, sed malcfacta puta. 
Ingratis sertfire ncfas, gratisq, nocere : 
Quod bcnb fit gratis, hoc solct esse lucro. '' 

In several instances in lais historical plays, Shakespeare very 
expressly refers to this fable. On hearing that some of lais 
nobles had made peace with Bolingbroke, ill Richard 11. (act. iii. 
sc. 2, 1. 129, vol. iv. p. I68), the king exclaims, 

" O villains, vipers, damn'd without redelnption ! 
Dogs, easily won to fawn on any man ! 
Snakes, in my hcart blood xvarm'd that sting my heart !" 

In the saine drama (act. v. sc. 3, 1. 57, vol. iv. p. 2IO) York urges 
« Forger to pity him, lest thy pity prove, 
A serpent that will sting thec to the heart." 

And another, bearing the naine of York, ila 2 Jr-[curj , I'L (act. 
iii. sc. , I. 343, vol. v. p. 162), declares to the nobles,-- 

" I fear me» you but warm the starved snake, 
,Vho, cherish'd in your breasts, will sting your hearts." 

Also Hermia, d[idsmmcr 'Yght's 1)rcam (act. il. sc. ", 1. I45, 

" A snake ,orn out with cold a rustic round, 
And cherished in his breast doth rashly warm ; 
Thankless the shake inflicts a fatal wound, 
And llfe restorcd requltes wlth deadly barre. 
If badly benefits thou dost intend, 
Simple of heart and good wlthin thy mind,-- 
iNo benefits suppose them in their end, 
13ut deeds of evil and of evil kind. 
To serve the thankless is a sinful thing, 
And wicked they who wilfully give pain ; 
Vhatever with ri'ce soul ofgood thou bring, 
This rightfully thou may'st accotmt true gain.'" 

SEc'v. I.] HIb'TOIdlCIZ, AI'ZZ,]IllS. x99 

vol. ii. p. 225) , when awakened fl'om ber trance-like sleep, calls 
on ber beloved,-- 
« Help me, Lysander, help me ! do thy best 
To pluck this crawling serpent from my breast." 
Whitney combines Freitag's and Reusner's Emblems under 
one motto (p. 189), I1 s&u al«re scctc,--" To nourish a 
scrpent in the bosom,"--but applies them to the siege of 
Antwerp in 1585 in a wa¥ which Schiller's falnous histor¥ 
full¥ confirms:* " The government of the citizens was 
shared among too man¥ hands, and too strongl¥ influenced 
b¥ a disordcrl¥ populace to allow an¥ one to consider with 
cahnness, to dccide with judgment, or to execute with firm- 
The typical Sinon is here introduced b¥ XVhitney,-- 
« THOVGHE) cittie stronge the cannons shottc dispise, 
" And deadlie foes, beseege the saine in vaine : 
Ye b in the valles if pining famine rise, 
Or else some impe of SINON, there relnaine. 
What can preuaile your bulwarkes ? and your towers, 
When all your force your inwarde foe deuoures." 
In fact, Sinon secms to have been the acceptcd repre- 
seutative of treachery in every form; for whcn Camillus, 
at the siege of Faleria, rewarded the Schoolmastcr as ho 
deserved for attempting to give up his scholars into cap- 
tivity, the occurence is thus described in the Choicc of .Em- 
bl«mcs, p. I 1 3, 
"With that, hee caus'de this SINON to bee stripte, 
And whippes, and roddes vnto the schollers gaue : 
Whome backe againe, into the toune they whipte." 

* .Schiller's lVo'ke, band $, pp. 426-7 • " Die Regierung dieser Stadt war in 
allzu viele Ititnde vortheilt, und der stfirmischen Mense ein viel zu grosse Anthefl 
daran gegeben, als dasz man nfit Ruhe hëtte [iberlegen nfit Einsieht wëdflen und mit 
Festigkeit ausffihrenk6nnen." 

200 CLASSIFf CA Tf OV.. [Cn,r. ri. 

Shakespeare is even more ffequent in his allusions to this 
saine Sinon. The R«c of Ll«cr«ce, published in x594, speaks of 
him as "the perjured Sinon," "the false Sinon," "the subtle 
Sinon," and avers (vol. ix. p. 537, 1. 15 I3) ,- 

" Like a constant and confirlnêd devil, 
He cntcrtain'd a show so seelning just, 
And therein so ensconc'd lais secret evil,-- 
That jealousy itself could not mistrust, 
Valse creeping craft and pcrjury should thrust 
lnto so bright a day such black-faced storms, 
Or blot with hell-born sin such saint-like forlns." 

Also in 3 /A'zzU' I'L (act. iii. sc. 2, I. x88, vol. v. p. 285), alld 
Ti?zs ,Imtrozziczs (act. v. sc. 3, 1. 85, vol. ri. p. 527), we read,-- 


" Fil play the orator as well as Nestor, 
Deceive more slyly than Ulysses could, 
And like a Sinon, take another Troy ;" 

" Tell us what Sinon hath bewitch'd our ears, 
Or vho bath brought the fatal engine in 
That gives our Troy, out Rome, the civil wound." 

But in Cymb«lizz« (act. iii. sc. 4, 1. 57, vol. ix. p. 226), zEneas is 
joincd in ahnost the saine condemnation with Sinon. Pisano 
expostulates with hnogen,-- 
"]is. Good lnadam, hear me. 
Im. True honest lnen being heard, like false -,Eneas, 
V:ere in lais time thought false ; and Sinon's weeping 
I)id scandal many a holy tear, took pity 
From most true wretchedness : so thou, l'osthumus, 
Wilt lay the leaven on all proper men ; 
Goodly and gallant shall be false and peljured 
From thy great fail." 

Doubtless it vill be said that such allusions to the characters 
in classical history are the common property of the whole 
modern race of literary men, and that to make th« implies no 

actual copying by later writers of those who prcccded them in 
point of time; still in the examples just given there are Stlch 
coincidences of expression, not merely of idea, as justify the 
opinion that Shakespeare both availed himself of the usual 
sources of information, and had read and taken into his lnind 
the very colour of thought which Whitney had lately spread 
over the saine subject. 

The gl'eat Romari riames, Curtius, Cocles, Manlius and 
Fabius gave Whitney the opportunity for saying (p. o9),-- 

« With these, by righte cornes Coriohtus in, 
Whose cruell minde did make his countrie smarte ; 
Till mothers teares, and wiues, did pittie winne." 

And these few lines, in fact, are a SUlnmary of the plot and chief 
incidents of Shakespeare's play of Coriolauus, so that it is far 
flore being unlikely that they may have been the gerln, the very 
seed-bed of that vigorous offset of his genius. Almost the exact 
blame which Whitney imputes is also attributed to Coriolanus 
by his mother Volumnia (act. v. sc. 3, 1. o, vol. ri. p. 4o7), who 
charges him with,-- 

" Making the mother, wife and child, to see 
The son, the husband and the father, tearing 
His countl'y's bowels out." 

_And when wife and mother have conquered his strong hatred 
against his native land (act. v. sc. 3, 1. 2o6, vol. ri. p. 4), 
Coriolanus observes to them,-- 
" Ladies, you deserve 
To have a telnple built you : all the swords 
In Italy, and ber confederate arms, 
Could not have ruade this peace." 

The subject of _Alciat's 19th Emblem, edition 58, p. 43o, 
is the Dc«th of Brutus, with the motto,-- 
l} D 


On the 

C/ESAREO poflquàm fuperatus milite, #uidit 
Ciuili #un,tantem fanguine Pharfaliam ; 
tam iam flqturus moribunda in ecToraJèrrum, 
Audaci hos Brutus protulit ore fonos : 
lt#èlix vit'tus  & folis prouida verbis, 
Fortunam in rebus cur fequerD dominam ? 

ideas here suggested Whitney enlarges, p. 70, and 

" "fHEN )RVTVS knewe, .AVGVSTVS parte preuail'de, 
) ) And sawe lais frendes, lie bleedinge on the grounde, 
Such deadlie griefe, his noble harte assail'de, 
That with his sworde, hee did him selfe confounde : 
But firste, his frendes perswaded him to flee, 
Whoe aunswer'd thus, my flighte with handes shalbee. 

And bending then to bladc, his bared breste, 
Hee did pronounce, theise wordes with courage great : 
Oh Prowes vaine, I longe did loue thee beste, 
But nowe I see, thou doest on fortune waite. 
Wherefore with paine, I nowe doe prouue it true, 
That fortunes force, maie valiant hartes subdue." 

Sr:c'r. I.] ][ISTOIt'ICML EAItTZEAI.ç. 2o 3 

So, in the y«tli«ts Cwsar (act. v. sc. 5, 1. 25, vol. vii. p. 413), 
the battle of Philippi being irretrievably lost to the party of the 
Republic, and Marcus Cato slain, Brutus, meditating self-de- 
struction, desires aid from one of his fricnds that he may 
accomplish his purpose,-- 
"Good Volunmius, 
Thou know'st that we two went to school together : 
Even for that our love of old, I prithee, 
Hold thou my sword-hilts, whilst I run on it. 
I bL That's hot an office for a friend, my lord." 

Thc alaruln continues,--the friends of Brutus again rclnonstrate, 
and Clitus urges him to escape (1. 3o),-- 

" ŒEli. Fly, fly, my lord ; there is no tarrying here. 
'ru. Farewell to you ; and you ; and you, Volunmius. 
Strato, thou hast been all this while asleep ; 
Farewell to thee, too, Strato. Countrymen, 
lXly heart doth joy that yet in all my life 
I found no man but he was true to me. 
I shall have glory by this losing day, 
More than Octavius and Mark Antony 
By this vile contest shall attain unto. 
So, fare 3"ou well at once ; for Brutus' tongue 
Hath almost ended his life's history : 
Night hangs upon mine eyes ; my bones would rest, 
That have but labour'd to attain this hour." 

Once more is the alarum raised," Fly, fly, fl¥." " Hence, I 
will follow thee," is the hero's answer ; but when friends are gone, 
he turns to one of his few attendants, and entreats (l. 44), 

" I prithee, Strato, stay thou by thy lord : 
Thou art a fellov of a good respect ; 
Thy life hath had sorne smatch of honour in it : 
Hold then my svord, and turn away thy face, 
While I do run upon it. Wilt thou, Strato ? 
çtra. Give me your hand first : fare you well, my lord. 
'ru. Farewell, good Strato. [Rmts on his swo'd.] Coesar, 
nov be still : 
1 kill'd not thee vith half so good a will. [Dics.]" 


In the presence of thc conquerors Strato then declares,-- 

The conquerors can but make a tire of him ; 
For 13rutllS only overcame himself, 
And no man else bath honour by his death. 
L««iL So 13rutus should be found. I thank thee, Brutus, 
That thou hast provcd Lucilius' saying true." 

xlld we must mark how fincly the dramatist represents the 
victors at Philippi testifying to the virtues of their foc (1. 68),-- 

"«4:«toO,. This was the noblest Roman of thcm ail : 
Ail the conspirators, save only ho, 
I)id that thcy did in envy of grcat Coesar ; 
l le only, in a gcncral honcst thought 
And common good to ail, madc one of them. 
Ochtvits. - According to lais virtue let us use him. 
With ail respect and rites of burial. 
\Vithin my tcnt lais boncs to-night shall lie, 
Most like a soldier, order'd honourably." 

The lnode of the catastrophe differs slightly in the two 
writers; and nndoubtedly, iii this as in most other instances, 
there is a very wide difference between the lire and spiritedness 
of the dramatist, and the comparative tameness of the Emblem 
writers,--the former instinct with the tire of genius, the latter 
seldom rising above an earth-bound mediocrity; yet the 
references or allusions by the later poet to the earlier can 
scarcely be questioned ; they are too decided to be the results 
of pure accident. 

Ill one instance Whitney (p. I IO, I. 3 2) hits off the charac- 
tcristics of Brutus and Cassius in a single line,-- 

" \Vith Brtltts boulde, and C««si«ts, pale and wan." 

« As Whitley describes him (p.  o, 1. 7,-- 
" .4 u£ ustus eeke, that happie most dld raignc, 
The scourge to them, that had his vnkle slaine.'" 

Sc'r. l. ] I-IISTOId l CA I. -£.'«IlIZlïeJIS. 2o 5 

It is remarkable how Shakespeare amplifies these two epithets, 
"pale and wall " into a full description of the personal Inalner 
and appearance of Cassius. Caesar and his train have re-entered 
tlpOll the scene, and (act. i. sc. e, 1. I9e, vol. vil. 17. 3e9) the 
dictator haughtily and satirically gives order,-- 

" Cces. Let me have mcn about me that arc fat, 
Sleek-headed men, and such as sleep o' nights : 
Yond Cassius has a lean and hungry look ; 
He thinks too much : such mon are dangerous. 
Mal. Fear him not, Caesar ; he's not dangerous ; 
He is a noble Roman, and well given. 
Cces. ,Vould he wcre latter ! but I fear him not : 
Yet if my naine were liable to fear, 
1 do not knmv thc man I should avoid 
So soon as that sparc Cassius. He reads much : 
He is a great observeB and he looks 
Quite through the deeds of men : he loves no plays. 
As thou dost, Antony ; he hears no music ; 
Sddom he smiles, and smiles in such a sort 
As if ho mock'd himself and scorn'd lais spirit 
That could bc moved to smile at any thing. 
Such men as he be never at heart's ease 
\Vhiles they behold a greater than thcmselves, 
And therefore are they very dangerous." 

" Pale and wan,"--two most Duitful words, certainly, to bring 
forth so graphic a description of men that are "very dangerous." 

Of names historic the Emblem writers give a great many 
cxamples, but only a few, within the prescribcd boundaries of 
our subject, that are at the same time historic and Shake- 
I:cl ost mot/cm formidolosi,--" Even after death to be 
dreaded,"--is the sentiment with which Alciatus (Emblem I70), 
and çVhitney after him (p. 194), associate the noisy drum and 
the shrill-soullding horn; and thus the Emblem-classic illustrates 
his device,-- 


" CmTErA **2tlcscc»I, corio,q, sil«bit ouillta,t, 
.Vi co'cla lttpi O,mata elle soncnL 
Hanc **w,¢b,'a¢a o¢titt,t sic c.vlzo,v'cscil, ŒE,l hosl«*t 
)azizis qttastuis noz rat c.ranizvh 
Sic Cltlë dt'll'acla Ziscas, i,z O'mfiaua vcwus, 
o&zos fiolttit ,bzce** 
Literally rcndcred the Latin elegiacs declare, 
"Other things will grow dumb, and the sheep-skin be silent, 
If drums ruade from the hide of a wolf should sound. 
Of his so sore afraid is the membrane of sheep, 
That though dead it could not bear its dead foe. 
So Zisca's skin torn off, he, chauged to a drum, 
The Bohemian chier priests was able to conquer." 
These curious ideas Whitney adopts, and most lovingly en- 
" Secret cause, that none can comprehende, 
In natures workes is often to bee seene ; 
As, deathe can hot the ancient discorde endc, 
That raigneth still, the wolfe and sheepe betweene ; 
The like, beside in many thinges are knowne, 
The cause reueal'd, to none, but GOD alone. 
For, as the wolfe, the sillye sheepe did feare, 
And make him still to trmnble, at his barke : 
So beinge dead, which is most straunge to hear% 
This feare remaynes, as learned men did marke ; 
For with their skinnes, if that two drommes bee bonnde, 
That, clad with sheepe, doth iarre ; and hathe no sounde. 
And, if that stringes bee of their intrailes wroughte, 
And ioyned both, to make a siluer sounde : 
No cunninge care can tune them as they oughte, 
But one is harde, the other still is droun'de : 
Or discordes foule, the harmonie doe marre ; 
And nothinge can appease this inward warre. 
So, ZscA thoughte when deathe did shorte his daies, 
As with his voice, hee erste did daunte his foes ; 
That aRer deathe hee shoulde new terror raise, 
And make them flee, as when they felte his bloes. 
XVherefore, hee charg'd that they his skinne shoulde frame, 
To fitte a dromme, and marche forth with the same. 


So, HECTORS sighte greate feare in Greckes did workc, 
When hee was showed on horscbacke, beeinge dead : 
HVNIADES the tcrrour of the Turke, 
Thoughe layed in graue, yet at his naine thc.y flcd : 
And cryinge babes they ceased with thc samc 
The like in FRANCE sometime did TALBOFS naine." 
The cry* "A Talbot ! a Talbot ! " is represented by Shake- 
speare as sufficient in itself to make the French soldlers flee and 
leave their clothes behind ; t Hem 3, VZ (act ii. sc. t, 1.'78 , vol. v. 
p. 29),-- 
" Sold. Fil be so bold to take what they have left. 
The cry of Talbot serres me for a sword ; 
For I have loaden me with many spoils 
Using no other weapon but his naine." 
And in the saine play (act il. sc. 3, 1. I I, vol v. p. 32), when 
the Countess of Auvergne is visited by the dreaded English- 
man, the amouncement is marie,-- 
"«ll«ss. Madam, 
According as your ladyship desired, 
]3y message craved, so is Lord Talbot corne. 
Co«nL And he is welcome. What ! is this the man ? 
Jless. Madam, it is. 
Courir. Is this the scourge of France ? 
ls this the Talbot, so lnuch fear'd abroad 
That with his naine the mothers still their babes ?" 

Five or six instances may be found ill xvhich Shakespearc 
introduces the word "lottery;" and, historically, the word is 
deserving of notice,--for it was in his boyhood that the first 
public lottery was set on foot in England ; and judging from the 
nature of the prizes, he appears to have ruade allusion to them. 
There were 40,000 chances,--according to Bohn's Standard 
Librau, C3'clç_Poedi«, vol. iii. p. 2ï9,--sold at ten shillings each" 
" The prizes consisted of articles of plate, and the profit was 

" His soldiers spying his undaunted spirlt, 
A Talbot ! a Talbot ! cried out anlain, 
And rush'd into the bowcls of the battle." 
x Hctry I'I., act. i. sc. i, I. t7. 

208 CLASSIFI(..'A TIOOE r. [CnAP. VI. 

employed for the repair of certain harbours." The drawing took 
place at the west door of St. Paul's Cathedral ; it began " 23rd 
January, 569, and continued incessantly drawing, day atd Mght, 
till the 6th of May following."* How such an event should find 
its record in a 13ook of 
 " -: Emblems may at first be 
- I accounted strange ; but in 
addition to her other mot- 
\ :-î toes, Queen Elizabeth had, 

II'hit*ty, x586. 

oll this occasion of the 
lottery, chosen a special 
motto, which \Vhitney (p. 
6) attaches to the device,-- 

which, after six stanzas, he closes with the lines,-- 

" Th' Egyptians wise, and other nations farre, 
Vnto this ende, HARPOCRATES deuis'de, 
Whose finger, still did seeme his mouthe to barre, 
To bid them speake, no more than that suffis'de, 
Which signe thoughe oulde, wee may not yet detest, 
But marke it well, if wee will liue in reste." 

Written to the Bke effee, lon 
l/'ideo» &E taceo. 
Her MaieCies loëfie, at the great Lotterie in Lotmo , 
t,e.gon M.D.LXVIII. a,,ld ended M.D.LXIX. 
I See, and houhte my peace : a Princelie Potie righte, 
For euerie faulte, fhoulde hot prouoke, a Prince, or man of mighte. 
For if that IOVE flmulde fhoote, fo ofte as men offcnde, 
The Poëttes làie, his thunderboltes fhoulde foone bee at an ende. 

vol. ::ix. pt. , art. x. 

 See Geulleman's .]hzgaeinc, I778, p. 470; 82, pt. , p. 53; and A,;h,cohm, 
Also, Blomfield's AS,,Jb/k. vol. v. p. 6oo. 


Then happie wee that haue, a Princeffe tb inclinde. 
That when as iuitice drawes hir fworde, bath mercie in her minde, 
And to declare the fam% howe prone/hee is to faue : 
Her Maieitie did make ber choice this Poëfie fi,r to haue. 
Sed lkiger ad lkœenas princeps, ad trœemia ,velox : 
Cuique dolet, quoties cogitur effe ferox.  

Lines ff'oto I)vid, 2 Trist., are in the margin,-- 

" Si qztoli«s lbccc«Z[ honzincs suafitlmina mith! 
Tuilier, e.ri««o &wore inciwis criL" f 

Silence, also, xvas represented by the image of the goddcss 
/kgeniora. In an Emblem-book by Peter Costalius, Pma, 
edition Lyons, I555, p. io9, he refers to her example, and con- 
cludes his stanza with the words, Si satVs à nostra discc t«ccre 
c/ca,--" If thou art wise, learn from our goddess to be silent." 
That Casket Scene in the -/7[crchaut of cnic« (act i. sc. , I. z4), 
from which we have already made long extracts,--contains a 
reference to lotteries quite in character with the prizes, "articles 
of plate and rich jewelry." Portia is deeming it hard, that 
according to her father's will, she "may neither choose whom 
she would, nor refuse whom she disliked." " Is it not hard, 
Nerissa, that I cannot choose one, nor refuse none ?" 

"Wer. Your father was ever virtuous ; and holy men, at their death, have 
good inspirations : therefore, the lottery, that he hath devised in these three 
chests of gold, silver, and lead,--whereof who chooses his meaning chooses 
you--will, no doubt, never be chosen by any rightly, but one who shall 
rightly love." 

The Prince of Morocco (act ii. sc. , 1. I I) affirms to Portia,-- 

" I would hot change this hue, 
Except to steal your thoughts, my gentle queen ;" 

" Eut a prince slow for punishments, sxvift for rewards ; 
To whomsoever he grieves, how often is he forced to be severe." 
" If as often as men sln his thunderbolts he should send, 
Jupiter, in very brief rime, wlthout arms will be." 
E E 

- to CL.4.çS[F[CA T[OeV. [CnaP. VI. 

and Portia answers,-- 
" In terres of choice I alll not solcly led 
By nice direction of a maiden's eyes ; 
Besides the lottery of my destiny 
Bars me the right of voluntary choosing." 
The prevalence of lotteries, too, seems tobe intimated by the 
Clown in All's lI7cll that Ends lloecll (act i. sc. 3, 1. 73, vol. iii. 
p. I23) , when he repeats the song,-- 
"Among nine bad if one be good, 
Among nine bad if one be good, 
There's yet one good in ten ;" 
and the Countess reproving him says,-- 
"\Vhat, one good in ton ? you corrupt the song, sirrah. 
Cio. One good woman in ten, madam ; which is a purifying o' the song : 
would God would serve the world so ail the year ! xve'd find no fault with the 
tithe-woman if I were the parson : one in ten, quoth a' ! an' we might bave 
a good woman born but one every blazing star, or at an earthquake, 'twould 
lnend the lottery wcll : a man may draw his heart out, ere a' pluck one. » 
Shakespeare's words will receive a hot inapt illustration from 
the sermon of a contemporary prelate, Dr. Chatterton, Bishop of 
Chester from 579 to 595, and to whom \Vhitney dedicated 
the Emblem on p. 2o, ITi«il«ntia et custodia,--"\Vatchfulness 
and guardianship."* He was preaching a wedding sermon in 
,, T. Heraulte, that lroclainms the daie at hande, 
The Cocke I meane, that wakés vs out of sleele, 
On steelle highe, doth like a watchman stande  
The gare beneath, a Lion still doth keele. 
And why ? theise two, did aider rime decree, 
That at the Churche, theire llaces still should bec. 
That lastors, shoulde llke vatchman still be preste, 
To vake the vorlde, that sleepeth in his sinne, 
And muse them vp, that longe are rock'd in reste, 
And shewe the daie of Christe, vill stralghte beginne : 
And to foretell, and lreache, that light deuine, 
Euen as the Cocke doth singe, cm daie doth daine. 
The Lion shm'es, they shoulde of courage bec 
And able to defende, their flocke from foes : 
If rauening volfes, tolie in vaite they sec : 
They shoulde be stronge, and boulde, xvith them to close : 
.And so be afin'de with learning, and with lire, 
As they inight keepe, their charge, from either strife." 

,qICT. I.] HISTOICAL F3113LEAkç'. 211 

Cambridge, and Ormerod, i. p. 146 , quoting King's Ualc N'al, 
tells us,-- 
' He used this merry comparison. The choice of a wife is fidl of hazard, 
hot unlike to a man groping for one fish in a barrel full of serpents : if he 
escape harm of the snakes, and light on the fish, he may be thought for- 
tunate ; yet let him hot boast, for perhaps it may be but an eel." 
That "good voman" " to mend the lottery well," that " one 
fish in a barrel full of serpents," came, however, to the chance of 
one of Coesar's friends. Even when Antony (z/¢tou 3, a¢d Cl«o- 
îatra, act ii. sc. , I. 245, vol. ix. p. 40) vas undcr the witchery 
of the "rare Egyptian queen," that " did make defect, perfec- 
tion," the dralnatist says,-- 
« If beauty, wisdom, lnodesty, can settle 
The heart of Antony, Octavia is 
A blessed lottery to him." 
The Emblems applicable to Shakespeare's historical cha- 
racters are only a few among the nulnbers that occur in the 
Emblem writers, as Alciat, Cousteau, Giovio, Symeoni, &c. : but 
our choice is limited, and there would be no pertinency in 
selecting devices to which in the dramas of our author there are 
no corresponding expressions of thought, though there may be 
parallelisms of subject. 

Mlciat's trms ,Gioe,io, ed. 56z '. 




fz ?.K/2Utç''.'"r[' NOTTED together as are Emblems and 
i I expect to filld Emblem writers devoting 
some at least of their inventions to 
 heraldic purposes. This has been done 
_.Z&  to a very considerable extent by the 

Italians, especially by Paolo Giovio, 
Domenichi, Ruscelli, and Symeoni; but in several othcr 
authors also there occur heraldic devices anaong their more 
gencral emblems. These are not full coats of arms and the 
complete emblazonnes of "the gentleman's science," but rather 
cognizances, or bdges, by which persons and fanfilies of note 
may be distinguished. In this respect Shakespeare entirely 
agrees with the Emblem writers; neither he nor they give us 
the quarterings complete, but they single out for honourable 
mention some promilaent mark or sign. 
I attempt hot to arrange the subject according to the Rules 
of the Art, but to exhibit instances in which Shakespeare 
and the Emblcmatists agree, of Poetic Heraldry, the Heraldry 
of Reward for Heroic Achievements, and the Heraldry of 
Imaginative Devices. 

Of Poetic Heraldry thc chief type is that bird of renown, 

SECT. II.] ItEI.4ZZ)IC E3IBZllIS". z x 3 

xvhich was a favourite with Shakespeare, and from which he has 
been named by general consent, "the Swan of Avon." A white 
swan upon a shield occurs both in Alciat and in Whitney, and is 
expressly named InsigMa Poctarmn,--" The poets' ensigns." 
The swan, in fact, was sacred to Apollo and the Muses ; and 
hence xvas supposed tobe nmsical. schylus, in his Agamcm- 
non, makes Cassandra speak of the fable, when the Chorus 
bewail her sad destiny (vv. 1322 , 
Lc.," Ver once again I wish for her to speak forth prophecy or 
lamentation, even my own,"and Clytmnêstra mentions the 
singing of the swan at the point of death (vv. 1-7), 
Which is to this effect : that when she has sung the last mortal 
lamentation, according to the custom of the swan, she lies down 

as a loyer, and offers to me the 
solace of the bed of nly joy. 
This notion of the singing 
of the swan is to be traced 
even to the hieroglyphics of 
Egypt. Iii answer to the ques- 
tion, " Hôs- ),epovra Iov«tov , -- 
how to represent "ai1 old man 
musical ? "t-Iorapollo, edition 
Paris, 1 5 5 I, p. 136, replies,-- 

I-Zoralkollo, ed. 155 I. 

"ISpov'ra I.OVWtv ÔovAl.vot Wll.O var, {mvov o:Tpaë?owtv. o''ros 7ap {l'ra'rov i.os 
Le.--"Wishing to signify an old man musical, they paint a swan ; for this 
bird sings its sweetest melody when growing old." 

":' 14 CLASSI.FIC.4 TIO2V.. [cH^v. vI. 

Virgil frequently speaks of swans, both as melodious and as 
shrill voiced. Thus iii the .,tïlwid, vii. 7oo-3 ; xi. 457,-- 

" CI.Illl sese è pastu referunt, et longa canoros 
Dant per colla lnodos : sonat alnnis et Asia long 
Pulsa palus." 
i.e.--" XVhcn tbey remrn ri-oto feeding, and through their long necks give forth 
mclodious measures ; the river resounds and the Asian lnarsh from far." 

" Piscosdve amne Padusoe 
Dant sonitum rauci per stagna loquacia cycni."  
i.e." Or on the fish-abounding river Po the hoarse swans give forth a sound 
through the nlurmul'ing pools." 

Horace, Carre. iv. 2. 25;, namcs Pindar Z)çrcwum cycmtm, 
" the Dircœean swan ;" and Carre. ii. 2o. io, likens himself to ai1 
«lbum alit«m,--"a white-winged creature;" which a fcw lines 
furthcr on he terres a canorus alcs,--"a melodious bird,"--and 
speaks of his apotheosis to immortal fame. 
_A_nacreon is called by Antipater of Sidon, .4nlhoL Grwc. 
Carre. 7 6, r«voç Tlïoç,--" the Teïan swan." 
Poets, too, affer death, were fancifully supposed to assume 
the form of swans. It was believed also that swans foresaw 
their own death, and lreviously sang their own elegy. Thus in 
Ovid, lctam. xiv. 43o,-- 

" Carmina jam monens canit exequialia Cygnus,"-- 
" Now dying the Swan chants its funereal songs." 

Very beautifully does Plato advert to this fiction in lais 
account of the conversation of Socrates with lais friends on the 
day of his execution. (See t)hcedon, Francfort edition, I6O2, 
P. 77, 64A.) They were fearful of causing him trouble and vexa- 
tion ; but he reminds them they should not think hiln inferior in 
foresight to the swans ; for these, 

Sec also Ed. ix. 29, 36. * See also Car»c. iv. 3- 2o. 

" FMI a singing, as soon as they perceive that they are about to die, and 
sing far more sveetly than at any former time, being glad that they are about 
to go away to the Goal whose servants they are. They possess the 
power of prophesying, and foreseeing the blessings of Hades they sing and 
rejoice exceedingly. Nov I imagine that I ara also a fellow-servant with the 
Svans and sacred to the salue God, and that I have received from the salue 
Master a pover of foresight not inferior to theirs, so that I could depart from 
life itself with a mind no more cast down." 

Thus the melodious dirge of the swan was attributed to the 
same kind of prescience which enables good men to look for- 
vard vith delight to that time" when this mortal shall put on 
The " PICTA POESIS," 13. 28, adopts the saine fancy of the 
svan singing at the end of lift, but makes it the emblem of "old 
age eloquent." Thus, 


" CANDIDA Cygnus auis suprema oetate canora est : 
Inquam verti homines tabula picta docet, 
Nain sunt canitie Cygni dulciq, canote, 
Virtute illustres, eloquioque senes. 
Dulce OE,clus 2,htttm : sertis esl oralio dulcis, 
Dulcior hoc ipso quo saibAvlior esl." 

Le.--" At the end of life tuneful is the bird, the white swan, into which the 
painted tablet teaches that men are changed, for swans are illustrious from 
hoariness and the sweet singing, old men illustrious for virtue and for elo- 
quence. Old wine is sweet ; of an old man sweet is the speech ; sweeter, 
for this very cause, the wiser it is." 

Shakespeare himself adopts this notion in thc 3[crchaut of 
Ircuice (act i. sc. 2, I. 24, vol. il. p. 286), when he says, " Holy" 
men at their death bave good inspirations." 
Reusner, however, luxuriating in every variety of silvery and 
snowy whiteness, represents the swan as especially the symbol of 
the iPm'e sbu?licity of D'lttb. (Emblemata, lib. ii. 31, pp. 91, 92, 
ed. I58[.) 


Simplicitas veri fana. 
lt«u«ner, 158L 

A [bo candidius quid est olorc, 
Menlo, niuc, lilio, ltustro ? 
Fides candida, ca«didiq' mores, 
E1 mens catdida, camlitff sodalis. 
Te Sckcdi nitteam fi«#m 3[clisse, 
.l[or«tlum bcnè, candidamq' 
Possidv'e so&dis Dzlcffe[li : 
Lçuslw niuco nit«niozm : 
. llbis liliolisfi'affradiotzm : 
O:nis candidu h dccentzrem ." 
.rot'ttBt ittcts docct lttortHH 
C)mts : liliolis d«cows albis : 
Pha'b«a redimitus ora lauro. 
M[bo ca»didior Omts [us/ro : 
1ffcnlo prcciosior bcato : 
Czti nec #ar eboris decus, nec 
A2"c ffemmæ OE,alor es/, uilorç' #ulcroe : 
E1 si pulcrius est in orbe 

Le.--" Than a vhite svan what is brighter,--than silver, SHOW, the lily, the 
privet ? I¢right faith and bright morals,--and the bright mind of a bright 
companion. That thou of good morals, O Schedius lXIelissus, dost possess 
snow-like faith, and the bright mind of an uncorrupted companion ;--that 
(thou art) more fair than the snowy privet,--more blessed than the snovy 
silver,--more fragrant than the white lilies,--more comely than the little 
bright swans,--the snowy svan on thy arms doth teach : a svan handsome 

SCT. II.] llERILI)]C E_/[JLE3[ç.  1 7 

with white lilies, encircled as toits features with the laurel of Phoebus ; a 
swan brighter than the white privet,--more precious than the blessed sih'er ; 
to which cannot be equalled the comeliness of ivory, or of gold ; nor the 
worth and the splendour of a beautiful gern : and if in the world there is any 
thing more beautiful still." 

To a short, but very learned dissertation Oll the subject, and 
to the device of a swan oi1 a tomb, in his work, Ic 15I«tilibus, 
edition 1595, Emb. 23, Joachim Camerarius aflïxes the motto, 
"SlBI CANIT ET ORBI,"--It sing's for itsclf and for tlw world,-- 
"I:sa s.,a., ce:came sia: .,o,s ac.c »,o,-/,'.,, 
l't soh'/ h:rbifi'r««m Cyffmts ad Eridanum." 
Le.--" The mind conscious of good celebrates its own death for itself ; as the 
swan is accustomed to do on the banks of the grassy Eridanus."  

respond more 
Lyons, I55 I, p. 
next page. 
Whitney (p. 

expressions, however, as to the svan, cor- 
closely with the stanzas of Alciat (edition 
197 ) which are contained ill the woodcut on 

126) adopts the same ideas, but enlarges upon 

them, and brings out a clearer moral interpretation, fortifying 
himself with quotations from Ovid, Reusner, and Horace,-- 

q'HE Martiall Captaines ofte, do marche into the fielde, 
- With Egles, or with Griphins tierce, or Dragons, in theire shielde. 
But Phoebus sacred birde, let Poëttes moste commende. 
\Vho, as it were by skill deuine, with songe forshowes his ende. 
And as his tune delightes : for rarenes of the saine. 
So they with sveetenes of theire verse, shoulde winne a lasting naine. 
And as lais colour white : Sincerenes doth declare. 
So Poëttes must bee cleane, and pure, and must of crime beware. 
For which respectes the Swanne, should in their Ensigne stande. 
No forren fowle, and once suppos'de kinge of LmVla Lande." 

 The saine author speaks also of the soR Zephyr moderating the sweet souuding 
song of the swan, and of sweet honour exciting the breasts of poets ; and presents the 
swan as saying, " I fear not lightlfings, for the branches of the laul'el wal-d them off ; 
so integrity despises the insults of fortule."--F.mb. 4 and 5- 


Infignia Poëtarum. 

Gentiles clypeos funt qui in louis alite geflant, 
Sunt quibus aut Serpens, aut Leo fig»a feru2t. 
Dira fed haec l/'atum fugiant animalia ceras, 
Dodta, fufli»eat flemmata pulcher Olor. 
Hic Phcebo facer,  noflrae regionis alumnus : 
Rex, oin veteres feruat adhuc titulos. 

Alciat, Lugd. 1551, p. 197. 

In the very spirit of these Emblems of the Swan, the great 
dramatist fashions some of his poetical images and most tender 

SECT. II.] tt.E.RA £DIC .E3It3 £.E «ILç. 

descriptions. Thus in Içhtg" ohn (act v. sc. 7, lines I--24, 
vol. iv. p. 91), in the Orchard Scene at Swinstead Abbey, 
the king being in his mortal sickness, Prince Henry demands, 
" Doth he still rage ? " And Pembroke replies,-- 

" He is lnore patient 
Than whcn you left him ; even nov he sung. 
t'./4"ch. 0 vanity of sickness ! tierce extremes 
In their continuance will not feel themselves. 
Death, having prey.'d upon the outward parts, 
Leaves them invisible, and his sicge is now 
Against the mind, the which he pricks and wounds 
With many legions of strange fantasies, 
Which in their throng and press to that last hold, 
Confound themselves. 'Tis strange that death should sing. 
I ara the cygaaet to this pale faint swan, 
Who chants a doleful hymn to his own death, 
And ri'oto the organ pipe of frailty sings 
His soul and body to their lasting rest." 

To the saine purport, in t]cmy UIII. (act iv. sc. 2, 1. 77, 
vol. vi. p. 88), are the words of Queen Katharine, though she 
does not name the poet's bird,-- 

" I have not long to trouble thee. Good Griffith, 
Cause the musicians play me that sad note 
I named my knell, vhilst I sit meditating 
On that celestial harmony I go to." 

And in the Casket Scene, so often alluded to (3I«rch«t of 
Vedcc, act iii. sc. 2, 1. 4, vol. il. p. 325), when 13assanio is about 
to try his fortune, Iortia thus addresses him, 

If you do love me, you will find me out. 
Nerissa and the rest, stand all aloof. 
Let music sound while he doth make his choice ; 
Then, if he lose, he makes a swan-like end, 
Fading in music : that the comparison 
May stand more proper, my eye shall be the strealn, 
And vatery death-bed for him. He may win ; 

.And what is music then ? Then music is 
Even as the flourish when true subjects bow 
To a new-crowned monarch : such it is 
As are those dulcet sounds in break of day 
That creep into the dreaming bridegroom's ear 
And summon him to lnarriage." 

In the sad ending, too, of the Aloor of l'ltice (act v. sc. 2, 
1. I46, vol. viii. p. 58), aftcr Othcllo had said of Dcsdemona,-- 

" Nay, had she been truc, 
If heaven would make me such another world 
Of one entire and perfect chrysolite, 
l'd not have sold hcr for it :" 

and the flll proof of innocence having bcen brought forward, 
Emilia desires to be laid by her dead " Mistress' side," and 
inquires mournfilly (1. 49, P- 586),-- 

" What did thy song bode, lady ? 
Hark, canst thou hear me? I will play the swan, 
And die in music. [Sicging.] \Villow, willow, willow. 
Moor, she was chaste ; she loved thee, cruel Moor, 
So corne my soul to bliss, as I speak true ; 
So speaking as I think, I die, I die. [Dies.]" 

After this long dissertation alwut swans, there may be 
readers who will press hard upon me with the couplet from 

" Svans sing before they die : 'twere no bad thing, 
Should certain pcrsons die before they sing." 

From Heraldry itself the Zids2z**¢,¢«r dVight's 23rca,u (act iii. 
sc. 2, 1. 2Ol, vol. ii. p. 239 ) borrows one of its most beautiful 
comparisons ; it is in the passage where Helena so passionately 
reproaches Hermia for supposed treachery,-- 

" O, is ail forgot ? 
Ail school-days' friendship, childhood innocence ? 
We, Hermia, like two artificial gods, 


Have with our needles creatcd both one flowcr, 
Both on one sampler, sitting on one cushion, 
I3oth warbling of one song, both in one key ; 
As if out hands, out sidcs, voices, and minds, 
Had been incorporate. So we grcw togethcr, 
Like to a double cherry, seeming parted ; 
But yet an union in partition, 
Two lovely berries moulded on one stem ; 
So, with two seeming bodies, b.ut onc heart ; 
Two of the first, like coats in heraldry, 
Due but to one, and crowned with one crest." 

I11 speaking of the Hcraldry of Heroic _Achievements, wc 
may refer to the "wreath of chivah'y" (p. I68), already 
described from the P«rid«s. There were, however, other 
wreaths which the Romans bestowed as the rewards of great 
and noble exploits. Several of these are set forth by the 
Emblem writers; we will select olle from Whitney (p. 115) , 
Fortit«r &fi'licit«;--" Bravely and happily." 

IVldtney, 1586. 

2 2 2 CLASSIFICA TION [Cuar. ri. 

To this device of an armed hand grasping a spear, on which 
are hanging four garlands or crowns of victory, the stanzas 
" " | ARC SEIGIVS nowe, I maye recorde by righte, 
a., ,. A Romane boulde, whome foes coulde not dismaye : 
Gainste HANNIBAL hec often shewde his lnighte, 
XVhose righte hande loste, his lefte hee did assaye 
Vntill at lengthe an iron hande hee proou'd : 
And after that CREMOIqA siege remoou'd. 

Then, did defende PLACENTIA in distresse, 
And wanne twelue houldes, by dinte of sworde in France, 
3,Vhat triumphcs grcat ? were ruade for his successe, 
Vnto what state did fortune him aduance ? 
3,Vhat speares ? what crounes ? what garlandes hee possest ; 
The honours due for them, that did the beste." 

Of such honours, like poets generally, Shakespeare often 
tells. After the triumph at Barnet (3 Hcmy VI., act v. sc. 3, 
1. 1, vol. v. p. 324), King Edward says to lais friends,-- 

" Thus far our fortune keeps an upward course, 
And we are grac'd with wreaths of victory." 

Wreaths of honour and of victo W are figured by Joachim 
Camerarius, "Ex RE HERagL«," edition 159o, in the 99th 
Emblem. The laurel, the oak, and the olive garlands are 
ringed together ; the motto bcing, " HIS ORNARI AVT IMRI," 
IVitl thcsc to be adorncd or fo dic, 

« ronde ol«w, lauri, quercus cone.rla corolla 
«[c decorel, sine qu,e OE,iuere triste mihi," 
"From bough of olive, laurel, oak, a woven crown 
Adorns me, without vhich to lire is sadness to me." 

_Among other illustrations are quoted the words of the Iliad, 
which are applied to Hector, rOvdr% oh o' a««¢" " àlxv»'olxev " rp' 
rdrp,ç,--" Let death corne, it is not unbecoming to him who dies 
defending lais country." 

Of the three croxwas two are named (3 It'cltry U/., act iv. 
sc. 6, I. 32, vol. v. p. 3o9), when Warwick rather blames the king 
for preferring him to Clarence, and Clarence replies,-- 

No, Warwick, thou art worthy of the sway, 
To whom the heavens in thy nativity 
Adjudged an olive branch and laurel crown, 
As likely to be blest in peace and war, 
And therefore I yield thee my free consent." 

The introduction to Ixïtg Richard [[[. (act i. sc. I, 1. , vol. v. 
P. 473) opens suddenly with Gloster's declaration,-- 

" Nov is the winter of our discontent 
Made glorious summer by this sun of York ; 
And ail the clouds, that lour'd upon our bouse, 
In the deep bosom of the ocean bury'd." 

" Sun of York" is a direct allusion to the heraldic cognizance 
which Edward IV. adopted, " in mcmory," we are told, " of the 
¢hrce stuts," which are said to have appeared at the battle which 
he gained over the Lancastrians at Mortimer's Cross. Richard 
then adds,-- 
" Now are our brows bound with victorious wreaths, 
Our bruised arms hung up for monuments ; 
Our stern alarums changed to merry meetings, 
Our dreadful marches to delightful lneasures." 

We meet, too, in the Pcricles (act il. sc. 3, 1. 9, vol. ix. p. 345) 
with the words of Thaisa to the victor,-- 

But you, my knight and guest ; 
To whom this wreath of victory I give, 
And crovn you king of this day's happiness." 

]3ut iii the pure Roman manner, and according to the usage 
of Emblematists, Shakespeare also tells of "victors' crowns ;" 
following, as would appear, " LES DEVISES HEROQVES" of 
Paradin, edition Anvers, I562, f. I47 e,crso, which contains 


severai instances of garlands for noble broxvs. Of these, one is 
entitled, Scruati gratia " " " 
czms,-- For sake of a citizen saved. 

The garland is thus 
described in Paradin's 

"La Courne, aellee Ciuique, 
efloit d6nee tar le Citoyê, au Cito.),ê 
qu'il auoit fauué en guerre : en 
retrefentatiô de vie fauuee. Et 
efloit cete Courne, ti.ffue de 
fueilles, ou tetis rameaus de 
Chef ne: pour autt qu'au Chef ne, 
Ia vielIe antiquité, fouIoit prêtre 
fa fidflàce, f ,nager, ou fa 
nourrtllre. » 

Le.--" The crown called Civic 
was given by the Citizen to 
the Citizen v wholn he had 
saved in war ; in testimony of 

life saved. And this Crown vas an inweaving of leaves or small branches 
of Oak ; inasmuch as from the Oak, old antiquity was accustomed to take 
its subsistence, its food, or its nourishment." 

"Among the rewards" for the Roman soldie W, remarks 
Eschenburg (3[anual of Classical Lit«ralurc, p. 274), "golden or 
gilded crowns were particularly common ; as, the corona cas- 
trcnsis, or vallaris, to him who first entered the enemy's entrench- 
ments; corona ,mtraIis, to him who first scaled the enemy's 
walls ; and coromz navalis, for se[zing a vessel of the enemy in a 
sea-fight ; also wreaths and crowns formed of leaves and blossoms ; 
as the coromz civica, of oak leaves, conferred for freeing a citizen 
from death or captivity at the hands of the enemy ; the corona 
obsidionaIis, of grass, for delivering a besieged city; and the 
corona lrœetmthalis , of laurel, worn by a triumphing general." 

* Paradin's words and his meaning differ ; the Civic crown was bestowed, not on 
the citizen saved, but on the citizen who delivered him from dange,; 


Shakespeare's acquaintance with these Roman customs we 
tïlld, whcre we should expect it to be, in the Çoriol«mts alld iii 
the yulins Çcesar. Let us take the instances; first, from thc 
Coridaltus, act i. sc. 9, 1. 58, vol. ri. p. 304; act i. sc. 3, I. 7, 
p. 287 ; act ii. sc. 2, 1. 84, p. 323 ; and act ii. sc. I, 1. IO 9, p. 312. 
Cominius thanks the gods that "our Rome hath such a soldicr" 
as Caius Marcius, and declares (act i. sc. 9, 1. 58), - 

"Therefore, be it known, 
As to us, to all the world, that Caius Marcius 
XVears this war's garland : in token of the which, 
My noble steed, known to the camp, I give hiln, 
With ail his trim belonging ; and fronl this tiret. 
For what he did belote Corioli, call hiln, 
With all the applause and clamour of the host, 
The addition nobly ever 

With most motherly pride Volumnia rehearses the brave 
deed to Virgilia, her son's wife (act i. sc. 3, I. 7),-- 

"When, for a day of kings' entreaties, a mother should hOt sell him an 
hour from her beholding ; I, considering how honour would becolne such a 
person ; that it was no better than picture-like to bang by the wall, if renown 
lnade it not stir, vas pleased to let hiln seek danger where he was like to find 
lame. To a cruel war I sent him ; from whence he returned, his brows bound 
with oak. I tell thee, daughter, I sprang not inore in joy at first hearing 
he was a man-child than nov in first seeing he had proved himself a man." 

And the gaining of that early renoxvn is most graphically 
drawn by Cominius, the consul (act il. sc. 2, 1. 84),. 

"At sixteen years, 
V'hen Tarquin ruade a head for Rome, he fought 
Beyond the mark of others : our then dictator, 
Whom with all praise I point at, saw him fight, 
When xvith his Amazonian chin he drove 
The bristled lips before him : he bestrid 
An o'er press'd Roman, and i' the consul's view 
Slew three opposers : Tarquin's self he met, 
And struck him on his knee : in that day's fcats, 

z z 6 CZA SS1FICA TIO2: [c i A V. V I. 

\\ hen he might act the woman in the scen% 
Ho proved best man i' the field, and for his meed 
Vas brow-bound with the oak. His pupil age 
Man-enter'd thus, he waxed like a sea ; 
And, in the brunt of seventeen battles since, 
He lurch'd all swords of the garland." 

The successfill general is expectcd in Rome, alld this dialogue 
is held between lIcnenius, Virgilia, and Volumnia (act il. sc. I, 
I. lO9, p. 312),-- 

"21[elt. Is ho not wounded ? he was wont to corne home wounded. 
I ïr. O no no no. 
l bl. O, he is wounded ; I thank the gods for't. 
«[«l«. So do I too, ifit bê hOt too much : brings a' victory in his pockêt? 
The wounds become him. 
l'ol. On's brows: Mcnenius, he cornes the third rime home with thê 
oaken garland." 

Next, we bave an instance from the ¢tli¢ts Coesar (act v. 
sc. 3, 1. 80, vol. vii. p. 4o9), on the field of Philippi, whcn " in 
lais rcd blood Cassius' day is set," Titanius asks, 

Why didst thou send me forth, brave Cassius ? 
Did I not meet thy fricnds ? and did not they 
Put on my brows this wreath of victory, 
And bid me give it thee? Didst thou hOt hear their shouts ? 
Alas, thou hast misconstrued every thing ! 
But, hold thee, take this garland on thy brow ; 
Thy Brutus bid me give it thee, and I 
Will do his bidding." 

The heraldry of honours rioto sovereign princes, as testified 
to, both by Paradin in lais " DEVISES HEROIQVES,'" edition 
Antwerp, I56 , folio Iev, and 5, 26, and b¥ Shakespeare, 
embraces but two or three instances, and is comprised in the 
magniloquent lines (I /-f«¢y V]., act iv. sc. 7, 1. 6o, vol. v. p. 8o) 
in which Sir William Lucy inquires,-- 

"But where's the great Alcidcs of the field, 
Valiant Lord Talbot, EarI of Shrcwsbury, 

S ECa. I I.] H)?A LD[C E[BLZ]Z.ç. z z 7 

Created, for his rare success in arms, 
Great Earl of Washford, \Vaterford and Valence ; 
Lord Talbot of Goodrig and Urchinfield, 
Lord Strange of Blackmere, Lord Verdun of AIton, 
Lord Cromvell of \Vingfield, Lord Furnival of Shcffield, 
The thrice-victorious Lord of Falconbridge : 
Knlght of the noble order of Saint George, 
Worthy Saint Michael and the Golden Fleece ; 
Great marshal to Henry the Sixth 
Of ail his wars vithin the realm of France ?" 

From Paradin we learn that thc Order of St. Michacl had 
for its motto Ilamcusi trcmor Occa«i,--"The trcmbling of the 
immeasurable ocean,"--and 

"This order vas instituted by 
Louis XI., King of France, in the 
year I469 . He directed for its 
ensign and device a collar of gold, 
ruade vith sheIls laced together 
in a double rov, held firm upon 
little chains or meshes of gold ; 
in the middle of which collar on 
a rock was a gold-image of Saint 
Michael, appearing in the front. 
And this the king did (with re- 
spect to the Archangel) in infita- 
tion of King Charles VII. his 
father; who had formerly borne 
that image as his ensign, even at 
his entry into Rouen. By reason 

for its badge the adjoining ''a 

alvays (it is said) of the apparition, on the bridge of Ol'leans, of Saint Michael 
defending the city against the English in a famous attack. This collar then 
of the royal ortier and device of the Knights of the saine is the sign or 
true ensign of their nobleness, virtue, concord, fidelity and friendship; 
Pledge, reward and remuneration of their valour and prowess. By the 
richness and purity of the gold are pointed out their high tank and grandeur 

* Consequently there is an anachronism by Shakespeare in assigning the order of 
St. Michael to "valiant Lord Talbot, Earl of Shrewsbury," who was slain in 453- 

228 CZA._ç.$'FCA TIOW. [cum'. Vl. 

by the similarity or likcness of its shells, their equality, or the equal 
fiatcrnity of the Order (following the Roman senators, who also bore 
shells on their arms for an ensign and a device) ; by the double lacing 
of them together, their invincible and indissoluble union; and by the 
image of Saint Michael, victory over the most dangerous enemy. A 
device thon institutcd for the solace, protection and assurance of this so 
noble a kingdom ; and, on the contrary, for the terror, dread and confusion 
of the enemies of the saine." 

Paradin (f. 25)is 
Order of the Golden 
prcsented : 

also our authority with respect to the 
Fleece, its motto and device being thus 

l'recium tton OE,i[« hrbmwm,-- 
" No mean reward of labours." 

Paradin, x562. 

" The order of the Golden 
Flcece," says Paradin, " was in- 
stituted by Philip, Duke of Bur- 
gundy, styled the Good, in the 
year 1429, for which he named  
twcnty-four Knights without re- 
proach, besides himself, as chief 
and founder, and gave to each 
one of them for ensign of the 
said Order a Collar of gold 
composed of his device of the 
Fusil, with the Fleece of gold 
appearing in front ; and this (as 
people say) was in imitation of 
that which Jason acquired in 
Colchis, taken customarily for 
Virtue, long so much loved by 
this good Duke, that he lnerited 
this surname of Goodness, and 
other praises contained on his 
Epitaph, where there is men- 
tion ruade of this Order of the 
Fleece, in the person of the 
Duke saying,-- 

' Pour lnaintenir l'Eglise, qui est de Dieu maison, 
J'ai mis sus le noble Ordre, qu'on nomme la Toison.'" 

« The naine of Lord Talbot, Earl of Shrewsbury, does hot occttr in the list which 
Paradin gives of the twenty-four Knights Companions of the Golden Fleece. 

SECT. I1.1 IfEI/tLD[C EA[1]LEALç. 229 

The expedition of the Argonauts, and Jason's carrying off 
of the Golden Fleece may here be appropriately mentioned ; 
they are referred to by the Emblem writers, as well as the 
exploit of Phrixus, the brother of Helle, in swimming across 
the Hellespont on the golden-fleeced tain. The fir11¢cr 
Whitney introduces when describing the then new and 
wonderful circumnavigation of the globe by Sir Francis 
Drake (p. 2o3), 

" Let GR.ECIA then forbeare, to praise her IASON bouldc ? 
Vho throughe the watchflfll dragons pass'd, to win thc flcece of gouldc. 
Since by I,[EDEAS helpe, they weare inchaunted ail, 
And IASON without perrillcs, pass'de : the conqueste therfore small ? 
But, hee, of whome I writc, this noble minded DRAKE, 
Did bringe away lais gouldcn fleece, when thousand eies did wake." 

The latter forms the 
edition Antwerp, 
I58I , Emb. 189, in 
which, seated on 
the precious fleece, 
Phrixus crosses the 
waters, and fearless 
in the midst of the 
sea mounts the 
tawny sheep, the 
type of "the rich 
man unlearned." 
Whitney (p. OE4) 
substitutes hz dizd- 
toz, idoctztm,  
"To the rich man, 
unlearned,"  and 
thus paraphrases 
the original, 

subject of ont of _A_Iciat's Elnblems, 

Diues indotl. 

OEranat aquas refidês preciofo in vellere Phrixus, 
Et flauam impaui,tus per mare fcandit ouem. 
Ecquid id est ? vir fenfu hebeti, fed ,tiuite gaza, 
, Coniugis autferui quem regit arbitriun«. 

23o CLA&çlFICATIO_/V. [CH,x)" VL 

"  N goulden fleece, did Phryxus passe the waue, 
And landcd safe, within the wisbed baie : 
13y which is ment, the fooles that riches haue, 
Supported are, and borne throughe Lande, and Sea : 
And those enrich'dc by wife, or seruauntes goodds, 
Are borne hy them like Phryxus through thc floodds." 
In a similar emblem, ]3eza, edition Gcneva, I58O, Emb. 
alludes to the daring dced of Phrixus,-- 
I C¤er¤ 2bhri.z'ece commemorauit ou/s. 
:))s, &', Chrz'sle, agTtttm canimtts. ')rm dhtiA" ffcstas 
Tu ,o9 v«ras vell«re salus o:cs." 
Thus rcndcrcd in thc Frcnch version,-- 


" :htbttibo«h" discourt d« sa bouche menlcttse 
Sttr vae [oisot d'or. Abus, à htsle raisot, 
Te clta/ttots, Cltrisl, OEg/zcau, do/N la riche/oison 
Esl l'7,n:fuc thrcsor fut" 'e/td l'EUse hcttrcttse." 

The :[crcl«cmt of l'«Mc« (act. i. sc. , 1. 16I, vol. il. p. 284) 
prcsents Shakespeare's counterpart to the Emblcmatists ; it is in 
Bassanio's laudatol T description of Portia, as herself the golden 

" In Behnont is a lady richly lefi ; 
And she is fair, and, fairer than that word, 
Of wondrous virtues : sometimes from her eyes 
I did receive fair speechless messages : 
Her naine is Portia ; nothing undervalucd 
To Cato's daughter, Brutus' Portia : 
Nor is the wide world ignorant of her worth  
For the four winds blow in from every coast 
Renowned suitors : and her sunny locks 
Hang on her temples like a golden fleece : 
\Vhich makes her seat of Bclmont Colchos strand, 
And many Jasons corne in quest of hcr." 
To this may be added a line or two by Gratiano, 1. 241, p. 332,-- 
"How doth that royal lnerchant, good Antonio ? 
I know he will be glad of our success ; 
Wc are the Jasons, we have won the fleecc." 

SCT. Il.] HEIV.4LDIC E«)fBLE31S. 23  

The heraldry of hnaginative Devices in its very nature offers 
a wide field wherc the fancy may disport itself, t[ere things 
the most incongruous may meet, and the very contrariety only 
justify their being placed side by side. 
Let us begin with thc dcvice, as given in the "TETRASTICIII 
MORALI," p. 56, edition Lyons, I56I , by Giovio and Symeoni, 
used between I498 and I515 ; it is the device 


Giovio and Syltzeoni, z56z. 

to the motto, " Hand to hand and afar off,"-- 

& emlnus. 

Di lontano OE da preffo il Re Luigi, 
Feri'l nimico, OE lo ri,hffe à tale, 
Che dall' Icdico al lito Occide»tale 
Di fua vi,'tù fi v«ggiono i voEigi. 

A Porcupine is the badge, and the stanza dcclares, 

2 3 2 CLA SSIFICA TION. [c HAP. ¥ 1. 

" From far and fl-Olll near the King Louis, 
Smites the enemy and so reduces him, 
That ri'oto the Indian to the Western shore, 
Of lais valour the traces are seen." 
Camerarius with the saine motto and the like device testifies 
that this was the badge of Louis XI., king of France, to whose 
praise he also devotes a stanza, 
" 6tizzus u[puAtaljaculis, alq. ezitus hislrLr, 
l?ca" bonis cs[o artis cotsiliisqtle olcns." 
i.e. " As close at hand and far o the porcupinc fights with its spincs, 
Lct a good king bc powcrfil in arms and in counsels." 
It vas this Louis who laid claire to Milan, and carried Ludovic 
Sforza prisoncr to France. llc dcfeatcd thc Gcnoese after their 
revoit, and by grcat pcrsonal bravc T gained thc victory of 
Agnadel over the Venetians in 5o9. At the saine tiine he 
madc war on Spain, England, Romc, and Switzerland, and was 
in vcry deed the porcupine darting quills on every side. 
The xvell known application in Haml«t (act. i. sc. 5, 1. 3, vol. 
viii. p. 35) of the chief characteristic of this vexing creature is 
paA of the declaration which the Ghost makes to the Prince of 
"But that I ana forbid 
To tell the secrets of my prison-bouse, 
I could a tale unfold whose lightest word 
Vould harrov up thy soul, freeze thy young blood, 
lake thy two eyes, like stars, start ri'oto their spheres, 
Thy knotted and combined locks to part 
And each particular hair to stand an end, 
Like quills upon the fretful porpentine. » 

/knd of "Jolm Cade of/kshford," in 2 Hcur_l, I "/. (act. iii. sc. I, 
1. 360, vol. v. p. 6--), the Duke of York avers,-- 
" In Ireland I bave seen this stubborn Cade 
Oppose himsclf against a troop of kernes ; 
And fought so long, 'till that his thighs with darts 
Vcre almost like a sharp-quill'd porcupine." 

SECT. I1.] H.ERIJD_I-C tïJItTZtïAIS. 233 
From the saine source, Giovio's and Symeoni's " SENTEN- 
TIOSE IMPRESE," Lyons, I56I , p. I I5, we also derive the cogni- 




Giovio amt Symeoni, I56t. 

Diuora il flruzzo con ingorda fitria 
yl ferro, &E lo fmaltifce poi plan piano, 
Cofi (corne diling« il buon Romano) 
Smaltir fa il tempo ogni maggiore ingiuria. 

Spirltus du- 
riffima coqult. 

To this Ostrich, with a large iron nail in its mouth, and with 
a scroll inscribed, " Courage digests the hardest things," the 
stanza is devoted xvhich means,-- 
" Devour does the ostrich with eager greediness 
The iron, and then very easily digests it, 
So (as the good Romano represents) 
Time causes every injury to be digestcd.'" 

H I! 


Camerarius, to the saine motto, '.r 1 olat«libu (ed. 
treats us to a similar couplet,--. 

595, P- I9), 

"«][affno animo firlis ofo're 3bçricqla sucT,if, 
l'llo ne fiwile )9"auoeitur ille nttlu." 
L. "Vith mighty mind the brave grows accustomed to bear dangers, 
Nor casily is that man brokcn by any fear." 
Shakespeare's description of the ostrich, as given by Jack 
Cade, e t-rcuy l'Z (act iv. sc. to, 1. 23, vol. v. p. 206), is in close 
agreelnent with the ostrich device,-- 
« Here's the lord of the soil," he says, « corne to seize me for a stray, for 
entcring lais fce-simple without leave. Ah, villain, thou wilt betray me, and 
get a thousand crowns of the king for carrying my head to him; but l'll 
make thce eat iron like an ostrich, and swallmv my sword like a great pin, 
ere thou and I part." 

Note the iron pill ill the ostrich's mouth. 

Sola facqa folum Deum fequor. 

Paraetln, x56z. 

"My Lady Bona of 
Savoy," as Paradin (ed. 
562, fol. r65) names her, 
« the mother of Ian Galeaz, 
Duke of blilan, finding 
herself a widow, ruade 
a device on her small 
cmns of a Phoenix m 
the midst of a tire, with 
these words, ' Being ruade 
lonely, I follow God alone.' 
"Wishing to signify that, 
as there is in the world 
but one Phoenix, even 
so being Ieft by herself, 
she wished only to love 

conformably to the only God, in order to live eternally. ''v 

« Paradin's text :--" .'l/a Datte lone de Sauoye mere de Ian Galeaz, Duc de [ilat,, 
se lrouuant z,eufe fiit fah'e vne D«uise or ses Teslons d'vite 'nix au milieu d'z,tt fiu 
auec ces 2baroles : Sola facta, soltlm Deum sequor, l'oulant signifier que compile il 
n'y a au monde qtt',qte Fe,tix, tout ainsi e.rta,[ demeuree seulclle, ne vouloir gvmer selon 
le sotl 19iot, 2bou," 7'htre elernellemotL " 

Sc'r. II.] .Iïrt.tVAZDIC A'AIt>'Z.EAIS. 235 

The "TETRASTICIII MORALI" presents the same Emblem, as 
indeed do Giovio's " DIALO(;O DELL' IMPRESE," &C., ed. Lyons, 
574, and "DIALOGVE DES DEVISES," &c., cd. Lyons, 1561 ; 


M A D A M A B 0 N A 

Gloria, 574 (diminisled). 

with the saine motto, and the invariable Italian Quatrain,-- 

Sola fa6ta tblfi 
Defi fequor. 

111 English,-- 

Perduto cA' Aebbe il fido fuo conforte 
La nobil Donna, çual Fenice fola, 
A Dio .volfe ogni priego, ogni parda, 
Dando .vita al poer con 1' altrui morte. 

" Lost had shc her faithful consort, 
The noble Lady, as a Phoenix lonely, 
To God wills every prayer, every word 
Giving life to consider death with others." 

The full description and characteristics of the Phcenix we 
reserve for the section which treats of Emblems for l'oetic Ideas ; 
but the loneliness, or if I may use the terre, the oneliness of 
this fabulous bird Shakcspearc occasionally dwclls upon. 

236 CLISSIF[CM TIOW. [CA'. ri. 
In the C3,»bcKtc (act i. sc. 6, 1. 2, vol. ix. p. 83), Posthumus 
and Iachimo had ruade a vager as to the superior qualities and 
beauties of their respective ladies, and Iachimo takes from 
Leonatus an introduction to Ilnogen; the Dialogue thus 
• ' I«ch. Thc worthy Leonatus is in safety, 
And grects your highness dcarly. [Prcsetls a l«tler. 
lmo. Thanks, good sir : 
You're kindly velcome. 
loch. [. 1side.] All of her that is out of door lnOSt rich 
If she be furnish'd with a mind so rare, 
She is alone the Arabian bird, and 1 
Have lost the wager." 
Rosalind, in As ]'o«t Lil«c It (act iv. sc. 3, 1. 5, vol. ii. p. 442), 
thus speaks of thc lettcr which l'hebe, the shepherdess, had 
sent her,-- 
" She says I ara hOt fail', that 1 lack manners ; 
She calls me proud, and that she could hot love me, 
"''ere man as rare as phoenix." 
The oneliness of the bird is, too, well set forth in the T«pcst 
(act iii. sc. 3, 1. 22, vol. i. p. 5c),  
" In Arabia 
There is one tree, the phoenix' throne ; one phoenix 
At this hour reigning there." 
To the Heraldry of Imaginative Devices might be referred 
the greater part of the coats of arlns, badges and cognizances by 
which noble and gentle familles are distinguished. To conclude 
this branch of our subject, I will naine a woodcut which was 
probably peculiar to Geffl'ey \Vhitney at the time when Shake- 
speare wrote, though accessible to the dramatist from other 
sources; it is the fine frontispiece to the Choice tf 
setting forth the heraldic honours and arms of Robert, Earl of 
Leycester, and in part of lais brother, Ambrose, Earl of \Varwick. 
Each of these noblemen bore the saine crest, and it was, xvhat 


Shakespeare, 2/]««y I7. (act v. sc. , 1. 203, vol. v. p. 25), terms 
"the rampant bear chained to the ragged staff." 
How long this had been the cogni- 
zance of the Earls of \Varwick, and 
whether it was borne by all the various 

families of the Saxon and Norman races 
who held the title,--by the Beauchamps, 
the Nevilles, and the Dudleys, admits of 
doubt ; but it is certain that such was the 
cognizance in the reign of Henry VI. 
and in that of Elizabeth. 
According to Dugdale's AnNquiNcs 
of IVarwickshir¢ edition t73o , p. 398, 
the monunent of Thomas Beauchamp, 
Earl of Warwick in Edward III.'s time, 
has a lion, not a bear; and a lamb 

lVItitttey, x586. 

for his Countess, the Lady Katherine Mortimer. _A_Iso on the 
monument of another Earl (p. 4o4), who died in I4o, the bear 
does not appear ; but on the monument of Richard Beauchamp, 
who died "the last day of _A_prill, the year of our lord god 434," 
the inscription.s are crowded with bears, instead of commas and 
colons; and the recumbent figure of the Earl has a muzzled 
bear at his feet (p. 4Io). The Nevilles now succeeded to the 
title, and alimner's or designer's very curious bill, of the fifteenth 
year of Henry VI., 438, shows that the bear and ragged staff 
were then both in use and in honour,-- 

" First cccc Pencels bete with the Raggidde staffe of silver 
pris the pece v d . 
Item for a grete Stremour for the Ship ofxI yerdis length and 
II I I yerdis in brede, with a m:ete Bere and Gryfon holding 
a Raggid staffe, poudrid full of raggid staves ; and for a 
o'ate Crosse of S. George for the lymmynge and portraying 
Item xvIII Standardes of worsted, entretailled with the 
Bere and a Chayne, pris the pece xii d. 

oSL o6Æ oo 

o. 06. 08 
oo. 18. oo'" 


Among the monuments in the Lady Chapel at Warwick is a 
full length figure of "Ambrose Duddeley," who died in 1589, 
and of a muzzled bear crouching at lais feet. Robert Dudley, 
Earl of Leycester, lais brother, died in I588 ; and on lais magni- 
ficent tomb, in the saine chapel, is seen the saine cognizance of 
the bear and ragged staff. The armorial bearings, however, are 
a little different from those which Whitney figures. 
If, according to the Cambridge edition of Shakespeare's 
works, 1863-1866, vol. v. p. vii., "the play upon which the Second 
part of t Ienry the Sixth was founded was first printed in quarto, 
in t 594 ; " or if, as some with as much reason bave supposed,* it 
existed even previous to I59t, itis not likely that these monu- 
ments of elaborate design and costly and skilled workmanship 
could have been completed, so that from them Slmkespeare had 
taken lais description of " old Nevil's crest." Nathan Drake's 
Sha/espcarc a,zd his Timcs (vol. i. pp. 41o, 416) tells us that he 
left Stratford for London " about the year I5S6, or I587 ;" yet 
"the family rcsido¢cc of Shakspeare was atz,ays at Stratford : 
that he lfi,nself originally went alouc to London, and that he 
spent the greater part of every year there alo,¢e, annually, 
however, and probably for SOlne months, returning to the 
bosom of lais family, and that this alternation continued until 
he finally left the capital." 
Of course, had the monuments in question existed before the 
composition of the /f«,3v 17, lais annual visits to lais native 
Wanvickshire would have ruade them known to him, and he 
would thus have noted the family cognizance of the brother 
Earls ; but reason favours the conjecture that these monuments 
in the Lady Chapd were not the sources of lais knowledge. 
Colnmon rumour, indeed, may have supplied the information; 

« See -Pen Cyd@eedia, vol. xxi. p. 343 : " VCe have no doubt that the three 
plays in their original form, which ve nmv call the three Parts of zar«zSv l'Z, were 
his," i. e. Shakespeare's, "and they also belong to this epoch," i. e. previous to 159I. 

SCT. II.] HERA[.DfC F.A[t?[.EA[S. 239 

but as Geffrey Whitney's book appeared in I586, its first novelty 
would be around it about the rime at which Shakespeare was 
engaged in producing lais /fcl¢lSv V/-. That Emblem-book was 
dedicated to "ROBERT Earle of LEVCESTER ;" and, as we have 
said, contains a drawing, remarkably graphic, of a bear grasping 
a ragged staff, having a collar and chain around him, and stand- 
ing erect on the helmet's burgonet. There is also a less elabo- 
rate sketch of the same badge on the title-page to the second 
part of Whitney's Emblcmcs, p. o5. 
Most exactly, most artistically, does the dramatist ascribe 
the saine crest, in the saine attitude, and in the saine standing 
place, to Richard Nevil, Earl of Warwick, the king-setter-up and 
putter-down of History. In the fields between Dartford and 
131ackheath, in Kent, the two armies of Lancaster and York are 
encamped ; in the Dialogue, there is almost a direct challenge 
from Lord Clifford to Watavick to meet upon the battle-field. 
York is charged as a traitor by Clifford (2 Ig«my I,'L, act v. 
sc. I, 1. 143 , vol. v. p. 213) , but replies,- 
" I ara the king, and thou a false-heart traitor. 
Call hither to the stake my two brave bears, 
That with the very shaking of their chains 
They may astonish these fell-lurking curs : 
Bid Salisbury and Warwick come to me. 
Clif. Are these thy bears ? we'll bait thy bears to death, 
And manacle the bear-ward in their chains, 
If thou darest bring them to the baiting place. 
R.clz. Oft have I seen a hot o'erweening cur 
Run back and bite» because he was witMmld ; 
\Vho, being suffer'd with the bear's fell paw, 
Hath clapp'd his tail between his legs and cried : 
And such a piece of service will you do, 
If you oppose yourselves to match Lord Warwick." 
The Dialogue continues until just afterwards Wam-ick makes 
this taunting remark to Clifford (1. I96), 


" Il'a,-. You were best to go to bed and dream again, 
"Fo keep thee from the tempest of the field. 
Cli_£. I ara resolved to bear a greater storm 
Than any thou canst conjure up to-day ; 
And that 1'11 write upon thy burgonet, 
Might I but knmv lime by thy bouschold badge. 
II,: Nmv, by my fathcr's badge, old Nevil's crest, 
Tbe rampant bear chain'd to the ragged staff, 
This day Fil wear aloft my burgonet, 
As on a motmtain top the cedar shows 
That kecps his leaves in spire of any storm. 
Even to affright thee with the view thereof. 
Clif. And ff'oto thy burgonet I'll rend thy bear 
And tread it underfoot with all contempt, 
I )espite the bear-ward that protects the bear." 
A closer correspondcncc between a picture and a description of 
it cannot be desired ; Shakespeare's lines and \Vhitney's frontis- 
piece exactly coincide ; 
" Like coats in heraldry 
Due but to one, and crowned with one crest." 
13y Euclid's axiom, " magnitudes which coincide are equal;" 
and though the reasonings in geometry and those in heraldry 
are by no means of forces identical, it may be a just conclusion ; 
therefore, the coincidences and parallelisms of Shakespeare, with 
respect to Heraldic Emblems, have their original lines and sources 
in such writers as Giovio, Paradin, and Whitney. It was not he 
who set up the ancient fortifications, but he has drawn circum- 
vallations around them, and his towers nod over against theirs, 
though with no hostile rival W. 




Il CHO has not more voices than Mythology has 
transmutations, eccentricities, and cunningly dc- 
vised fancies,--and every one of them has its talc 
or its narrative--its poetic tissues woven of such 
an exquisite thilmess that they leave no shadows where they 
pass. The mythologies of Egypt and of Grcece, of Etruria and 
of Rome, in all their varying phases of absolute fiction and 
substantial truth, perverted by an unguarded imagination, were 
the richest mines that the Emblcm writers attempted to work ; 
they delighted in the freedom with which the fancy seemed 
invited to rove from gem to gem, and luxuriatcd in the lnany 
forms into which their fables might diverge. Now they touched 
upon Jove's thunder, or on the laurel for poets' brows, which the 
lightnilag's flash could hot harm--then on the bcauty and grace- 
fuhaess of Venus, or on the dores that fluttered near her car ;-- 
Dian's severe strictness supplied them with a theme, or Juno 
with her queenly birds; and they did hot disdain to tell of 
Bacchus and the vine, of Circe, and Ulysses, and the Sirens. 
The slaying of Niobe's children, Actoeon seized by his hounds, 
and Prometheus chained to the rock, Arion rescued by the 
dolphin, and Thetis at the tomb of Achilles,--these and many 
other myths and tales of antiquity grew up in the minds of 
Emblematists, self-sownrlaaments, if hot utilities. 
I I 


Though the grcat epic pocms are inwrought throughout 
with the mosaic work of faBles that passed for divine, and of 
exploits that were almost more than hulnan, Ovid's A[«tamor- 
phos«s, printed as early as I47 I, and of which an early French 
edition, iii I484, bers the title a iIlr rg ç0rtr, may be 
regarded as the chicf storchouse of mythological adventure and 
misadventure. The revival of literature ponred forth the work 
in various forms and languages. Spain had ber translation in 
494, and Italy in 497; and as Brunet informs us (vol. iv. 
c. 277 ), to another of Ovid's books, printed in Piedmont before 
47a, thcre was this singularly incongruous subscription, "' Las 
D«o et l'i«ii A[«riw Gh,riasissi»w ohmmcs Glim." Caxton, 
in England, lcd the way by printing Ovid's [ct«molws«s in 
t48o, which Arthur Golding may bc said to have completed in 
 567 by lais Ezglisk A[«#'ic«l 15"rsiou. 
Thus everywhere was the storehouse of mythology open; 
and of the Roman fabulist the Emblem writers, as far as they 
could, ruade a Book of Emblems, and often into their own works 
transported freely what they had found in his. 
And for a poet of no great dcpth of pure learning, but of 
unsurpassed natural power and genius, like Shakespeare, no 
class of books would attract his attention and furnish him with 
ideas and suggestions so readily as the Emblem writers of the 
Latin and Teutonic races. "The eye," which he describes, " in 
a fine phrensy rolling," would suffice to take in at a single glance 
many of the pictorial illustrations which others of duller sensi- 
bilities would only toaster by laborious study; and though 
undoubtedly, from the accuracy with which Shakespeare has 
depicted ancient ideas and characters, and shown his familiarity 
with ancient customs, usages, and events, he must have read 
much and thought much, or else have thought intuitively, it is a 
most reasonable conjecture that the popular literature of his 
timesthe illustrated Emblem-books, which ruade their way of 


wclcome among thc chicf nations of middlc, xvestcrn, and 
southerl Europe--should bave becn one of the fountains at 
which he gained knowledge. Nature, indced, fornls the poct, 
and his storehouses of materials on which to work are the ilmcr 
and outer worlds, first of his own consciousllcss, and ncxt of 
heaven and earth spread before him. But as a portion of this 
latter world we may naine the appliances and results of artistic 
skill in its delineations of outward forms, and in the fixedness 
which it gives to many of the conceptions of the mind. To thc 
artist himself, and to the poet not less than to the artist, the pic- 
tured shapes and groupings of mythological or fabulous bcings 
are most suggestive, both of thoughts already embodied there, and 
also of othcr thoughts tobe afterwards combined and expressed. 
Hence wot, ld the Elnblem-books, Oll some of which the fore- 
most painters and engravers had hOt disdaincd to bestow their 
powers, become to poets especially fruitful in instruction. _& 
proverb, a fable, ai1 old world deity is set forth by the pencil 
and the graving tool, and the combination sui»plies additional 
elements of reflection. Thus, doubtless, did Shakespeare use such 
works; and not merely are some of his thoughts and expressions 
iii unison with thcm, but lllouldcd and modified by thenl. 
For much indeed of his mythological lofe he was indebted to 
Ovid's l'«lamorphoscs, or, rathcr, I should say, to " Oz,id's 15"ta- 
morphoscs translated out of Latin in English metre by Arthur 
Golding, gent. A worke very pleasaunt and delectablc; 4to 
Lolldon I565." That he did attend to Golding's couplct, 

" With ski!l, heed, and judgment, thys work must be red, 
For els too the reader it stands in small stead,"-- 

will appear frolll some few instances; as,-- 

"Thy prolnises are like Adonis' gardens 
That one day blooln'd, and fruitful were the next.  
I l-[c¢t. UI., act i. sc. 6» 1. 6 


"Apollo flies and Daphne holds the chase, 
The dove pursues the griffin ; the mild hind 
Makes speed to catch the tiger." 
3Iidst»lmer Ni.rht's Dream, act il. sc. I, 1.23I. 
" XVe still have slcpt together, 
Rose at an instant, learn'd, play'd, eat togethcr, 
And wheresoe'er we wcnt, like Juno's swans, 
Still we wcnt couplcd and inseparable." 
Ms I -ou Like Il, act i. sc. 3, 1. 69. 
" Approach the chambcr and destroy your sight 
,Vith a new Gorgon." 
z|[acbeth, act ii. sc. 3, 1. 67. 
" l'll have no worse a naine than Jove's own page ; 
And therefore look you call me Ganymede." 
ts l"ou Z, ik« It, act i. sc. 3, 1. 12o. 
'" o Proserpina, 
For the flowers nov, that frighted thou let'st fall 
From Dis's waggon ! daffodils, 
That corne belote thê swallov dares, and take 
The winds of Match with beauty ; violets dira 
But sweeter than the lids of Juno's eyes 
Or Cytherea's breath ; pale primroses, 
That die unmarried, ere they can behold 
Ilright Phcebus in his strength, a malady 
IHost incident to maids ; bold oxlips and 
The crown imperial ; lilies of ail kinds, 
The flower-de-luce bein one ! O, these I lack 
To make you garlands of ; and my sveet friend 
To strew him o'er and o'er !" 
l}'itl«r's Tale, act iv. sc. 4, 1. I I6. 
Yet from thc Èmblem writers as well he appears to have 
dcrived many of his mythological allusions and expressions ; we 
may trace this generally, and with respect to some of the 
Heathen Divinities,--to several of the ancient Heroes and 
Heroines, we may note that they supply him with most beautiful 
Generally, as in Tro[ltts atct Çrcssic{a (act ii. sc. 3, 1. 24o), the 
expression " bull-bearing Milo" finds its device in the 
mata of Lebeus Batillius, edition Francfort, 596, where we are 


told that "Milo by long custom in carrying the calf could also 
carry it when it had grown to be a bull." In Ro»zv amt yMi«t 
(act il. sc. 5, l. 8) the lines,- 
"Therefore do nimble-pinion'd doves draw love 
And therefore hath the wind swift Cupid wings." 
We have the scene pictured in Corrozet's I«catomgr«hi; Paris, 
154o, leaf 7o, with, however, a very grand profession of regard 
for the public good,-- 
" Ce n'est pas cy Cupido Jeune enfant 
Que vous voier au carre triumphant, 
Mais c'est anmur lequel tiêt en sa corde 
Tous les estatz en gritd paix & c6corde." 
In Richard II. (act iii. sc. 2, 1. 24) Shakespeare seems to have in 
vicw the act of Cadmus, when he sowed the serpent's tceth,-- 
"This earth shall have a feeling and these stones 
Prove armed soldiers, ere her native king 
Shall falter under foul rebellion's arms." 

And the device which emblematizes the fac occurs in Sy- 
meoni's abbrcviation of the [«tamorhoscs into the form of 
Italian Epigrams (edition Lyons, 559, device 4I, p. 5:). 
And lastly, in 3 Ha«7 '[. (act v. sc. , 1. 34), from a few 
lines of dialogue between \Vanvick and King Edward, we 

" H'ar. 'Twas 1 that gave the kingdom to thy brother. 
A". c/w. \Vhy then 'ris naine, if but by \Varwick's girl. 
ll'ar. Thou art no Atlas for so great a weight ; 
And weakling, \Varwick takes his gift again." 
But a better comment cannot be than is found in Giovio's 
" DIALOGVE," edition Lyons, 56x, p. 29, with Atlas carrying 
the Globe of the Heavens, and with the motto, " SVSTINET 
NEC FATISCIT,"--/-]'g bca's 
The story of Juplter and Iois presented in the Emblem- 
books by Symeoni, 56, and by the Plantinian edition of 


Ovid's .8[«tamorthoscs, Antxverp, 1591, p. 35. From the latter, 
were it necdcd, xve could easily have added a pictorial illustra- 
tion to the Tamhtg of thc Shrcw (Induction, sc. e, 1. 52), - 
" Ve'll show thee Io as she was a maid 
And how shc was beguiled and surpriscd, 
As lively painted as thc deed was done." 
Thc t«touy amt Cl«@atra (act il. sc. 7, 1. mi, vol. ix. p. 6o), 
in onc part, prcsents the banquct, or, rathcr, the drinking bout, 
bctwccn Caesar, Antony, Pompey, and Lepidus, "the third part 
of thc world." Enobarbus addresses Antony, 

"Fto. [To Aloy.] Ha, my brave cinpcror ! 
Shall we dancc now the Egyptian Bacchanals, 
And cclebrate our drink ? 
t'oto. Lct's ha't, good soldicr. 
M tt. Corne, let's ail takc hands, 
Till that the conquering wine bath stecp'd our sense 
I n soif and dclicate Lethe. 
Fto. Ail take hands. 
Make battery to out ears with the loud music : 
The while l'Il place you : then the boy shall sing ; 
The holding evcry man shall bcar as loud 
As his strong sides can volley. 
[.I[usic #lays, ENOBARBUS iblaces tkem ltattd ttt ltattd. 
Tn SorG. 
" Corne, thou monarch of the vine, 
Plumpy Bacchus with pink eyne ! 
In thy rats our cares be drown'd, 
With thy grapes our hairs be crown'd : 
Cup us, till the world go round, 
Cup us, till the world go round !" 

Now, the figures in A_lciat, in Whitney, in the .SIicrocos¢¢os,* 
and espccially in Boissard's "TIIEATRVM VIT.q:; HUMAN.E," cd. 
Metz, 1596, p.  I3, of a certainty suggest the epithcts "plumpy 
Bacchus" "with pink eyne," a very chieftain of "Egyptian Bac- 

* Or 'arz,ts 132rtdts, ed.  5 79, where the figtlre of 13acchus by Gerard de Jode has 
wings on the head, and a swift Pegasus by its side, just striking the carth for flight. 

SgCT. ]ll.] A/YTtroLoG[c.4L CIIAI¢.-I CTEIN. 247 

chanals." This last dcpicts thé: " montach of the ville" approach- 
ing to mellowncss. 

loissard, 596. 

The Latin stanzas subjoined would, however, hot havc 
suited Enobarbus and the roistering triumvirs of the world,-- 
« Suave Dal »tonus vinum est : hominumquc salztli 
Cnducil : ra, sit dltmmod sobl ielts, 
Immodico s«'d si libi 23roluat o'a Ly(eo, 
Pro dztlciohts lel'a aconila mero." 
L,'. " Wine is God's plcasant gift, and for men's health 
Conduces, when sobriety presides ; 
But if excessive drained Lyoean wealth, 
For liquor sweet black aconite abides." 
The phrase, "rempli de vin dont son visage est teint," in " LE 
ICROCOSME," Lyons,  562, suggests the placing the stanzas in 
which it occurs, in illustration of Shakespeare's song ; thcy are,-- 
« Le Dieu Bacchtts d'ordinaire on depeint 
Ayant en main vn chapelet de lierre, 
Tenant aussi vne couppe ou vn verre 
Rempli de vin dont son visage est teint. 

48 CLA SSIFIC.4 TIO¢V. [CUAr. ri. 

Des deux costes son chef on void aislé. 
Et prcs de luy d'vne pasture belle 
Le genereux Pegasus "à double aisle 
Se veut guinder vers le ciel estoilé." 

In Itatuam Bacchi. 

It may give comple- 
tion to this sketch if we 
subjoin the figured Bac- 
chus of Alciat (edition 
Antwerp, 1581, p. Il3), 
and present the intro- 
ductory lines,-- 

" BaCCH E 2al«r fuis &" mor- 
laH lumine nouil, 
Et docla na'il fuis tua 
mcmbra manu ? 
PliLllil,,lg;, çui me 
&'m Gnossida 
«l&ue illo #hLril h'm- 
pre, çu,dis o'am." 

Of Alciat's 36 lines, Whitney, p. I S 7, gives the brief yet 
paraphrastic translation,-- 
" THE timelie birthe that SEIELE did beare, 
- Sec heere, in time howe monstêrous he grewe : 
With drinkinge touche, and dailie bellie cheare, 
His eies weare dimme, and fierie was his hue : 
His cuppe, still fidl : his head, with grapes was croun'de : 
Thus time he spent with pipe, and tabret sounde. ¢* 
Which carpes all those, that loue to much the canne, 
And dothe describe theire personage, and theire guise : 
For like a beaste, this doth transforme a man, 
And makes him speake that moste in secret lies ; 
Then, shunne the sorte that bragge of drinking touche, 
Seeke other frendes, and ioyne hot handes with suche." 

« It is curious to observe how in the margin \\'hitney supports lais theme by a 
reference to Ovid, and by quotations from Anacreon, John Chrysostom, Sambucas, 
and Propertis. 


On the same subject we may refer to Lovc's La3om;s Lost 
(act iv. sc. 3, 1. 308, vol. il. p. I5I ), to the long discourse or argu- 
ment by Biron, in which he asks,-- 
" For where is any author in the world 
Teaches such beauty as a wolnan's eye ?" 
The offensiveness of excess in winc is then xvell set forth (1. 333),-- 
"Love's feeling is more soit and sensible, 
Than are the tender horns of cockled snails ; 
Love's tongue proves dainty Bacchus gross in taste." 
On these words the best comment are two couplets from 
\Vhitney (p. I33), to the scntilnent, Irnd«tlcs z,ino absliw«l,-- 
"The wise abstain froln wine." 

llYdtne¥, x586. 

OE here the vine dothe clafpe, to prudent Pallas tree, 
The league is nought, for virgines wife, doe Bacchus frendlhip flee. 
Al«iat. ,.id me vaexatis rami ? Sure Palla, tis arbor, 
Aferte ldnc botros, vairgo Jù.git Bromium. 
E,tglifi«d fo. 
Why vexe yee mee yee boughes ? rince I ara Pallas tree : 
Remoue awaie your cluers hence, the vi,gin wine doth flee. 

K K 

250 CLASS[FICATIOW. Item. ri. 

Not less degrading and brutalising than the goblets of 
Bacchus are the poisoncd cups of the goddess Circe. Her 
fearful power and enchantments form episodcs in the oth 
book of thc Odysso', iii the 7th of the zEn«id, and in the 
4th of the 2]ctamor_phoscs. So suitable a theme for their 
art is hot neglected by the Emblem writers. _Alciat adopts 
it as a warning against lneretricious allurements (edition 
581, p. I84),-- 

Caucndum à meretricibus. 

Alciat, 158x. 

SOLE rata Circes tare magna potentia Jërtur, 
Yerterit ¢'t multos in noua mo,tra ¢viros. 
OEe_[tis equîm domitor Picus, tutu 89lla biformis, 
Arque lthaci poflquàm vina bibere fues. 
Indicat illuflri me»et»item nomine Circe, 
Et rationem animi ler,tere, quifquh amat. 

Adopting another motto, lomim's vok¢tatibus transformalztm; 
" Men are transformed by pleasures,"--Whitney (p. 82) 3-et 
gives expression to Alciat's idca,-- 


" EE here VLISSES men, transformed straunge to heare : 
' Some had the shape of Goates, and Hogges, some Apes, and Asses 
.Vho, when they lnight haue had their former shape againe, 
They did refuse, and rather wish'd, still brutishe to remaine. 
Which showes those foolishe sorte, whome wicked loue dothe thrall, 
Like brutishe beastes do passe theire time, and haue no sence at all. 
And thoughe that wisedome woulde, they shoulde againe retire, 
Yet, they had rather CIRCES serue, and burne in theire desire. 
Then, loue the onelie crosse, that clogges the worlde with tare, 
Oh stoppe your eares, and shutte your eies, of CRCES cuppes beware." 
The striking lines from Horace (ist. i. 2) are added, 
'" ,çirotum OE,oces,  Ci'es ocul« wsti : 
QUOe si gltlll sogiis S[U[[ItS czthhtsf' bibisset, 
5)tb dotDta mere[r[cetissel [tt»is,  e.t-cors, 
l ŒErissel canis it#tuitdtts, v'[ arnica lttto sus." 
i.c. " Of Sirens the voices, and of Circe the cups thou hast known : 
XVhich if, with companions, anyone foolish and eager had drunk, 
Under a shalneless mistress he bas become base and witless, 
Has lived as a dog unclean, or a sow in friendship with mire." 
Circe and Ulysses are also briefly treated of in The Goh&n 
of Nicholas Reusner, with Stimmer's plates, I59I, 

Bellua dira libido 
Pulcra facit Circe meretrix excordia cor,la : 
Fortis l@fied, qui fapit, arte domat. 
11 iefi er$àubert gir«e il, 
c[ylàflt çurn 0n [icb, er a, ci feint eilt. 
Reusner (edition I58I, p. I34), assuming that " Slothfulness 
is the wicked Siren," builds much upon Virgil and Horace, as 
may be seen from the epithets he employs. We give only a 
portion of his Elegiacs, and the English of them first, 
" Through various chances, through so many dangerous things, 
Vhile again and again the Ithacan pursues the long ways : 
The voices of Sirens, and of Circe the kingdoms he forsakes : 
Nor does the bland Atlantis his journey retard. 
But as Circe to his companions supplies the potations foul, 
Vitless and shalneless this becomes a sow and that a dog." 

z 5 z CLASSIFICA 1VOW. [Crmœe. V I. 

Improba Siren defidia. 
/M tZuolfgangum, OE Carolum Rech- 
linieros , Pair. quguflanos. 

lïe,«s,ter, 1581. 

er ¢varios caJùs, per tot difcrimina rerum, 
Dura longas lthacus it, re,titç trias : 
Sirenum ¢voces, OE Circes regna relinquit : 
Blanda nec qtlantls tunc remoratur iter. 
zlt focljs Circe dura pocula fce, ta miniflrat : 
Excors, OE turpis fus fit hic, ille canis. 

Noxv, Shakespeare's allusions to Circe are only two. The 
flrst, in the Comtal A, of Frrors (act v. sc. , 1. 269, vol. i. p. 455), 
when all appears in inextricable confusion, and _Antipholus of 
Ephesus demands justice because of lais supposed wrongs. The 
Duke Solinus in his perplexity says,-- 

""Why what an intricate impeach is this ! 
I think you all have drunk of Circe's cup." 

The s«cozd, in  Iff«,r 3, VA (act v. sc. 3, 1. 30, vol. v. p. 86). On 
fighting hand to hand with the Maid of Orleans, and taking her 


prisoner, the Duke of York, ahnost like a dastard, reproaches 
and exults over her noble nature,-- 

" Damsel of France I think, I have you fast : 
Unchain your spirits now with spelling charms 
And try if they can gain you liberty. 
A goodly prize, fit for the devil's grace ! 
See, how the ugly witch doth bend her brows, 
As if, with Circe, she would change my shape !" 

So closely connected xvith Circe are the Sirens of fable that 
it is almost impossible to treat of them separately. _As usual, 
Alciat's is the Emblem-book (edition 55 I) from which we 
obtain the illustrative print and the Latin stanzas. 


Roflro abf , 6Y pif ces, qui tamen ore canant: 
OEuis [utet effe vllos ? iungi hec natura negauit 
$irenes fieri fe,l lotuiffe dotent. 
lllicitum efl roulier, quw in pif cern deJinit atrum. 
Plurbna qub,t fecum monflra libido q;ehit. 
tJequ, q;erbis, animi candore, trahuntur, 
Parthenole , Ligia, LeucoJiaç viri. 
Has rouf te exllumant , bas arque illudit Fyffes. 
$cilicet efl doqis cure meretrice nihil. 

254 CZASS/FICA T/O2V.. [Cvr^P. VI. 

It is Whitney who prox;ides the poetic comment (p. Io),-- 

" "7ITHE pleasaunte tunes, the SYRENES did allure 
" " Vlisses wise, to listen to theire songe : 
But nothinge could his manlie harte procure, 
Hce sailde axvaie, and scap'd their charming stronge, 
The face, he lik'de, the nether parte, did loathe : 
For womans shape, and fishes had they bothe. 

Which shewes to vs, when Bewtie seekes to snare 
The cardesse man, whoe dothe no daunger dreede, 
That he shoulde file, and shoulde in rime beware, 
And not on lookes, his fickle rancie feede : 
Snch Mairemaides liue, that promise onelie ioyes : 
But hee that yeldes, at lengthe him selffe distroies." 

The Dialogue, fl'om the Comaty of Errors (act iii. sc. 2, lines 
27 and 45, vol. i. pp. 425, 6), between Luciana and Antipholus 
of Syracuse, maintains, 

«'Tis holy sport, to be a little vain, 
x, Vhen the sweet breath of flattery conquers strife ;" 

and the remonstrance urges,-- 

" O train me not, sveet mermaid, with thy note, 
To drown me in thy sister flood of tears : 
Sing, siren, for thyself, and 1 will dote : 
Spread o'er the silver waves thy golden bairs, 
And, as a bed l'll take them, and there lie ; 
And, in that glorious supposition, think 
He gains by death that hath such means to die." 

And in the Tit«s Andro,dc,«s (act ii. sc. , 1. 
P-45), Aaron, the Moor, resolves, when speaking 
his imperial mistress,-- 

18, vol. v i. 
of Tamora 

" Away with slavish xveeds and servile thoughts ! 
I will be bright, and shine in pearl and gold, 
To wait upon this new-marie empress. 
To wait, said I ? to wanton with this queen, 
This goddess, this Semiranfis, this nymph. 


This siren, that will charm Rome's Saturnine, 
And sec his shipwreck and his commonweal's." * 
To recommend the sentiment that "_Art is a help to nature," 
_Alciatus (edition 55I, p. lO7)introduces the god [ercul'y and 
the goddess Fortune, 
Al-s Naturam adiuuans. 
.[lciet, 55 . 

Et spheeree Fortuna, cubo./ic in./idet Hermes : 
h-tibus hic, ,varijs cafibus illa reeeJt. 
Aduofus ¢oim Fortunee eJt ars jàcTa : fed artis 
Cùm fortuna mala efl, fiepe requirit oem. 
Difc« bonas art«s ig;tur fluaSofa Suu«ntus, 
qee certee fecum commoda fortis habent. 
" As on a globe Fortune rests, so on a cube Mercury : 
In various arts this one excells, that in mischances. 
Against the force of Fortune art is used ; but of art, 
When Fortune is bad, she often demands the aid. 
Learn good arts then ye studious youth, 
Which being sure have with themselves the advantages of destin)'." 

* To the device of the .Sil-ens, Camerarius, Ex Aquatilibus (ed. I6O4, leaf 64), 
affixes the ,notto, " IIOKTEM DABIT IPSA VOLVPTAS,"--2°/«'«i'Sl¢Y itsclf will .çiz.e d,'ath, 
--and wjth several references to ancient authors adds the couplet,- 
" 1)ulcisono »tulc,,ttt Sircnes tetlzertt canlu : 
Ttt fttge, ne pcreas, callida ttonstra matis." 
L e. " With sweet soundlng song the Sirens smooth the breeze : 
Flce, lest thou pcrih, the cr:.tfty mon»ters -f tire seas." 

2 S 6 CL,4SSIFICA TIOA r. [Cl:,v. ri. 

Sambucus takes up the 
causes Mercury to strike a 
dustry corrects nature." 

lyre of some 
similar strain 

Emblem Muse and 
to the saying, " In- 

Indultria natm'am corrigit. 
N«J1tbl«Cts, I564. 

T AM ru,te & incultum nihil efl, in,tuflria lOffit 
Natur« vitium quin poliiffe, l«bor. 
htuentam cafu cochleam, temereque iacentem 
luflruxit neruis nuntius ille Deîm. 
lnformem cltharam excoluit : nunc gau,lia mille, 
Et reddit dulces ecTine mota fonos. 
Cur igitur quereris, naturam r fitgis b«eptam ? 
Ndnne tibi ratio efl ? muta loquuntur, abi. 
Ritè fit è concha tc_fludo, feruit vtrinque : 
Dt venerem hec digitis, f«piùs illa gula. 

The god is mending a broken or an imperfect musical instru- 
ment, a lyrist is playing, and a maiden dancing before him. 
V'hitney thus performs the part of interpreter (p. 9z),-- 

"THE Lute, whose sotmde doth most delighte the eare 
a. \Vas caste aside, and lack'de bothe striges, and frettes : 
V-hereby, no worthe within it did appeare, 
IERCVR1VS came, and it in order settes : 
\Vhich being tun'de, such Harmonie did lende. 
That Poëttes write, the trees theire toppes did bende. 

SECT. III.] 31YTI-[OZOG]'C.4Z Ctt.4R.4CTE].ç. 257 

Euen so, the man on whome dothe Nature froune, 
3,Vereby, he liues dispis'd of euerie xvighte, 
Industrie yet, maie bringe him to renoume, 
And diligence, maie make the crooked righte : 
Then haue no doubt, for arte maie nature helpe. 
Thinke hoxve the beare doth forme her vgly whelpe." 
The cap with wings, and the rod of poxver with serpents 
entwined, are almost the only outward signs of which Shake- 
speare avails himself in lais descriptions of Mercury, so that in 
this instance there is very little correspondence of idea or of 
expression between him and our Emblem authors. Neverthe- 
less, we produce it for what itis worth. 
In King .,Wohn (act iv. sc. 2, 1. tTO, vol. ix'. p. 67), the monarch 
urges Falconbridge's brother Philip to inquire respecting the 
rumours that the French had landed,-- 
" Nay, but niake baste ; the better foot before. 
O, let me bave no subject enemies, 
When adverse foreigners affright my towns 
With dreadflfl pomp of stout invasion ! 
Be Mercury, set feathers to thy heels 
And fly like thought flore them to me again." 
One of Shakespeare's geins is the description which Sir Richard 
Vernon gives to Hotspur of the gallant appearance of "The nim- 
ble-footed madcap Prince of Wales" (t I-[cnry Ifd, act iv. sc. , 1. 
o4, vol. iv. p. 3t8), - 
" I saw young Harry, with his beaver on, 
His cuisses on his thighs, gallantly armd, 
Rise from the ground like feather'd Mercury, 
And vaulted with such ease into his seat, 
As if an angel dropp'd down flore the clouds, 
To turn and wind a fiery Pegasus 
And witch the world with noble horsemanship." 
The railer Thersites (Troikts and Cressida, act ii. sc. 3, 1. 9, 
vol. ri. p. x68) thus mentions our Hermes,-- 
o thon great thunder-darter of Olympus, forget that thon art Jove the 
king of gods ; and Mercnry, lose ail the serpentine craft of thy caduceus." 
L L 

CI.A SSI.FICA TIO.IV. [C r. v. v l. 

And centering the good qualities of many into one, Hamlet 
(act iii. sc. 4, 1. 55, vol. viii. p. II ) sums up to his mother the 
perfections of his lnurdered father,-- 

" See what a grace was seated on this brow ; 
Hyperion's curls, the front of Jove hilnself, 
An eye like Mars, to threatcn and COlmnand ; 
A station like the herald Mercury 
New lighted on a heaven-kissing hill ; 
A Colnbination and a form indeed, 
XVhere every god did seeln to set his seal 
To give the world assul'al.ce of a man." 

Pcrsonifications, or, rather, deifications of the pmvers and 
properties of the natural world, and of the influences which 
presided over thcm, belong espccially to the ancient lïythology. 
Of these, thcre is one from the Emblem writers decidedly 
claiming our notice, I may say, our admiration, because of its 
essential truth and beauty ;--it is the Personification of Fortune, 
or, as some writers name the goddess, Occasion and Oppor- 
tunity ; alld it is highly poetical iii all its attribtltes. 
From at least four distinct sources in the Emblem-books of 
the sixteenth century, Shakespeare might have derived the cha- 
racteristics of the goddess ; from Alciat, Perriere, Corrozet, and 
Perriere's " TtlEATRE DES BONS ENGINS," Paris, 539, pre- 
scnts the figure with the stanzas of old French here subjoined,-- 

Qvel est le n6 de la presentç image? 
Occasion ce n6me pour certain. 
Qui fut l'autheur? Lysipus fist l'ouurage : 
Et que tient ellç ? vng rasoir en sa main. 
Pourquoi ? pourt5tque tout tràche souldain. 
Ell,é a cheueulx deuàt & non derriere ? 
Cest pour m6strer quelle tourne ê arriere 
$6 fault le coup quàd on la doibt tenir 
Aulx talons a dis esles ? car barriere 
(Quellesqne soit) ne la peult retenir." 


These French verses may be accepted as a translation of 
the Latin of Alciat, on the goddess Opportunity; as may 

be seen, she is portrayed standing on a wheel that is floating 
upon the waves; and as the ride rises, there are apparently 
ships or boats making for the shore. The figure holds a 
razor in the right hand, has wings upon the feet, and 
abundance of hair streaming from the forehead. 

In occalionem. 

Lyflppi hoc opus efl, Sycion cui patria. 7ru q«h ? 
CuncYa domans capti temporis articubts. 
0o" pinnis flas ? vJque rotor. 7ralaria plantis 
Cur retines . Pa.ffbn me leuis aura ralpit. 
In dextra efl temds dic vnde nouacula ? lcutum 
Omni acie hoc fignum me magis efl-c docet. 
Cur in fr6te coma ? Occurrês vt prêdar. lt heus tu 
Dic cur pars cahta efl poflerior capitis ? 
Ne femel alipedem fi quis permittat abire, 
Ne polira apprehenfo poflmodb crine cati. 
7rali opifex nos arte, tui caufa, edidit hofpes. 
Kt, otaries moneam : pergula aperta tenet. 

\Vhitlaey's English lines (p. I8I) sufficiently express the 
mealfing, both of the French and of the Latin stanzas,-- 


" ",.,7"ttAT creature thou? Occasion I doe shovJe. 
--'l On whirling wheele declare why doste thou stande? 
Bicause, I still ara tossed too, and'oe. 
Why doest thou houlde a rasor in thy hande ? 
Thal men maie knove I cul on euerie side, 
Md ,hen I corne, I arm+s can dcuide. 

But wherefore hast thou winges vppon thy feete ? 
To s]to,ve, how lighte l flie with liltle a,inde. 
XVhat meanes longe lockes before ? tkat suche as mo'te, 
A[aye hould," a/fil"s/e, evhcn lhy occasion.flnde. 
Thy head behinde all balde, what telles it more ? 
That noue shoulde koulde, /bat let me sliibe belote. 

Why doest thou stal:tde within an open place ? 
That I maye varne alI 2beoiblc hot to staye, 
lut al the.flrste, occasion go imbrace, 
And a,hen shee comcs, to meete ber by the wm'e. 
Lysi2@«s so did thi»ke it best go bec, 
l l'ho did deuise mine hnagc, asyou sec. 

The correspondent part to the thought contained in these 
three writers occurs in the culius Cesar (act iv. sc. 3, 1. _9 t3, 
vol. vil. p. 396), where Brutus and Cassius are discussing the 
question of proceeding to Philippi and offering battle to "young 
Octavius and Marc _A_ntony;" it is decided by the argulnent 
which Brutus urges with much force, 

" Our legions are brim-full, our cause is ripe : 
The enemy increaseth every day ; 
XVe, at the height, are ready to decline. 
There is a tide in the affairs of men 
Which taken at the flood leads on to fortune ; 
Omitted, all the voyage of their life 
Is bound in shallows and in miseries. 
On such a full sea are we nmv afloat, 
And we must take the current when it serres, 
Or Iose our ventures." 

These lines, we lnay observe, are an exact comment on 
Whitney's text; there is the " full sea," on which Fortune is 


"noxv afloat ; " and people are ail xvarned, "at the first occasion 
to embrace," or " take the current when it serves." 
The "images," too, of Fortune and of Occasion in Corrozet's 
" HECATOMGRAPHIE," Embs. 41 and 84, are very suggestive of 
the characteristics of the " fickle goddess." 

Corrozet, I540. 

Fortune is standing upright upon the sea; one foot is 
on a fish, the other on a globe; and in the right hand is a 
broken mast. Occasion is in a boat and standing on a wheel ; 
she has wings to ber feet, and with her hands she holds out 
a swelling sali; she has streaming hair, and behind ber 
in the stern of the boat Penitence is seated, lamenting for 
opportunities lost. The stanzas to " Occasion " are very 
similar to those of other Emblem writers ; and we add, there- 

262 CZASSIFICA TIO«V.. [Cn.«v. ri. 

fore, only the English of the verses to "Fortune,"--T/w 
/I««E« of Fortuite. 

"A strange event out Fortune is, 
Unlook'd for, sudden as a shower ; 
Never then, world]ing ! give to ber 
Right over thee to vield her pover." 

A series of questions follow,-- 

"Tell me, O fortune, for what end thou art imlding the brokcn toast 
whcrcwith thou supportest thyself? And vhy also is it that thou art painted 
vpon the sea, encircled with so long a veii ? Tcll me too why under thy feet 
are thc ball and the dolphin ?" 

As in the answers given by \Vhitney, there is abundant plain- 
ness in Corrozet,-- 

" It is to show my instability, and that in me there is no security. Thou 
seest this toast broken all across,--this veil aiso puffed out by various winds, 
--beneath one foot, the doiphin amid the waves ; below the other foot, the 
round unstable ball ;--I ara thus on the sea at a venture. He who hts ruade 
my portraiture vishes no other thing to be understood than this, that distrust 
is enclosed beneath me and that I ana uncertain of reaching a safe haven ;-- 
near ara I to danger, from safety ever distant : in perplexity whether to weep 
or to laugb,_doubtful of good or of evil, as the ship which is upon the seas 
tossed by the waves, is doubtfifi in itself where it will be borne. This then is 
what you sel in my true image, hither and thither turned without security." 

A description, very silnilar to this, occurs in the dia- 
logue between Fluellen, a \Velsh captain, alld " an aunchient 
lieutenant" Pistol (//oz,y I:, act iii. sc. 6, 1. 2o, vol. iv. 
P. 543), 

"Pisl. Captain, I thee beseech to do me favours : 
The Duke of Exeter doth love thee well. 
filu. Ay, I praise God ; and I have merited some love at lais hands. 
PisA Bardolph, a soldier, firm and sound of heart, 
And of buxom valour, bath, by cruel fate, 
And giddy Fortune's firious fickle wheel, 


That goddess blind,  
That stands upon the rolling, restless stone-- 
Flm By your patience, Aunchient Pistol, Fortune is painted blind, with a 
muffler afore her eyes, to signify to you that fortune is blind; and she is 
painted also with a wheel, to signify to you, which is the moral of it, that 
she is turning, and inconstant, and nmtability, and variation : and her foot, 
look )'ou, is fixed upon a spherical stone, which rolls, and rolls, and rolls : 
in good truth, the poet lnakes a lnOSt excellent description of it: Fortune 
is an excellent moral." 

Fortune on the sphere, or " rolling, restless stone," is also well 
pictured in the"MIKPOKO,MOE," editions 579 and 584. The 
whole device is described in the French version,-- 
" L'oiseau de Paradis est de telle nature 
Qu'en nul endroit qui soit on ne le void iucher, 
Car il n'a point de pieds, & ne peut se rucher 
Ailleurs qu'en l'air serein dont il prend nourriture. 
En cest oiseau se void de Fortune l'ilnage, 
En laquelle n'y a sinon legreté : 
Iamais son cours ne fiIt egal & arresté, 
Mais tousiours incertain inconstant & volage. 
Pour la quelle raison on souloit la pourtraire, 
Tenant vn voile afin d'aller au gré du vent, 
Des aisles aux costez pour voler bien auant, 
Ayant les pieds coupez, estant sur vne sphrere ; 
Et pourtant cestuy la qui se fie en Fortune, 
Au lieu de fier au grand Dieu souuerain, 
Est bien maladuisé, & se monstre aussi vain 
Que celuy qui bastit sur le dos de Neptune." 

The ideas of the Emblematists respecting the goddess 
" OCCASION " are also embodied by Shakespeare two or three 

* Shakespeare's "goddess blind" and. his representation of blind Love have 
their exact correspondence in tlae motto of Otho Voenius, " Blynd fortune blyndeth 
loue ; " which is precedeà by Cicero's declaration, " Non solùm ipsa fortuna coeca 
est : seà etiam plerttmque coecos efficit quos complexa est : aàe6 vt spernant amores 
veteres, ac indulgeant nouis,"-- 
"Sometyme blynd fortune can make loue bee also blynd, 
And with her on her globe to turne & wheel about, 
When cold preuailes to put light loues faint feruor out, 
]But ferwent loyall loue may no such fortune fynde." 


tilnes. Thus oll receiving the evil tidings of his mother's death 
and of the dauphin's invasion, King John (act iv. sc. 2, 1. I25, 
vol. iv. p. 65;) exclaims,-- 

" XVithhold thy speed, drcadful Occasion 
0 make a league vith me, till I have pleased 
My discontented peers !" 

In 2 IZo«ry II: (act iv. sc. , 1. 70, vol. iv. p. 43) the .Arch- 
bishop of York aise says,-- 

"We see which way the stream of tilne doth run, 
And are.enfol'ced frein our most quiet there 
By the rough torrent of occasion." 

Most beautiful too, and forcible are the stanzas O11 {Q((lIsiOll, 
or OjortuMty frdm Lucr«ce (lines 86988-", vol. ix. p. 

" Unruly blasts wait on the tender spring ; 
Unwholesome weeds take foot with precious flmvers ; 
The adder hisses where the sweet birds sing ; 
XVhat virtue breeds iniquity devours : 
We have no good that we can say is ours 
But ill-annexed Opportunity 
OF kills his life or else his quality. 
O Opportunity, thy guilt is great ! 
'Tis thou that executest the traitor's treason ; 
Thou set'st the wolf where he the lamb may get ; 
Whoever plots the sin, thou point'st the season ; 
'Tis thou that spurn'st at right, at law, at reason, 
And in thy shady cell, where none may spy him, 
Sits $in, te seize the seuls that wander by him." v 

Very appropriately in illustration of these and other passages 
in Shakespeare may xve refer to John David's xvork, " OccAso 

« Well shoxvn in Whitney's device te the motte, Ci¤as izuicta,--"Unconquered 
truth" (p. 66),--where the Spirits of Evil are sitting in "shady cell" te catch the 
seuls of men, while the Gl'eat Enemy is striving-- 
" with all his malne and mlghtc 
'Fo» bide he truthe, and dimme the lawe deulne." 


ARREPTA NEGLECTA " (4to, Antwerp, 16oS),--O??ortmdty seical 
or ncff[cc[cd. It contains twelve curiousl¥ beautiful plates b¥ 
Theodore Galle, showing Che advantages of seizing Che Occasion, 
the disadvantages of neglecting it. We choose an example, it is 
Schema 7, cap. I, p. 117. (See Plate XII.) 

"XVhile Time is passing onward men keep Occasion back by seizing the 
hair on her forehead." 

Various speakers are introduced,-- 

" Tiret. Now the need is to visit other climes of earth 
And other youths. Ye warned thon, bid farewell. 
/,'. XVhat this heat of sudden flight ? 
C. If flight indeed at length 
For thee is fix'd, her swift wings let the bald goddess 
At least rest here. 
Occasion. XVhy to no purpose words in air 
XVaste ye ? hence elsewhere, no delay, I go ; farewell. 
E. Should she flee ? rather her scattered locks in front 
Seize hold of. 
Occasion. Alas! freely I follow, at your own homes 
Will tarry, till in just measure I prolong my stay. 
[:«ith. I praise your spirit, for by friendly force the goddess 
Rejoices to be compelled." 

The line, " her scattered locks in front seize hold of," has its 
parallel in O#wllo (act iii. sc. I, 1. 47, vol. viii. p. 5o5),-- 

"" he protests he loves you, 
And needs no other suitor but his likings 
To take che safest occasion by che front 
To bring you in again." 

Classical celebrities, whether hero or heroine, wrapt round 
with mystery, or half-developed into historical reality, may also 
form portion of our Mythological Series. 
The grand character in zEschylus, _Promct/wus omM, is 
depicted by at least four of the Emblematists. The hero of 
suffcring is reclining against Che rock on Caucasus, to which he 
M M 

266 (..'ASSIFICATIO]V. ICi, AV. ¥I 

had been chained; a vulture is seated on lais broad chest and 
feeding there. Alciat's Emblem, from the Lyons edition of I55 I, 
or Antxverp, ISSI, number Io-', has the motto which reproves 
men for seeking the knowledge which is beyond them : Thiltgs 
which arc abovc «s, arc tothitg to ts,--they are hot out concern. 
Thc whole fable is a warning. 

QEœe fupra nos, nihii ad llOS. 

Alciat, x55x. 

Caucafi a teternùm pendens in rupe Prometheus 
Diripitur facri prepetis ongue œeecur. 
Et nollet feciffe hominem : figulo@ perofus 
Accenfam rapto damnat ab çne jàcem. 
Roduntur oarffs pru,tentum pecTora curis, 
sP, yi cceli affecTant fi'ire, deûmqe oices. 

" On the Caucasian rock Prometheus eternally suspended, 
Has his liver torn in pieces by talons of an accursed bird. 
And umvilling would he be to have marie man ; and hating the potters 
Dooms to destruction the torch lighted from stolen tire. 
Devoured by various cares are the bosoms of the wise, 
%\ ho affect to knoxv secrets of heaven, and courses of gods." 

Similarly as a dissuasive from vain curiosity, Anulus, in his 
"PICTA POESIS " (Lyons, I555, p. 90), sets up the notice, 


" Curiosity must be shunned." 
Mneat, 555- 

I|ITTE arcana Dei cwlum inuirere quid flt. 
Nec fapias phtfiluàm debet homo fapere. 
Caucafeo oinqus monet Aoc in rupe Prometheus 
Scrutator cæli, fur 6Y in igne louis. 
Cui cor edax .4quila in rediuh«o vulnere rodit. 
Materia pænis fufflciente fids. 

The device is almost the saine with Alciat's,--the stanzas, hov- 
ever, are a little different,-- 
" Forbear to inquire the secrets of God, and what heaven may be. 
Nor be wise more than man ought to be wise. 
Bound on Caucasian rock this does Prometheus warn, 
Scrutator of heaven and thief in the tire of Jove. 
His heart the voracious Eagle gnaws in ever reviving wound, 
Material sufficient this for all his penalties." 
"As for Prometheus pain gnavs his heart the bosom vithin, 
So is pain the eagle that consumes the heart." 
The " MICROCOSME," first published in 1579, fol. 5, celebrates 
in French stanzas Prometheus and his cruel destiny; a fine 
device accompanies the emblem, representing him bound hot to 
Caucasus, but to the cross. 
" Promethee s' estant guindé iusques aux cieux 
Pour desrober le feu des redoubables Dieux, 
Pour retribution de ceste outrecuidance 
Fut par eux poursuiui d'une rude vengeance. 

z 68 C£1SSI_ICI TIO . [c n A . v 1. 

11 fut par leur decret à la croix attaché, 
La ou pour expier deuenant son poché, 
L'Aigle de lupiter le becquetoit sans cesse, 
Si que ce patient estoit en grand oppressé." 
But Reusner's tïlJlb[«llls (bk. i. Emb. 27, p. 37, edition 1581 ), 
and Whitney's (p. 75), adopt the saine motto, O vita n[scro 
[ota,--" 0 lire, hov long for the wretched." The stanzas of 
the latter may be accepted as being in some degree representative 
of those of the former,-- 
"T O Caucasus, bchoulde PROMETHEVS chain'de, 
a_ \Vhose liuer still, a greedie gripe dothe rente : 
He neuer dies, and yet is ahvaies pain'de, 
Vith tortures dire, by which the Poëttes ment, 
That hee, that still amid misfortunes standes, 
ls sorrowes slaue, and bounde in lastinge bandes. 

For, when that griefe doth grate vppon our gall, 
Or surging seas, of sorrowes moste doe swell, 
That life is deathe, and is no life at ail, 
The liuer rente, it dothe the conscience tell : 
Vhich being launch'de, and prick'd, with inward care, 
Although wee liue, yet still wee dyinge are." 
How Shakespeare applies this mythic story appears in the 
Titus tndronicus (act ii. sc. I, l. 4, vol. ri. p. 45 ), where Aaron, 
speaking of lais queen, Tamora, af-firms of himself,-- 
"Whom thou in triumph long 
Hast prisoner held, fetter'd in amorous chains, 
And faster bound to Aaron's chanrting eyes 
Than is Prometheus tied to Caucasus." 

And still more clearly is the 
iv. sc. 3, 

application made, 1 Hc«r3' Irl. (act 
l. 7, vol. v. p. 71), when Sir Villiam Lucy thus urges 

" Thou princely leader of our English strength, 
Never so needful on the earth of France, 
Spur to the rescue of the noble Talbot, 
Vv'ho now is girdled with a waist of iron 
And hemm'd about with grim destruction :'" 


and at York's inability, through "the vile traitor Somerset," to 
render aid, Lucy laments (1. 47, P. 72), - 

" Thus, while the vulture of sedition 
Feeds in the bosoms of such great commanders, 
Sleeping neglection doth betray to loss 
The conquest of our scarce cold conqueror, 
That ever living man of memory, 
Henry the Fifth." 

It may readily be supposed that in writing these passages 
Shakespeare had in memory, or even before him, the delinea- 
tions which are given of Promethcus, for the vulture feeding on 
the heart belongs to them all, and the allusion is exactly one of 
those which arises from a casual glance at a scene or picture 
without dwelling on details. 

This casual glance indeed seems to have been the way 
in which out Dramatist appropriated others of the Emblem 
sketches. In the well-known quarrel scene between Brutus and 
Cassius, in yulius Ccsar (act iv. sc. 3, 1. 2, vol. vil. p. 389), 
Brutus demands,-- 
"\Vhat, shall one of us, 
That struck the forelnost man of all this world 
But for supporting robbers, shall we now 
Contaminate our fingers with base bribes, 
And sell the mighty space of our large honours 
For so much trash as may be grasped thus ? 
I had rather be a dog, and bay the moon, 
Than such a Roman." 

The expression is the perfect counterpart of Alciat's 
I64th Emblem (p. 571 , edition Antwerp, I58I); the motto, 
copied by Whitney (p. 23), is, Inanis impctus,--" A vain 
" By night, as at a mirror, the dog looks at the lunar orb : 
And seeing himself, believes another dog to be on high. 


And barks : but in vain is his angry voice driven by winds, 
The silcnt Diana ever onward goes in ber course."  
Thc device cngravcd on Alciat's and "Vhitney's pages depicts 
thc full moon surrounded by stars, and a large dog baying. 
Whitney's stanzas give the mealaing of _Alciat's, and also of 
Beza's, which follow below,-- 

" l-v shininge Iighte, of wannishe CVNTHAS raies, 
The dogge bchouldes his shaddoe..,- to appearc : 
XVhcrcfore, in vaine aloude lac barkcs, and baies, 
And ahvaies thoughte, an other doggc was thcre : 
But yet thc Moone, who did not hearc his qucste, 
Hir woontcd course, did kecp vnto the weste. 

This reprehcndes, those fooles which baule, and barkc, 
At learned men, that shine aboue thc reste : 
XVith due regarde, that they their deedes should marke, 
And reuerence them, that are with wisedome blcste : 
But if thcy striue, in vaine their winde they spende, 
For u oorthie men, the Lorde doth stiI1 defende." 

The saine device to a different motto, "DESPICIT ALTA CANIS," 
The dog d«s2iscs high thizgs,--is adopted by Camerarius, '.r 

lezt, t'g.  580. 

A Mm. qnadv., p. 63, 
edition 595, 
"Why carest thou for the 
angry thorns of a vain 
speaking tongue ? 
Diana on high cares hOt 
for the loud-barking 
dog." f 
We will conclude 
out "baying" with 
Beza's 22nd Emblem. 

The Latin stanza is sufficiently severe, 

" Luna dclut logo col[uslrans lumDw &'rras, 
Frustra «llalr«n[«s dcsiMcil alta canes 
Sic" qttisqus C]trislttm allaD'al C]trisl[e 
l#dc.r sluHilice sie, wilor vsqtte sttce." 

"As the moon xvith fuil light shining over the lands, 
From on high doth despise dogs barking in vain : 
So whoso is barking at Christ or Christ's ministers, 
The scorner is the pointer out even of his own folly." 

In connection with the power of music Orphcus is namcd by 
many xvriters of the sixtecnth century; and among the 
Emblematists the lead may be assigncd to Pierre Coustau iii 
" LE PEGgIE " (Lyons, 56o, p. 389),-- 

Sur la harpe d'Orpheus. 
La force d'Eioquence. 
De fon gntil & fort melodieux 
D'.vn inflrument, Orpheus feit mouuoir 
Rocs  patitz de leu," places  lieux. 
C'efl eloquence aya/tt force  pouuoir 
D'êbler les cueurs de tous part fon ffauoir 
C'efl l'orateur qui au fort d'eloquence, 
Premierement Jbuz méme demourance 
Gens befliaulx,  par ferocité, &c. 

- 7 z CZASSIFICI TIO r. [CnAP. ri. 

"Ou 'he//a/, of Orfihe»s. 
The Power of Eloquence. 
With sound gentle and very melodious 
Of an instrumcut Orpheus caused tf more 
Rocks and pastures from their place and home. 
It is eloquence having force and power 
Tf steal the hcarts of ail lais learning shows, 
It is the orator who by strength of eloquence 
First brings even undcr influence 
Brutal people, and from ficrceness 
Gathers them ; and who tf bencvolence 
From fierceness then reclaims." 

A 2Varratiolt _Philosolhiq«lc follows for three pages, discoursing 
on the pover of eloquence. 
2]Ilsicce, & _Pocticce vis,--" Thc force of Music and Poetry,"-- 
occupies Reusner's 2 st Emblem (bk. iii. p. I29) , oddly enough de- 
dicated tf a mathematician, David Nephelite. "Whitney's stanzas 
(p. 86), Orhci .Itlsica,--" The Music of Orpheus,"---bear con- 
siderable resemblance tf those of Reusner, and are sufficient for 
establishing the parallelism of qhakespeare and themselves. 

" 10, ORPHE¥S with his harpe, that sauage kinde did rame : 
The Lions tierce, and Leopardes wilde, and birdes about him came. 
For, with his musicke sweete, their natures hee subdu'de : 
But if wee thinke his playe so wroughte, out selues wee doe delude. 
For why ? besides his skill, hee learned was, and wise : 
And coulde with sweetenes of his tonge, ail sortes of lnen suffice. 
And those that weare most rude, and knewe no good at all : 
And weare of tierce, and cruell mindes, the worlde did brutishe call. 
Yet with persuasions sounde, hee ruade their hartes relente, 
That meeke, and milde they did become, and folloxved where he xvente. 
Lo, these, the Lions tierce, these, Beares, and Tigers weare : 
The trees, and rockes, that lefte their roomes, his musicke for to heare. 
But, you are happie most, who in suche place doe staye : 
You neede hOt THRACIA seeke, to heare some impe of ORPHEV$ playe. 
Since, that so neare your home, Apollos darlinge dwelles ; 
,Vho LINVS & AMPHION staynes, and ORPHEVS farre excelle-£. 
For, hartes like marble harde, his harmonie dothe pierce : 
And makes them yeelding passions feel% that are by nature tierce. 


But, if his musicke faile : his curtesie is suche, 
That none so rude, and base of minde, but hee reclaimes them touche. 
Nowe since you, by deserte, for both, commended are : 
I choose you, for a Iudge herein, if truthe I doe declare. 
And if you finde I doe, then ofte therefore reioyce : 
And thinke, I woulde suche neighbour haue, if I lnight make my choice." 
In a similar strain, from the :[«rchal«! o.1 e l:cmc« (act v. sc. I, 
1. 7o, vol. il. p. 36I), we are told of the deep influence which 
music possesses over- 
"a wild and wanton herd 
Or race of youthful and unhandlcd colts." 
The poet declares,-- 
" If they but hear perchance a trumpet sound, 
Or any air of music touch their ears, 
You shall perceive thcln make a lnutual stand, 
Their savage eyes turn'd to a modest gaze 
By the sweet power of music : therefore the poet " 
Did feign that Orpheus drew trees, stones and floods ; 
Since nought so stockish, hard and full of rage, 
But music for the time doth change his nature. 
The man that hath no music in himself, 
Nor is hOt moved with concord of sweet sounds, 
Is fit for treasons, stratagems and spoils : 
The motions of his spirit are dull as night, 
And his affections dark as Erebus : 
Let no such man be trusted." 
And in the Tzc,o Gcntlcmcn of Ucrona (act iii. sc. 2, 1. 68, vol. 
i. p. 129 ), the method is developed by which Silvia, through the 
conversation of Iroteus, may be tempered "to hate young 
Valentine" and Thurio love. Proteus says,-- 
« You must lay lime to tangle her desires 
By vailful sonnets» whose composed rhymes 
Should be full-fraught vith serviceable vows. 
Dtk. Ay, 
Much is the force of heaven-bred poesy. 
ro. Say that upon the altar of ber beauty 
You sacrifice your tears, your sighs, your heart : 

* See Ovid's [etamorphoses, bk. x. fab. I, 2, 

N N 

2 7 4 CL,4SSIFIC/1 T/OA r. ICi-ira,. v I 

Write till your ink be dry, and with your tears 
Moist it again ; and ri'ame some feeling line 
That may discover such integrity : 
For Orpheus' lute was strung with poets' sinevs ; 
\Vhose golden touch could soften sted and stones, 
Make tigers tame, and huge leviathans 
Forsake unsounded deeps to dance on sands. "'«" 
Again, in proof of Music's pmver, consult/g«nry UIII. (act iii. 
sc. , 1. I, vol. vi. p. 56), when Queen Katharine, in her sorrowful- 
ness, says to one of her women who wcre at work around her,-- 
"Take thy lute, wench : .uy soul grows sad with troubles ; 
Sing and disperse 'cm if thou canst : leave working." 
The sweet simple song is raised.- 
• " Orpheus with his lute ruade trees 
And the mountain tops that frceze, 
Bow themseh'es when he did sing : 
"Fo his music plants and flowers 
Ever sprung, as sun and showers 
There had ruade a lasting spring. 
Everything that heard him play, 
Even the billows of the sea, 
Hung their heads, and then lay by. 
In sweet music is such art, 
Killing care and grief of heart 
Fall asleep, or hearing die." 
How splendidly does the dramatic poet's genius here shine 
forth! It poufs light upon each Emblem, and calls into da¥ 
the hidden glories. His spirit breathes upon a dead picture, 
and rivalling Orpheus himself, he makes the images breathe and 
glance and lire. 

The mythic tale of Actœeon transformed into a stag, and 
hunted by hounds because of lais rudeness to Diana and her 

* For pictorial representations of the vonders which Orpheus wrought, see the 
Plantinian edition of "P. OvlDiI NAsorqs METAMORPHOSES," Antwerp, 59 , 
pp. 238--243. 


nymphs, was used to point the moral of widely different subjects. 
Alciatus (Emb. 5_, ed. r55 I, p. 6o) applies it "to thc harbo¢«rcrs 
of assassbzs," and lnakes it the occasion of a very true but very 
severe reflection. 

In receptatores ficariorum. 

Latronum Jùrum,), manus ti!,i Sceeua ler .vrbem 
If cornes z & ,tiris cinTa cohors gla,tijs. 
qtque ira te ment# gener«m pro,tige ce»f es, 
£,bd tua complur«s allicit olla malos. 
En nouus ,48eeon, qui oflquàm cortzua fumpfit 
In t,'edam ca,K«,u« fe ,le,lit ipfe fids. 

Mh'iol, 55: 


" Of thieves and robbers evil-omen'd bands the city through 
Go thy companions ; and a cohort girded with dreadful swords. 
And so, O prodigal, thou thinkest thyself of generous mind, 
Because thy cooking pot allures very many of thc bad ones. 
Lo, a new Actzon, who after he assumed the horns, 
Himself gave himself a prey to his own dogs." 

The device is graphically drawn: Jct,'-eon is in part em- 
bruted; he is fleeing xvith the dogs close upon him. Sup- 
posing Shakespeare to have seen this print, it represents 
to the life Pistol's words in the [ccy IVA,cs of ll'hdsor 
(act ii. sc. , 1. lO6, vol. i. p. I86),-- 

"' Prevent, or go thou, 
Lie Sir Actœeon he, with Ringwood at thy hecls." 

" EX DOlXlINO SERVUS,"---T/lc sl(17,e Oltl of []lC mastcr,--is 
another saying which the tale of Actreon has illustrated. 
The application is from Aneau's "]9ICA 190ESIS, '' fol. 4I. 
On the left hand of the tiny draving are Diana and her 
nymphs, busied in the bath, beneath the shelter of an 
overhanging cliff,--on the right is .Acteon, motionless, with 
a stag's head; dogs are around him. The verses translated 
read thus,-- 

" Horns being bestoved upon Actveon when changed to a stag, 
Member by member his own dogs tore him to pieces. 
Alas ! wretched the Master who feeds wasteful parasites ; 
A ready prepared prey he is for his fawning dogs ! 
It suggests, he is mocked by them and devoured, 
And out of a toaster is ruade a slave, bearing horns." 

But Sambucus in his 2ïmblcms (edition 1564, p. I28), and 
Whitney after him (p. IS)making use of the saine woodcut, 
only xvith a different border--adapt the Actreon-tragedy to 
another subject and moral, and take the words, _P[c«sttre 
pttrchascd by 


o.S' nimis exercer ,venatus, ac fine fine 
Haurit opes patrias, pro,tigit inque canes ." 
-Tantus amor vani, tantus furor vfçue recmfat, 
In, boat 't celeris cornua binaJèr«. 
Accidit Aq«on tibi, qui cornutus ab ortu, 
A' canibus prot, riis dilaceratus eras. 
làm multos hodie, quos pa# od6ra canum vis. 
Venan,œe flu,Kum conficit, arque vorat. 
Seria ne ludis poEponas, commoda damnis, 
,od fup«rqt r«,'«m fi« t g«nus hab«. 
Sape etiam pr@ria qui inlerdum ,xore relira 
Deerit exteruas corniger ta hdt. 

Stanzas which may thus be rendered,-- 

"\Vhoever too eagerly hunting pursues, and without moderation 
Drains paternal treasures and lavishes them on dogs : 
So great the love of the folly, so strong does the passion return 
That it clothes him in the twin horns of the swift stag. 
It happen'd, Actœeon, to thee, who though horned from thy birth, 
By thy own dogs into pieces wast torn. 
At this day how many, whom the dogs' quick scent deIights, 
The strong passion for hunting wastes and devours. 
Put hOt off serious things for sports,--advantages for losses : 
As one in need so hold fast whatever things remain : 
Often even the horn bearer, his own wife forsaken, 
Loves desperately strangers, and pays penalties for crimes." 

"7 8 CL.4SSIFICA TIOW. [CHAr. Vl. 

\Ve here sce that Sambucus has adopted the theory of 
the old grammarian or historian of Alexandria, Paloephatus, 
who infornls us,-- 

"Actoeon by race was an Arcadian, vcry fond of dogs. Many of them he 
kept, and huntcd in thc mountains. But he neglccted his own affairs, for 
lnen thcn were all self-workers ; they had no servants, but themselves tilled 
the earth; and that lnan was the richest, who tilled the earth and was thc 
most diligent workman. But Actoeon bcing carcless of domestic affairs, 
and rathcr going al)out hunting with his dogs, his substance was wasted. 
And when he had nothing Icft, people kept saying: the wretched Actoeon 
was catcn up by his own dogs." 

«\ vcry instructivc tale this for some of ottr Nilnrods, mighty 
huntcrs and racers iii the land; but it is not to bc pressed too 
strictly into the service of the parsimoniotts. 
Froln the sanie motto Whitney (p. 5) keeps lnuch closer to 
the mythological narrative,"*-- 

ACT/EON heare, vnhappie man behoulde, 
" When in the well, hee sawe Diana brighte, 
With greedie lookes, hee waxed ouer boulde, 
That to a stagge hee was transforlned righte, 
Whereat amasde, hee thought to runne avaie, 
But straighte lais howndes did rente hym, for their praie. 

By which is ment, That those hoe do pursue 
Theire fancies fonde, and thinges vnlawflfll crauc, 
Like brutishe beastes appeare vnto thc viewe, 
And shall at lengthe, Actoeons guerdon haue : 
And as his houndes, soe theire affections base, 
Shall them dcuowre, and all their deedes dcface." 

Very beautifully, in Twclfth Night (act i. sc. , !. 9, 
vol. iii. p. 223) , is this idea applied by Orsino, duke of 
" 0 spirit of love, how quick and fresh art thou ! 

* See Ovid's lZ«lamorhoses, bk. iii. fab. 2 ; or the Plantinian Devices to Ovid, 
edition I59, pp. 85, 87. 

SEC'I'. III.] -I[yTrzoz.oGIc.4z. 6"[Zt1¢t CT,S. 279 

That, notwithstanding thy capacity 
Receiveth as the sea, nought enters thcre, 
Of what validity and pitch soe'er, 
But falls into abatemcnt and low price, 
Even iii ,--t minute ! so fidl of shapes is fancy 
That it alone is high fantastical. 
Ctr. \Viii you go hunt, my lord ? 
Dt/,'«. \Vhat, Curio ? 
6%r. The hart. 
lhtl,'«. \Vhy, so i do, the noblest that I have : 
O, when mine eyes did see Olivia first, 
Methought she purgcd the air of pestilence ! 
That instant was I turn'd into a hart ; 
And my desircs, like fcll and cruel hotmds, 
E'er since ptll'SUe ille. " 

The full fol'ce and meaning of the mythological tale is, 
however, brought out in the Titns Mndvnicns (act ii. sc. 3, 
1. 55, vol. vi. p. 459), that fearful history of passion and 
revenge. Tamora is in the forest, and ]3assianus and Lavinia 
make their appearance, 

" tCass. \\'ho have ve here ? Rome's royal empress, 
Unfurnish'd of her vell-beseeming troop ? 
Or is it Dian, habited like ber, 
Who hath abandoned her holy groves, 
To see the general hunting in this forest ? 
Tare. Saucy controller of my private steps ! 
Had I the power that some say Dian had, 
l'hy ternples should bc plantcd presently 
,Vith horns, as was Actoeon's, and the hounds 
Should drive upon thy new-transformed limbs, 
Unrnannerly intruder as thou art  " 

Arion rescued by the Dolphin is another mythic tale in which 
poets may well delight. _Alciatus (Emblem 89, edition I58), 
directs the moral, "against the az,aricions, or those to who»z a 
bcttcr condition is offcrcd by strangcrs." Contrary to the French 
vriters of time and place, the emblem presents in the same 

280 CLAA'SIF/CA T[O. [cHaP. ri. 
dcvice the harpist both cast out of the ship and riding triumpla- 
antly to the shore. 

In auaros, vel quibus melior conditio ab 
extraneis offertur. 
.__ ___  
.41clan, 58]- 

DELPHlrI bdens q:ada c,,rula fitlcat Arion, 
Hoc au,'es mulcet, fi'enat  ora fono. 
uqàm flt aua'i homins, non tant metts ,tira Jèrarû efl .. 
_u.i,j, vb'is rapimur, pifcibus eriimur. 

« On the dolphin sitting Arion ploughs cerulean seas, 
With a sound he soothes the ears, with a sound curbs the mouth. 
Of wild creatures not so dreadful is thc mind, as of greedy nmn ; 
\Ve who by men are pillaged, are by fishes rescued." 

With this thought before lfim Whitney (p. I44) at the 
head of lais stanzas bas placed the strong expression, " Man 
is a wolf to man."* Cave cancre,--" Beware of the dog,"-- 
is certainly a far more kindly warning; but the motto, 

* In the beautiful Silverdale, on Morecambe Bay, at Lindow Tower, there is the 
saine hospitable assurance over the doorway, "/r0mo homini hŒEEns." 

SECT, III.] A[YTttOZOG1C,4Z Ctt,4R,4 CTI?tdS. 

Homo homini htpus, tallies exactly with thc conduct of the 

" NTo mortall foe so full of poysoned spite, 
- • As man, to man, xvhcn mischiefe he prctcndes : 
The monsters huge, as diucrs aucthors write, 
Yea Lions wildc, and fishes weare lais frcndcs : 
And when thcir deathe, by frendes suppos'd was sought, 
Thcy kindnesse shew'd, and them froin daunger brought. 

ARION lo, who gained store of goulde, 
In countrics farre : with harpe, and pleasant voice : 
Did shipping takc, and to CORINTHVS wouldc, 
And to his wishc, of pilottcs madc his choise : 
Who rob'd thc man, and thrcwc him to the sca, 
A Dolphin, lo, did bcarc him safe awaic." 

A comment from St. Chrysostom, super [atth. xxii., is 

"As a king is honourcd iii lais image, so God is loved and hated in 
inan. He cannot hate man, who loves God, nor can he, who hates God, 
love mon." 

Reference is also made to Aulus Gellius (bk. v. c. 14, vol. i. 
p. 4o8), xvhere the delightful story is narrated of the slave 
Androclus and the huge lion whose vounded foot he had cured, 
and with whom he lived familiarly for three years in the saine 
cave and on the saine food. After a time the slave was taken 
and condemned to furnish sport in the circus to the degraded 
Romans. That saine lion also had been taken, a beast of vast 
size, and power and fierceness. The two were confronted in 
the arena. 
"Vhen the lion saw the man at a distance," says the narrator, "suddenly, 
as if wondering, he stood still; and then gently and placidly as if recognising 
drew near. With the manner and observance of fawning dogs, softly and 
blandly he wagged his tail and placed hiinself close to the man's body, and 
lightly with his tongue licked the legs and hands of the slave almost 
lifeless from fear. The man Androclus during these blandishments of the 
o o 


tierce wild creature recovered his lost spirits ; by degrees he directed his 
eyes to behold the lion. Then, as if mutual recognition had been ruade, man 
and lion appeared glad and rejoicing one with the other." 

Was it now, from having this talc in mind that, in the 
Troihts atd Cresshh (act v. sc. 3, 1. 37, vol. ri. p. 247), these 
ords were spokcn to IIector  
" Brother, )'ou have a vice ot mercy in you, 
Which better fits a lion than a man." 

Arion salttté par ,t. Da¢tphht, is also thc subject of a well 
executed device in the " MIKI'OKO2MO2" (edition _Antwerp, 
 592), * of which we give the French version (p. 64),-- 

"Arion retournant par mer en sa patrie 
Chargé de quelque argêt, vid que les mariniers 
Animéz contre luy d'une auare furie 
Pretendoyent luy oster sa vie & ses deniers. 

Pour eschapper leurs mains & changer leur courage, 
Sur la harpe il chanta vn chant lnelodieux 
Mais il ne peut fleschir la nature sauuage 
De ces cruels larrons & meurtriers furieux. 

Estant par eux ietté deans la mere profonde. 
Vn Dauphin attiré au son de l'instrument, 
Le chargea sur son dos, & au trauers de l'onde 
Le portant, le sauua lniraculeuselnent. 

Maintes fois l'innocent à qui on fait offense 
Trouue plus de faueur es bestes qu'es humains : 
Dieu qui aime les bons les prend en sa defense, 
Les gardant de l'effort des hommes inhumains." 

To the Emblems we have under consideration we meet xvith 
this coincidence in Tz«coEtl 2Vight (act i. sc. 2, I. 0, vol. iii. 
P. z-'5) ; it is the Captain's assurance to Viola,-- 

* The device by Gerard de Jode, in the editiol of 1579, is a very fine representa- 
tion of the scene here described. 

SCT. III.! AfYTHOZOGlrC.4L CIS04R.4CTtiS. 283 

" Vhen )'ou and those poor number saved with you 
lAting on our driving boat, I sav your brother, 
Most provident in peril, bind himself, 
Courage and hope both teaching him the practice, 
To a strong toast that lived upon the sea ; 
\Vhere, like Arion on the dolphin's back, 
I saw him hold acquaintance with the waves 
So long as I could see." 

As examples of a sentiment directl), opposite, we will briefly 
refer to Coustau's 1)cgma (p. 3e3, edition Lyons, 555), where 
to the device of a Camel and his driver, the noble motto is 
recorded and cxcmplificd from Plntarch, Homo homiff Dons,- 
" Man is a God to man ;" the reason being assigned,-- 

"As the world vas created for salie of gods and men, so man was created 
for man's sake;" and, "that the grace we receive from the immortal Goal is 
to be bestowcd on man by man." 

Reusner, too, in his lïmbl«ma¢a (p. 142 , Francfort, I581), 
though conlmenting on the contrary saying, Ifomo homini 
« Aul ho»fini Deus est homo; si bonus : aul luibus hercle, 
Si malus : ô çuanlum est esse hominem, alq. 
Le. " Or man to man is God ; if good : or a wolf in truth, 
Ifbad : O hov great it is to be man and God 

'Vas it in reference to these sentiments that Hamlet and 
Cerimon speak ? The one says (Ifamlct, act iv. sc. 4, 
1. 33, vol. viii. p. 127) ,- 

* May we hot in 
century ?-- 

one instance illustrate the thought flore a poet of the last 

" Who, who would lire, ray Nana, just to breathe 
'l'his idle air, and indolently run, 
Day after day, the still returning round 
Of llfe's mean offices, and sickly joys .9 
But in the service of mankind to be 
A guardlan god below ; still to employ  
The mind's brave ardour in herolc aires, 
Such as may raise us o'er the grovelling herd, 
And make us shine for ever--that is life."--Tho,tsou 


"XVhat is a man, 
If his chief good and market of his rime 
13e but to sleep and fecd ? a beast, no more. 
Sure, he that ruade us vith such large discourse, 
Looking beforc and after, gave us hOt 
That capability and god-like reason 
To fust in us unused." 

And again (act il. sc. 2, 1. 295, vol. viii. p. 63),-- 

"XVhat a piecc of work is a man ! how noble in rcason ! how infinite in 
faculty ! in forln and moving how express and admirable! in action how 
like an angcl ! in apprchension how like a god ! " 

So in the I'«ridcs (act iii. sc. 2, 1. 26, vol. ix. p. 366), the fine 
thought is uttcrcd,-- 
" l hold it cver, 
Virtue and cunning wcre endowmcnts greater 
Than nobleness and riches : careless hcirs 
May the two latter darken and cxpend, 
]3ut immortality attends the former, 
Making a anan a god." 

The horses and chariot of Phccbus, and the prcsumptuous 
charioteer Pha/Ston, who attempted to drive thcln, arc cclebratcd 
with great splendour of description in Ovid's 3&'tamorthoscs 
(bk. il. fab. I), that rich storehouse of Mythology. The palace 
of the god bas lofty columns bright with glittcring gold; the 
roof is covercd with pure shining ivory ; and thc double gates 
are of silver. Hcre Phcebus was throncd, and clothed in 
purple ;--the days and months and years,--the seasons and the 
ages«vcre scated around him; Phaëton appears, claires to be 
his son, and delnands for one day to guide the glorious steeds. 
At this point we take up the narrative which Alciat has writtcn 
(Emb. 56), and inscribed, " To thc ras/al'* 

« For other pictorial illustrations of Phaëton's charioteership and fall, see Plantin's 
Ovid (pp. 46--49), and De Passe (I6 and 17 ); also Symeoni's l'ira, .c., d'Ovidio 
(edition 1559, pp. 32--34). 


In temerarios. 

.4fpicis aurigam currus Phaëtonta paterni 
lgniuo mos aufum flegTere 8olis equos. 
Maxima qui poltquàm terris btcendia fparJlt : 
Efl temerè infeffo lapfus ab axe mifer. 
Sic plerique rotis Fortune a,t fy,tera Reges 
Eueqi : ambitio quos iuucnilis agit. 
Poli magnam humani generis cladémque, fuam, 
CungTorum pcenas denique dant fielerum. 

.llciat, 1551. 

" You behold Phaëton the driver of his father's chariot,-- 
Yrho dared to guide the tire breathing horses of the sun. 
After over the lands nfightiest burnings he scattered, 
Y'retched he fell from the chariot where rashly he sat. 


So lnany kings, whon) youthful ambition excites, 
On the wheels of Fortune are borne to the stars. 
After great slaughter of the human race and their own, 
For all their crimes at last the penalties they pay." 
Shakespeare's notices of the attempted feat and its failure 
are frequcnt. First, in thc Tvo GcntI«mcn of l'crona (act iii. 
sc. i, l. I53, vol. i. p. 2t), the Duke of I\Iilan discovers the 
letter addressed to lais daughter Silvia, with the promise, 
" Silvia, this night will I enfi'anchise thee,"-- 
and with true classic force dcnounces the folly of the attempt,-- 
« XVhy, Phaethon,--for thou art Merops' son,-- 
Wilt thou aspire to guide the heavenly car, 
And with thy daring folly burn the world ? 
XVilt thot reach stars because they shine on thee ?" 
In her impatience for the meeting with Romeo (Romco and 
yitlict, act iii. sc. 2, I. I, vol. vii. p. 72), Juliet exclaims,-- 
" Gallop apace, you fiery-footed steeds, 
Towards Phcebus' lodging : such a waggoner 
As Phaethon would whip you to the west 
And bring in cloudy night imlnediately." 

The unfortunate Richard II. (act iii. sc. 3, I. I78 , vol. iv. p. 
79), when desired by Northulnberland to meet Bolingbroke in 
the courtyard (" may't please you to corne down"), replies, 

" Down, down, I corne ; like glistering Phaeton 
Wanting the mariage of unruly jades." 

And he too, in 3 tt«my UZ (act i. sc. 4, 1. 6, vol. v. p. 244), 
Richard, Duke of York, whose son cried,-- 
cA crown, or else a glorious tomb ! 
A sceptre or an earthly sepulchre !"--- 
when urged by Northulnberland (1. ao),-- 
" Yield to our mercy, proud Plantagenet ;" 


had this ansver given for him by the faithfill Clifford,-- 

That salue 
and about 

"Ay, to such mercy, as lais ruthless arm, 
\Vith downright payment, shew'd unto my father. 
Now Phaethon bath tumbled from his car, 
And ruade an evening at the noontide prick." 

Clifford (act il. sc. 6, 1. IO, vol. v. p. 27 ), whcn woundcd 
to die for the Lancastrian cause, makes use of the 

And who shines now but Henry's enemy ? 
0 Phoebus ! hadst thou never given consent 
That t'haëthon should check thy fiery stccds, 
Thy burning car had ncver scorch'd the earth ! 
And, Henry, hadst thou sway'd as kings should do, 
Or as thy father and lais father did, 
Giving no ground unto the bouse of York, 
They never then had sprung like sumlner files ; 
I and ten thousand in this luckless realm 
Had left no mourning widows for our death ; 
And thou this day hadst kept thy chair in peace." 

In the early heroic age, when Minos reigned in Crete and 
Theseus at Athens, just as Mythology was ripening into history, 
the most celebrated for mcchanical contrivance and for excel- 
lence in the arts of sculpture and architecture wcre Doedalus 
and lais sons Talus and Icarus. To them is attributed the 
invention of the sav, the axe, the phunb-line, the auger, the 
gimlet, and glue ; they contrived masts and sailyards for ships ; 
and they discovered various methods of giving to statues 
expression and the appearance of life. Chiefly, hmvever, are 
Daedalus and Icarus now known for fitting wings to the human 
arms, and for attempting to fly across the sea from Crete to the 
shore of Greece. Daedalus, hovering just above the waves, 
accomplished the aërial voyage in safety; but Icarus, too 
ambitiously soaring aloft, had lais wings injured by the heat of 
the sun, and fcll into the xvaters, which from his death there were 
named the Icarian sea. 


From the edition of Alciat's Emb[«ms, 58, ve select a 
drawing which represents the fall of Icarus ; itis dedicated " To 
Astrologers," or fortune tellers. The waming in the last two 
lines is all we nced to translate,-- 

" Let the Astrologer take hccd what he foretclls ; for headlong 
The impostor will fall though ho fly thc stars above." 

Alclat, i58i, 

ICARE, çer fuçeros qui raçtus ê aë'ra, donec 
In mare prwciçitem cera liquata daret, 
Nunc te cera eadem, feruens r#'itat ignis, 
Exemplo .vt doceas dogmata certa tuo. 
Aflrologus caueat quicquam prw, ticere : çrwces 
Nain cadet imoflor dum fuper a/tra .volat. 

Whitney, however (p. 28), will supply the whole, 

" " EARE, ICAP,.VS with mountinge vp alofle, 
Came headlonge downe, and fell into the Sea : 
His waxed winges, the sonne did make so softe, 
They melted straighte, and feathers fell awaie : 
So, whilste he flewe, and of no dowbte did care, .. 
He moou'de his armes, but loe, the saine were bare. 


Let suche beware, which paste theire reache doe mounte, 
Whoe seeke the thinges, to mortall men deny'de, 
And searche the Heauens, and all the starres accoumpte, 
And tell therebie, what after shall betyde : 
With blusshinge nowe, theire weakenesse rightlie weye, 
Least as they clime, they rail to theire decaye." 

We use this opportunity to present two consecutive pages of 
Corrozet's "HECATOMGRAPHIE" (Emb. 67), that the nature of lais 

Faire lOtit }.qr IllOVell. 
Qi trop f' exalte trop le prife, 
Qi trop f'abaiflç il le delrlfe, 
Mais celluy qui veult faire bien 
Il £e gouuerne par moyen. 


OI [carus que t'e|t il aduenu ? 
Tu as trefinal le confeil retenu 
De Dedalus ton pere qui t'apprint 
L'art de voler, lequel il entreprint 
Pour efchapper de Minos la prifon 
Ou vous efflez enfermez, pour railbn 
Q'il auoit faiè-t & baffy vne vache 
D'ung boys leger ou Pafiphe fe cache. 
Ce Dedalus nature furmonta 
A toy & luy des oelles adioufta 
Aux bras & piedz, tant que pouiez voler 
Et en volant il fe print à parler 
A toy dilànt: mon fi]z qui veulx pretemlre 
De te lhuluer, vng cas tu doibs entendre 
Qe fi tu veulx à bon port arriuer 
Il ne te fault vers le ciel efleuer. 
Car le Soleil la cire fonderoit, 
Et par ainfi ta plume tomberoit, 
Sy tu vas bas l'humidité des eaulx 
Te priuera du pouoir des oytèaulx, 
Mais fi tu vas ne haflt ne bas, adoncques 
La voy,é eft lèurÇ & fans dangm quelzconques 
O panure lot le hault chemin tu prins 
Trop hault pour toy car mal il t'en eft prins 
La cire fond, & ton plumage tumbe 
Et toy auffi pe à mettre foubz tumbe. 

devices, and of their explanations may be seen. There is a 
motto," To take the middle way,"--and these lines follow 

""Who too much exalts hilnself too much values himself, 
Who too much abases himself, he undervalues himself, 
But that man who wills to do well, 
He governs himself the lllediillll way." 

In the page of metrical explanation subjoined, the usual mythic 
narrative is closely followed. 
The full idea is carried out in 3 tfc¢'.y VI. (act v. sc. 6, 
1. 8, vol. v. p. 33z), Gloucester and King Henry being the 


"-G/ou. \Vhy, what a peevish fool was that of Crete, 
That taught his son the office of a fowl ! 
And yet for all his wings, the fool was drown'd. 
A'. t[«n. I, Dmdalus ; my poor boy, Icarus ; 
Thy father, Minos, that denied out course ; 
The sun that sear'd the wings of my sweet boy 
Thy brother Edward, and thyself the sea 
Whose envious gulf did swaIlow up his life. 
Ah, kill me with thy weal)on , hOt with Wol-ds [ 
My breast can better brook thy dagger's point 
Than can lny ears that tragic history." 

In the Ist part also of the saine dramatic series (act iv. sc. 6, 
I. 46, vol. v. p. 78), John Talbot, the son, is hemmed about in 
the battle near Bourdeaux. Rescued by his father, he is urged 
to escape, but the young hero replies, 

" llefore young Talbot fl'om old Talbot fly, 
The coward horse that bears inc £dl and die ! 
And like me to the peasant boys of France, 
To be shame's scorn and subject of mischance ! 
Surely, by all the glory you have won, 
An if I fly, I ana hot Talbot's son : 
Then talk no more of flight, it is no boot ; 
If son to Talbot, die at Talbot's foot. 
Tal. Then follow thou thy desperate sire of Crete, 
Thou lcarus ; thy life to me is sweet : 
If thou wilt fight, fight by thy father's side ; 
And, commendable proved, let's die in pride." 

The tearful tale of Niobe, who that has read Ovid's 
morphost's (bk. ri. fab. 5) could hot weep over it! Seven 
stalwart sons and seven fair daughters clustered round the 
haughty dame, and shc gloried in their attendance upon her; 
but at an evil hour she dared to match herself with Latona, and 
at a public festival iii honour of the goddess to be the only one 
refusing to offer incense and prayers. The goddess called her 
own children to avenge the affront and the impiet¥ ; and Apollo 
and Diana, from the clouds, slew the seven sons as they were 


exercising on the plain near Thebes. Yet the pride of Niobe 
did hot abate, and Diana in like manner slew also the seven 
daughters. The mother's heart was utterly broken ; she wept 
herself to death, and was changed to stone. Yet, says the poet, 
Flct tamcu,--" Yet she weeps,"-- 
Le. " It melts, and even now the marble trickles down tears." 

Alciat adopts the tale as a warning; /°ride he names his 
67th Emblem. 

St, perbia. 

Mlciat, 58x. 

E flatu,eflatua,  ,h«qum de marmre marmot, 
Se conferre Deis au£a procax Niobe. 
Efl valth«m muliebre fuperbia, OE arguit oris 
Duritiem, ac fe,ts, qualis inq7 lapi,ti. 


_As we look at the device we are sensible to a singular 
incongruity between the subject and the droll, Punch-like 
figures, which make up the border. The sentiment, too, 
is as incongruous, that " Pride is a wonlall'S vice and 
argues hardness of look and of feeling such as there is in 

Making a slight change in the motto, Whitney (p. 1 3) writes, 
Nupcrbia vltio,--" Vengeance upon pride,"-- 

 F NIOBE, behoulde the ruthefull plighte, 
Bicause shee did dispise the powers deuinc : 
Her children all, weare slaine within hcr sighte, 
And, while ber selfe with tricklinge teares did pinc, 
Shee xvas transform'de, into a marble stone, 
Which, yet with teares, dothe seeme to waile, and mone. 

l'his tragedie, thoughe Poëtts first did frame. 
Yet maie it bee, to euerie one applide : 
That mortall men, shoulde thinke from whence they cmne, 
And not presume, nor puffe them vp with pride, 
Leste that the Lorde, whoe haughty hartes doth hate, 
Doth throwe them downe, when sure they thinke theyr state.'" 

Shakespeare's notices of N iobe are little more than allusions ; 
the mode in which Apollo and Diana executed the cruel 
vengeance may be glanced at in All's HS'll (act v. sc. 3, 1. 5, 
vol. iii. p. 2o), when the Countess of Rousillon pleads for her 
son to the King of France,-- 

" CoutL "Tis past, my liege ; 
And I beseech your majesty to make it 
Natural rebellion, done i' the blaze of youth ; 
When oil and tire, too strong for reason's force, 
O'erbears it and burns on. 
A'itg. M y honour'd lad)', 
1 have forgiven and forgotten all ; 
Though my revenges were high bent upon hiln, 
And watch'd the time to shoot." 


Troilus (act v. sc. to, 1. I6, vol. vi. p. 26t), anticipating Priam's 
and tIecuba's mighty grief over the slain Hector, speaks thus 
of the fact,-- 

" Let him that will a screcch-owl aye be call'd 
Go into Troy, and say there, ' Hector's dead : ' 
Thcre is a .word will Prialn turn to stone, 
Make wclls and Niobes of the maids and wives, 
Cold statucs of the youth, and in a word, 
Scarc Troy out of itself." 

l lamlct, too (act i. sc. 2, 1. t47, vol. viii. p. 7), in lais bitter 
cxpressions respecting his mother's marriage, speaks thus 
severely of the brevity of ber widowhood,-- 

A little month, or ere those shoes were old 
With which shc follow'd my poor father's body, 
Like 1Niobc, all tcars :--why she, even she,-- 
O God ! a beast that xxants discourse of reason, 
X, Vould bave mourn'd longer ;--within a month ; 
Ere yet the salt of most unrighteous tears 
Had left the flushing in her galled eyes, 
She married." 

Tiresias, the blind soothsayer of Thebes, had foretold that 
the comely Narcissus would live as long as he could refrain from 
the sight of lais own cotmtenance,-- 

" 13ut he, ignorant of his destiny," says Claude Mignault, "grew so 
desperatcly in love with his own image seen in a fountain, that he miserably 
++asted away, alld was changed into the flower of his own naine, which is 
called Narcc, and means drowsiness or infatuation, because the smell of the 
Narcissus affects the head." 

However that may be, _Alciatus, edition _Antwerp, 58, 
exhibits the youth surveying his features in a running stream ; 
the flowcr is bchind him, and in the distance is Tiresias 
pronouncing his doom. " Self love " is the motto. 



.41ciat, i58i. 

Qy_oD nimium tuaJbrma tibi 2Varcifl'e llacel, at, 
ln florem,  noti efl vaerfa flUloris dus. 
Ingenij efl marcor, cla,tes ¢,a«ç«, dodtos 
-qd«e pe.fl'um plures dal,. ,teditçl * vairos : 
-qdd vaeterum abiedta methodo, noua dogmata querunt, 
Nil fuas preter tradere phantafias. 

J_nulus also, in the " PICTA POESIS" (p. 48), mentions lais 
foolish and vain passion,-- 

COIllgIIllICllS a[ios aFs[l lllllOFg slli-- 
" Despising others, inflamed he was vith love of himself." 

From _Alciat and _A_nulus, Whitney takes up the fable 
(p. I49), his printer Rapheleng using the same wood-block as 
Plantyn did in I58I. Of the three stanzas we subjoin one,-- 

296 CLA S,çlFICA TIO+OE  " [C n.,v. 

" NT ARCISSVS lou'de, and liked so lais shape, 
x • He died at lengthe vith gazinge there vppon : 
Which shewes selfe loue, ri-oto which there fewe can scape, 
A plague too rire : bewitcheth manie a one. 
The ritche, the pote, the learned, and the sotte, 
Offende therein : and yet they see it not." 

It is only in Olle instance, Alztol O, alzcl Clcopatra (act ii. 
sc. 5, 1. 95, vol. ix. p. 48), and very briefly, that Shakespeare 
names Narcissus; he does this when the Messenger repeats to 
Cleopatra that tltony" is married, and she replies,- 
" The Gods confound thee ! ..... 
...... Go, get thee hence : 
Hadst thou Narcissus in thy face, to lne 
Thou wouldst appear most ugly." 

The most beautiful of the 

llle araat, hec odit, fugit hec : fec7atur at ille 
Dhmque fugit : Laurus faqa repentè fletit. 
Sic amat, & fi'uflra, nec Elollopotitus amor« . 
Fltus Apollinis , tic Amor opprobrium. 
HAECE doaorum #rs  inimica irorum, 
Ft iuuenes quamuis non redamentur ament ? 
Ex.fque habeat prudentes flulta iuuentus 
His ne iungatur flipes t  elit. 

maidens of Thessaly, Daphne, 
the daughter of the river- 
god Peneus, was Apol- 
lo's earliest love. He 
sought her in marriage, 
and being refused by her, 
prepared to force con- 
sent. The maiden fled, 
and was pursued, and, 
at the very moment of 
her need invoked her 
father's aid, and was 
transformed into a laurel. 
At this instant the de- 
vice of Jknulus represents 
her, in the "PICTA POESIS" 

* Ovid's z]Ielamorphoses, by Crispin de Passe (editions I6O2 and I6O7, p. I0), 
presents the fable well by a very good device. 


He loves, she hates ; she flees, but he pursues, 
And while she flee, stopped suddenly, to laurel changed. 
So loves Apollo, and in vain ; nor enjoys his love. 
So love has avenged the reproach of Apollo. 
This very judgment of learned men is it not hostile, 
That youths should love though hot again be loved ? 
Hated should foolish youth account the wise 
Lest by these the log be not joined as it wishes to be." 

The 3rid«««mmt.r JVig/t's Drcam (act il. sc. I, 1. 227, vol. iii 
p. 218) reverses the fable; Demetrius flees and Helena 

'" Dent. I'll run from thee and hide me in the brakes, 
And leave thee to the mercy of wild beasts. 
Hd. Thc wildest hath not such a heart as you. 
P, un when you will, the story shall be changed : 
Apollo files, and Daphne holds the chase : 
The dove pursues the griffin ; the mild hind 
Makes speed to catch the tiger ; bootless speed, 
\Vhen cmvardice pursues, and valour files." 


is, too, the quotation already ruade for another 
(p. 115) froln the Tamb«g of #w Sar«w (Introd. sc. 2, 

'" Or Daphne roaming through a thorny wood, 
Scratching ber legs that one shall swear she bleeds, 
And at that sight shall sad Apollo weep, 
So workmanly the blood and tears are drawn." 

And Troilus (act i. sc. I, 1. 94, vol. ri. p. t3o) 
"Tell me, Apollo, for thy Daphne's love 
\Vhat Cressid is, what Pandar, and what we ?" 

makes the 

Among Mythological Characters xve may rank Milo, "of force 
unparalleled ;" to whom with crafty words of flattery Ulysses 
likened Diomed ; Troil«s atd Çrcssi,_ta (act il. sc. 3, 1. 237), 

"' But he that disciplined thine arms to fight, 
Let Mars divide eternity in twain, 
And give him half : and for thy vigour. 


Bull-bearing Milo his addition yield 
To sinewy Ajax." 

Milo's provess is the subject of a fine device by Gerard de 
Jode, in the "MIKPOKOEMO.v, '' (p. 6I), first published iii I579, 
with Latin verses. Respecting Milo the French verses say,-- 

" La force de Milon a esté nompareille, 
Et de ses grands efforts on raconte merueille : 
S'il se tenoit debout, il ne se trouuoit pas 
Homme aucun qui le peust faire bouger d'un pas. 

A frapper il estoit si fort & si adestre 
Que d'un seul coup de poing il tua de sa dextre 
Vn robuste taureau, & des ses membres forts 
Vne lieue le porta sans se greuer le corps. 

Mais se fiant par trop en ceste grande force, 
II fut en fin saisi d'une mortelle entorce : 
Car il se vid manger des bestes, estant pris 
A l'arbre qu'il auoit de desioindre entrepris. 

Qui de sa force abuse en chase non faisable 
Se rend par son effort bien souuent miserable, 
Le fol entrepreneur tombe en confusion 
Et s'expose à chacun en grand derision." 

The famous winged horse, Pegasus, heroic, though not a 
hero, has a right to close in our array of mythic characters. 
Sprung from the blood of Medusa when Perseus cut off ber 
head, Pegasus is regarded sometimes as the thundering steed of 
Jove, at other times as the war-horse of Bellerophon ; and in 
more modern tilnes, under a third aspect, as the horse of the 
Muses. A_lready (at p. 4 2) ve have spoken of some of the 
merits attributed to him, and bave presented Emblems in which 
he is introduced. It will be sufiïcient noxv to bring forward the 
device and stanza of A_lciat, in which he shows us hoxv " by 
prudence and valour to overcome the Chimoera, that is, the 
stronger and those using stratagems." 


Confilio & virtute Chimoeram lhperari, id et°c, 
fortiores & deceptores. 


4lciat, 58. 

]] E L L E R 0 P H 0 N "ot .]brtis eques fuperare Chimeram, 
Et Lycij lotuit flernere monflra foli ." 
Sic tu Pegafeis q2equs 13etis ethera permis, 
ConJilio$ animi monflra fu2erba domas. 

" As the brave knight Bellerophon could conquer Chimoera, 
And the monsters of the Lycian shore stretch on the ground : 
So thou borne on the wings of Pegasus seekest the sky, 
And by prudence dost subdue proud monsters of the soul." 

Shakespeare recognises neither Bellerophon nor the Chimaera, 
but Pegasus, the wonderful creature, and Perseus its owner. 
The dauphin Lewis (see p. 4)likens his own horse to 
Pegasus, "with nostrils of tire,"- 
" It is a beast for Perseus : he is pure ai," and tire .... he is indeed a 

3oo C'.LA SSIFICA TIO¢V.. [ç HAP. " l. 

In the Grecian camp (see Troihts and Cressida, act i. sc. 3, 
1. 33, vol. vi. p. 142), Nestor is urging the worth of dauntless 
valour, and uses thc apt comparison,--- 

" In the reproof of chance 
Lies the truc proof of mcn : the sea being smooth, 
How many shallow bauble boats dare sail 
Upon her patient breast, making their way 
With those of nobler bulk ! 
But let thc ruffian Boreas once enrage 
The gentle Thetis, and anon behold 
The strong-ribb'd bark through liquid mountains eut, 
Bounding between thc two moist clements, 
Like l'crseus' horsc." 

The last lines are descriptive of Alciat's dcvice, on p. 299. 
It is the saine Nestor (act iv. sc. 5, 1. 183), who so freel¥ and 
generousl¥ compliments I lector, though his enemy,-- 

I have, thou gallant Trojan, seen thee oft, 
Labouring for destiny, make cruel way 
Through ranks of Greekish youth ; and I have seen thee, 
As hot as Perseus, spur thy Phrygian steed, 
Despising many forfeits and subduements, 
When thou hast hung thy advanced sword i' the air, 
Nor letting it decline on the declined, 
That I have said to some my standers b.v, 
' Lo, Jupiter is yonder, dealing life '."" 

Young Harry's praise, too, in /-]wly Il'., act iv. sc. ], 1. ]o9, 
vol. iv. p. 318, is thus celebrated by Vernon,-- 

"' As if an angel dropp'd down from the clouds 
To turn and wind a fiery Pegasus, 
And witch the world with noble horsemanship." 

For nearly all the personages and the tales contained in this 
section, authority may be found in Ovid, and in the various 
pictorially illustrated editions of the 2[eta¢orpboses or of portions 
of them, vhich were numerous during the actively literary lire 

SECÏ. I I l. ] 3IYTHOZ OGICA I CI£4RA CTiY.R,ç. 3 °  

of Shakespeare. It is, I oIIfeSS, very questionable, whether for 
his classically mythic tales he was indeed indebted to the Em- 
blematists; yet the many parallels in mythology between him 
and them justify the pleasant labour of setting both side by 
side, and, by this means, of facilitating to the reader the forming 
for himself an independent judgment., ed. x6o,. 

3o CLA.çS[F[CA T[OIV [CH.r. VI. 


, IMILITUDES and, in cases hot a few, identities 
have often been detected between the popular 
tales of widely distant nations, intimating either 
a common origin, or a common inventive power 
to work out like results. Fables have ever been a floating 
literature,--borne hither and thither on the current of Time,-- 
used by any one, and properly belonging to no one. How 
they bave circulated from land to land, and ri-oto age to age, 
we cannot tell; whence they first arose it is impossible to 
divine. There exist, we are told, fables collected by Bidpai in 
Sanscrit, by Lokman iii Arabic, by ASsop in Greek, and by 
Phmdrus in Latin ; and they seem to have been interchanged 
and borrowed one from the other as if they were the property 
of the world,--handed down from the ancestorial rimes of a 
remote antiquity. 
Shakespeare's general estimation of fables, and of those of 
ASsop in particular, may be gathered from certain expressions in 
two of the plays,--in the 3Ii'dsummcrWio«ltt's Drcam (act v. sc. , 
1. , vol. il. p. 58) and in 3 Henry 'L (act v. sc. 5, I. 25, vol. v. p. 
329). In theformcr the speakers are Hippolyta and Theseus,-- 
"Hib. 'Tis strange, my Theseus, that these loyers speak of. 
The. More strange than true : I never may believe 
These antique fables» nor these fairy toys. 
Loyers and madmen bave such seething brains 

Sca. 1V.] EA[Z?ZEA[S I2V FA.BZ.ES. 303 

Such shaping fantasies, that apprehend 
More than cool reason ever comprehends." 
In the latter Queen Margaret's son in reproof of Gloucester, 
" Let Asop fable in a winter's night ; 
His currish riddles sort not with this place." 
The year of Shakespeare's birth, 1564, saxv the publication, 
at Rome, of the Latin Fables of Gabriel Faerni ; they had been 
written at the request of Pope Pius IV., and possess a high 
degree of excellence, both for their correct Latinity and for the 
poxver of invention which they display. Roscoe, in his Lifc of 
Leo A'. (Bohn's ed. il. p. I72), even avers that they " are xvritten 
with such classical purity, as to have given rise to an opinion 
that he had discovered and fraudulently availed himself of some 
of the unpublished works of Phoedrus." This opinion, however, 
is without any foundation. 
The Dialogues of Crcatttrcs moraliscd preceded, however, the 
Fabl«s of Faerni by above eighty years. " In the Latin and 
Dutch only there were not less than fifteen known editions 
before I51 I."* .An edition in Dutch is named as early as 148o , 
and one in French in 1482 ; and the English version appeared, 
it is likely, at nearly as early a date. These and other books of 
fables, though by a contested claire, are often regarded as books 
of Emblems. The best Emblem writers, even the purest, 
introduce fables and little tales of various kinds; as Alciat, 
Emb. 7, The Image of Isis, the .A_ss and the Driver; Emb. i5, 
The Cock, the Lion, and the Church; Emb. 59, The Blacka- 
moor washed \Vhite, &c. : Hadriau Tztuius, Emb. 4, The caged 
Cat and the Rats; Emb. 19, The Crocodile and her Eggs: 
_Pa7"icrc, Emb. IOI, Diligence, Idleness, and the Ants. They all, 
in fact, adopted without scruple the illustrations which suited 

* See the reprim of .br ial0gtn 0[ ŒErtaIurt fft0ralyd, by Joseph Haslewood, 
4to, London, 86 (Introd., pp. viij and ix). 


their particular purpose; and Whitney, in one part of his 
Emblcmcs, uses twelve of Faerni's fables in succession. 
Of the fables to which Shakespeare alludes some have been 
quoted in the former part of this work ;--as The Fly and the 
Candle; The Sun, the Wind, and the Traveller; The Elephant 
and the underlnined Tree ; The Countryman and the Serpent. 
Of others we now proceed to give examples. 

The Hares biting the dead Lion had, perhaps, one of its 
earliest applications, if not its origin, in the conduct of Achilles 
and lais coward Greeks to the dead body of Hector, which 
Homer thus records (Iliad, xxii. 37),-- 
"The other sons of the Greeks crovded around ; 
And admired Hector's stature and splendid form ; 
Nor was there one standing by who did not inflict a wound." 
Claude Mignault, in lais notes to Alciatus (Emb. I53), quotes 
an epigram, from an unknown Greek author, which Hector is 
supposed to have uttered as he was dragged by the Grecian 
-" Now after my death ye pierce my body ; 
The very hares are bold to insult a dead lion." 
The Troihs ad Crcssida (act v. sc. 8, 1. 21, vol. vi. p. 259 ) 
exhibits the big, brutal _Achilles exulting over his slain enemy, 
and giving the infamous order,-- 
" Crne, fie his body to my horse's tail ; 
Along the field I will the Trojan trail." 
_And aftelvards (act v. sc. IO, 1. 4, vol. ri. p. 260) the atrocities 
are recounted to which Hector's body was exposed,-- 
" He's dead, and at the murderer's horse's rail 
In beast]y sort dragg'd through the shameful field." 
The description thus given accords with that of _/klciatus, 
Reusner, and Whitney, in reference to the saying, " \Ve must 


not struggle with phantoms." Alciat's stanzas (Emb 

Cum laruis non luctandum. 
.ACID¢E tttot'icns «rcttsstt cttsibidis Ite«tor 
Qui lolies kosleis vicer«l anle suos; 
L'omibrimo'e kaud botttit vocem, Dtsultantikus t'[lis, 
Dui« curru g, pedibus nect«re ,incla ibaranL 
Dislrahite v! libilttm est : sic cassi htce leonis 
Co»dhtul barbare vel limidi l@ores. 


Thus rendered by Whitney (p. I27) , with the same device, 

"/ THEN Hectors force, throughe mortall vounde did faile, 
And lire beganne, to dreadefull deathe to yeelde : 
The Greekes moste gladde, his dyinge corpes assaile, 
"Vho late did flee belote him in the fielde : 
"Vhich vhen he sawe, quothe hee nove worke your spite, 
For so, the hares the Lion dead doe byte. 

Looke here vpon, you that doe vounde the dead, 
"Vith slaunders vile, and speeches of defame : 
Or bookes procure, and libelles to be spread, 
When they bee gone, for to deface theire name : 
Who vhile they liu'de, did feare you with theire lookes, 
And for theire skill, you might hOt beare their bookes." 
R R 

3o6 CZ.4.çSIFICA ï]O.'V. [C tAV. V I. 

Reusner's lines, which have considerable beauty, may thus be 
" Since man is mortal, the dead it becomes us 
Neither by word nor reproachful writing to mock at. 
Theseus, mindful of mortal destiny, the bones of his friends 
lloth laves, and stores up in the tomb, and covers with earth. 
'Tis the mark of a weak mind, to wage war with phantoms, 
And after death to good men insult to offer. 
5o when overcome by the strength of Achilles 
The scullions of the camp struck Hector with darts. 
So whelps bite the lion laid prostrate by death ; 
So his weapon any one bloods in the boat that is slain. 
Better 'tis, ye gods, well to speak, of those deserving well ; 
And wickedness great indeed, to violate sacred tombs." 
The device itself, in these three authors, is a representation 
of Hares biting a dead Lion ; and in this we find an origin for 
the words used in A'iug • ohu (act il. sc. I, 1. I34 , vol. iv. p. I7) , 
to reprove the Archduke of Austria. Austria demands of Philip 
Faulconbridge, "What the devil art thou ?" and Philip replies, 
" One that will play the devil, sir, with you, 
An a' may catch your hide and you alone : 
You are the hare of whom the proverb goes, 
Whose valour plucks dead lions by the beard." 
Immediately references follov to other fables, or to their 
pictorial representations, 
" l'Il smoke your skin-coat, an I catch you right :" 
in allusion to the fable of the fox or the ass hunting in a lion's 
skin. Again (1. ]4),-- 
"JRhttc/t. O, well did he become that lion's robe 
That did disrobe the lion of that robe. 
Basl. It lies as sightly on the back of him 
As great Alcides' shows upon an ass : " 
a sentiment evidently suggested to the poet's mind by some 
device or emblem in which the incongruity had found a place. 
Farther research might clear up this and other unexplained 

SECT. IV.] EZ][I¢[.Ez][S [Af F.,4.B£E.ç. 307 
allusions in Shakespeare to fables or proverbs; but there is no 
necessity for attempting this in every instance that occurs. 

"Fricndship endurhz,ç c,cn aft«r dcath," might receive a 
variety of illustrations. The conjugal relation of life frequently 
exemplifies its truth; and occasionally there are friends who 
show still more strongly how death hallows the memory of the 
departed, and makes survivors ail the more faithful in their love. 
As the emblem of such fidelity- and affection Alciat (Emb. 159) 
selects the figures of the elm and the vine.* 

A.micitia etiam poil mortem durans. 

Alciat, x58x. 

* With the addition of two friends in conversation seated beneath the eh'n and 
vine, Boissard and Messin (x588, pp. 64, 65)give the saine device, to the mottoes, 
"A.tCiTm I.t.tOTALL"--TO i»tmar/al.h'ie»dhi? : " Parfaite est l'Amitié qui vit 
aprèg la mort." 


The consociation in life is not forgotten; and though the 
supporting tree should die, the twining plant still grasps it round 
and adorns it with leaves and fruit. 

,/RE NTEM fenio, nudam quoque frondibus vhnum, 
Comlexa efl viri,ti vitis opaca coma: 
qgnofcit vices natur,,, 6Y grata parenti 
Offcij reddlt mutua iura fuo. 
Exemlo monet, tales nos queerere amicos, 
.O,.u.os neque di./ïungat joedere summa dies. 

To which lines Whitney (p. 62) gives for interpretation the to 

"A XVithered Elme, xvhose boughes xveare bare of leaues 
And sappe was sunke with age into the roote : 
A fruictefull vine, vnto her bodie cleaues, 
Vhose grapes did hange, from toppe vnto the foote : 
And when the Elme, was rotten, drie, and dead, 
His braunches still, the vine abowt it spread. 

\Vhich shoves, vee shoulde be linck'de vith such a frende, 
That might reuiue, and helpe when wee bee oulde : 
And when wee stoope, and drawe vnto our ende, 
Our staggering state, to helpe for to vphoulde : 
Yea, when wee shall be like a sencelesse block, 
That for our sakes, will still imbrace our stock." 

The Emblems of Joachim Camerarius, Ex Re Hcrbaria 
(edition 59 o, p. 36),--have a similar device and motto,-- 

"' Quamlibel arcnli vins hrmen hoerel in uhno, 
Sic quo¢ue 2bos/ mor/em refus amicus amaL" 

" Vet as it pleases the vine clings to the xvithered elm, 
So also after death the true friend loves." 

And in the Emblems of Otho Voenius (Antwerp, 16o8, 
p. 244), four lines of Alciat being quoted, there are both English 
and Italian versions, to-- 

SECT. IV.] El[13ZEl[S IN fiABLES. 3o9 


" Loue afh'r dealh." 
"The vyne doth still embrace the elme by age ore-past, 
Vhich did in former tyme those feeble stalks vphold, 
And constantly remaynes with it now beeing old, 
Loue is not kil'd by death, that after death doth last." 

"Ne per morte muore." 
"s'Auilicdtia la vit,', e l'olmo abbraccia, 
Anckor che il t«mlo secchi le sue fiiante; 
Æoo morte I'A mot tieusi coustatte. 
Non terne morte A more, anzi la scaccia." 

It is in the Comcdy of Errors (act 
p. 417) that Shakespeare refers to this 
addresses Antipholus of Syracuse,-- 

ii. sc. 2, !. 167 , vol. i. 
fable, when Adriana 

How ill agrees it with your gravity 
To counterfeit thus grossly with your slave, 
Abetting him to thwart me in my mood ! 
t3e it my wrong, you are from me exempt, 
But wrong not that vrong vith a more contempt. 
Corne, I will fasten on this sleeve of thine : 
Thou art an elm, my husband, I a vine, 
Whose weakness, married to thy stronger state, 
Makes me vith thy strength to communicate." 

With a change from the vine to the ivy a very similar 
comparison occurs in the A[idsummcr Ari«ht's Dream (act iv. 
sc. 1, 1. 37, vol. ii. p. 250 ). The infatuated Titania addresses 
Bottom the xveaver as her dearest joy, 

" Sleep thou, and I will wind thee in my arms. 
Fairies begone, and be all ways away. 
So doth the woodbine the sxveet honeysuckle 
Gently entwist ; the female ivy so 
Enrings the barky fingers of the elm. 
O, how I love thee ! how I dote on thee !" 

The fable of the Fox and the Grapes is admirably 
represented in Freitag's A[ytholoia lthica (p. 127) , to the 

3  o CL..4SSIFIC TIOOE r. [CrlAP. V I. 

motto, " Feigned is the refusal of that which cannot be 

Fi&a eius quod haberi nequit 

Fr¢itag, t579. 

Fatuus flatim indicat iram Juam : qui autem diimulat iniuriam, callidus efl. 
Prouerb. ,  6. 
"A fool's wrath is presently known : but a prudent man covereth shame." 

The fable itself belongs to an earlier work by Gabriel 
Faerni, and there exemplifies the thought, "to glut oneself 
with one's own folly,"-- 

"Stullitia sna seibsum saoeinare." 
VULPES esuriens, alta de vite racemos 
Pendentes nulla quum prensare arte valeret, 
Nec pedibus tantum, zut agili se tollere saltu. 

SEC'l. IV.] .E[./Z.'.]]'.ç _]JV .F-.4./Z'S. 31 ! 

Re infecta abscedens, hœec secum, Age, desine, dixit. 
Immatura vva est, gustuque insuavis acerbo. 
Consueuere homines, eventu si qua sinistro 
Vota cadunt, iis sese alienos velle videri." 

"Vhitney takes possession of Faerni's fable, and gives the 
following translation (p. 98), though by no means a literal 


"THE Foxe, that longe for grapes did leape in vayne, 
-*- With wearie linames, at lengthe did sad departe : 
And to him selfe quoth hee, I doe disdayne 
These grapes I see, bicause their taste is tarte : 
So thou, that hunt'st for that thou longe hast mist, 
Still makes thy boast, thou maist if that thou list." 

Plantin, the famed printer of Antxverp, had, in 1583, put 
forth an edition of Faerni's fables,* and thus undoubtedly it 
was that Whitney becalne acquainted vith them ; and flore the 
intercourse then existing betveen Antwerp and London it 
vould be strange if a copy had not fallen into Shakespeare's 
Oxving to some malady, the King of France, in A[l's lVdl 
that Epds lVdl (act ii. sc. I, 1. 59, vol. iii. p. I33), is unable to go 
forth to the Florentine war vith those whom he charges to be 
"the sons of worthy Frenchmen." Lafeu, an old lord, has 
learned from Helena some method of cure, and brings the 
tidings to the king, and kneeling before him is bidden to 
"It'in. l'll fee thee to stand up. 
Laf Then here's a man stands, that has brought his pardon. 
I would you had kneel'd, my lord, to ask me mercy ; 
And that at my bidding you could so stand up. 
/t"z)¢,_¢. I vould I had ; so I had broke thy pate, 
And ask'd thee mercy for't. 

 "Centvm Fabvloe ex Antiqvis delectoe, et a Gabriele Faemo Cremonense 
carminibus explicatoe. Antuerpioe ex officina Christoph. Plantini, M.I).LXXXIL" 
6mo. pp. 1--7I, 

312 C I.,/I Æ Æ I fi'I C,/I TION. [CHAI'. 

Laf Good faith, across : but, my good lord, 'tis thus ; 
Will you be cured of your infirmity ? 
/x'itg. No. 
Zaf. O, will you eat no grapes, my royal fox ? 
Yes, but you will my noble grapes, an if 
My royal fox could reach them : I have seen a mcdicine 
That's able to breathe lire into a stone, 
Quicken a rock, and make you dance canary 
With spritely tire and motion." 

The fox, indeed, has always been a popular animal, and is 
the subject of many fables which are glanced at by Shake- 
speare ;--as in the Two Gcttl«mcn of Vcrona (act iv. sc. 4, 1. 87, 
vol. i. p. x43), when Julia exclaims,-- 

"Alas, poor Proteus ! thou hast entertained 
A fox to be the shepherd of thy lambs." 

Or in 2 Hem 7 VI. (act iii. sc. x, 1. 55, vol. v. p. 53), where 
Suffolk warns the king of "the bedlam brain-sick duchess" of 
" Smooth runs the water where the brook is deep." 
"The fox barks hOt when he would steal the lamb." 

And again, in 3 ttemy VZ (act iv. sc. 7, 1. 24, vol. v. p. 3  2), the 
cunning creature is praised by Gloucester in an "asidc,"-- 

" But when the fox hath once got in his nose, 
He'll soon find means to make the body follov." 

The bird in borrowed plumes, or the Jackdaw dressed out in 
Peacock's feathers, was presented, in 596, on a simple device, 
not necessary to be produced, with the motto, " QvoI sis ESSE 
VELIS," J," willitg fo be what lholt art. 

" Mutatis de te narraturfabula verbis, 
,i ferre alterius parta labore fludes." 
« By a change in the words of thyself the fable is told, 
Who by labour of others dost seek to bear off the gold." 

Sv.c-. IV.] .EAI.BLEAf S .LV .FA.BL.ES. 33 

It is in the Thh-d Century of the Symbols and Emblems of 
Joachim Camerarius (No. 8I), and by him is referred to zEsop,* 
Horace, &c. ; and the recently published A[icrocosm, the I579 
edition of which contains Gerard de Jode's fine representation of 
the scene. 
Shakespeare was familiar with the fable. In 
(act iii. sc. i, 1. 69, vol. v. p. I53), out of his simplicity the king 
" Our kinsman Gloucester is as innocent 
From meaning treason to out royal person 
As is the sucking lalnb or harmless dove." 

But Margaret, his strong-willed queen, relnal'ks (1. 75),-- 

" Seems he a dove ? his feathers are but borrow'd, 
For he's disposed as the hatefil raven. 
Is he a lamb ? his skin is surely lent him, 
For he's inclined as is the ravenous wolf." 

In 7ulius Cwsar (act i. sc. I, 1. 68, vol. vii. p. 322), I;lavitls, 
the tribune, gives the order,-- 

" Let no images 
Be hung with Coesar's trophies ; " 

and immediately adds (1. 7e), 

"These grmving feathers pluck'd froln Coesar's  ing 
"Vill make him fly an ordinary pitch, 
,Vho else would soar above the view of men 
And keep us all in servile fearfulness." 

But more forcibly is the spirit of the fable expressed, 
when of Timon of _&thels (act il. sc. I, 1. 28, vol. vii. p. 228) 

* See the French version of gEsop, with I5o beautiful vignettes, "LEs FABLES 
Er I.A VIE D'Eso'E :" " A Anvers En l'imprimerie Plantiniêne Chez la Yefue, & 
Jean Mourentorf, t.D.XCH." IIere the bird is a jay (see p. II7, /)tt G«O,  xxxi) ; 
and the peacocks are the avengers upon the be pretender to glolies hot his own. 


3  4 CL4SSIFrCA TIOV.. [CtIAP. Vl. 

a Senator, 

who was one of lais ilnportunate creditors, de- 

" I do fear, 
When every feather sticks in his own wing, 
Lord Timon will be left a naked gull, 
Which flashes nov a phoenix." 

The fable of the Oak and the Reed, or, the Oak and the 
Osier, has an early representation in the I';lnblems of Hadrian 
Junius, Antwerp, I565, though by him it is applied to the ash. 
" Eïa vfi," or, 17ctrLr aMmi cquitas,--" By yielding conquer," 
or, " Evelmess of mind the victrix,"--are the sentiluents to be 
pictured forth and colnmented on. The device ve shall take 
from Whitney ; but the colnlnent of Junius runs thus (p. 49),-- 

" Md 17ctorcm Gi«diuum." 

" Vis Boreoe obnixas violento turbine sternit 
Ornos : Arundo infracta eandem despicit. 
Fit victor patiens animus cedendo furori : 
Insiste, Victor, banc viam & re, & nonfine." 

" The stout ash trees, with violent whirl 
The North-wind's force is stretching low ; 
The reeds unbroken fise again 
And still in full vigour grow. 
Yielding to rage, the patient mind 
Victor becomes with added faine ; 
That course, my Victor, thou pursue 
Reality, as wcll as naine." 

Whitney adopts the saine motto (p. 220), " He conquers who 
endures ;" but while retaining from Junius the ash-tree in the 
pictorial illustration, he introduces into his stanzas " the mightie 
oke," instead of the "stout ash." From Erasmus (in F_pist.) he 
introduces an excellent quotation, that " it is truly the mark of 
a great mind to pass over some injuries, nor to have either ears 
or tongue rcady fol certain revilings." 

SV.CT. IV.] EJIBZE,II.ç LV F.41ZE,ç. 3  5 

ïnclt qui patitur. 
Il "Idtncj,, t586. 

"THE mightie oke, that shrinkes not with a blaste, 
- But stiflie standes, when Boreas moste doth blowe, 
With rage thereof, is broken downe at laste, 
When bending reedes, that couche in tempestes lowe 
With yeelding still, doe safe, and sounde appeare : 
And looke alofte, when that the cloudes be cleare. 

When Enuie, Hate, Contempte, and Slaunder, rage : 
Which are the stormes, and tempestes, of this life ; 
With patience then, wee must the combat wage, 
And not with force resist their deadlie strife : 
But surfer still, and then wee shall in fine, 
Our foes subdue, when they with shame shall pine." 

On several occasions Shakespeare introduces this fable, and 
Vhltneys spirit, if not in lais 
once moralises on it quite in r • , 
manner. Itis in the song of Guiderius and Arviragus from the 
Cymbdine (act iv. sc. 2, 1. 25;9, vol. ix. p. 257), 

" GuL Fear no more the heat o' the sun, 
Nor the furious winter's rages ; 
Thou thy worldly task hast donc, 
Home art gone and ta'en thy wages : 
Golden lads and girls all must, 
As chimney-sweepers, corne to dust. 


. Ir,. Fear no more the froxvn o' the great ; 
Thou art past the tyrant's stroke ; 
Care no more to clothe and eat ; 
To thee the reed is as the oak : 
The sceptre, learning, physic, must 
All folloxv this and corne to dust." 

Less direct is the reference in the phrase from Troihts 
Crcssid« (act i. sc. », 1.49, vol. vi. p. 

" when the splitting wind 
Makes flexible the knees of knotted oaks." 

To the same purport are Cœesar's words (lt[ilts Çoesar, act i. 
sc. 3, 1. 5, vol. vil. p. 334),-- 

" I have seen tcmpests, when the scolding wings 
Have rived the knotty oaks." 

In Lo2'c's Labottr's Lost (act iv. sc. 2, 1. I00, vol. ii. p. I38), 
the Canzonet, which Nathaniel reads, recognises the fable 
" If love make me forsworn, how shall I swear to love ? 
Ah, never faith could hold, if hOt to beauty vov'd ! 
Though to myself forsworn, to thee l'Il faithful prove ; 
Those thoughts to me vere oaks, to thee like osiers bow'd." 

We have, too, ill (Ol'iOallltS (act v. sc. _, 1. lO2, vol. vi. p. 403) 
the lines, "The vorthy fellov is our general : He is the rock ; 
the oak not to be wind shaken." 
This phrase is to be exampled from Otho Voenius (p. 116), 
where occur the English motto and stanza, "Strengthened by 

" Eu'n as the stately oke whome forcefull wyndes do moue, 
Doth fasten more his foot the more the tempest blowes, 
Against disastres loue or firmness greater groves, 
And makes each aduers change a witness to his loue." 

Szc'r IV.] EI[BZEIlS IN F/BZES. 317 

I11 several instances it is difficult to determine whether 
expressions which have the appearance of glancing at fables 
really do rcfer to thcln, or whether they are current sayings, 
passing to and fro without any defined OWlaership. Also it is 
difficult to make an exact classification of what belongs to the 
fabulous and what to the proverbial. Of both we might collect 
many more examples than those which we bring folavard ; but 
the limits of out subject remind us that we must, as a general 
rule, confine our researches and illustrations to the Emblem 
writers themselves. We take this opportunity of saying that xve 
may have arranged our instances in an order which some may 
be disposed to question; bnt mythology, fable, and proverb 
often run one into the other, and the knots cannot easily be 
disentangled. Take a sword and cut theln; but the sword 
though sharp is hot convincing. 




partake very 
then, as there 

ROVERBS are nearly ahvays suggestive of a 
little narrative, or of a picture, by which the 
sentiment might be more fllly devdoped. The 
brief moral reflections appended to many fables 
much of the nature of proverbs. Inasnmch, 
is this close alliance between them, we might 

consider the Proverbial Philosophy of Shakespeare only as a 
branch of the Philosophy of Fable; still, as there are in his 

dramas many instances of the use of the pure proverb, and 
instances too of the saine kind in the Emblem writers, we 
prefer making a separate Section for the proverbs or wise 

Occasionally, like the Sancho Panza of his renowned contem- 
porary, Michael de Cervantes Saavedra, I549--1616, 4 Shake- 
speare launches "a leash of proverbial philosophies at once;" 
but with this difference, that the dramatist's application of them 
is usually suggestive either of an Emblem-book origin, or of an 
Emblem-book destination. The example immediately in view 
is from the scene (3/-/-«It15v UI., act i. sc. 4, 1. 39, vol. v. p. e45) 
in which Clifford and Northumberland lay hands of violence on 

* Cervantes and Shakespeare died about the saine time,--it may be, on the saine 
day ; for the former received the sacranlent of extreme unction at Madrid Stll of 
April, 1616, and died soon after ; and the latter died the e3rd of April, I66. 

SEC fo V. ] EiJrBLlç !VITII PR 01 "ERBç. 3  9 

Richard Plantagenet, duke of York; the dialogue proceeds in 
the following way, York exclaiming,-- 
"XVhy corne you not? what ! multitudes, and fear ? 
CHf So cowards fight, when they can fly no fitrther. 
So dores do peck the falcon's picrcing talons." 
The queen entreats Clifford, " for a thousand causes," to with- 
hold his arm, and Northunberland joins in the entreaty,-- 
"A'orlh. Hold, Clifford ! do hot honour hiln so lnuch, 
To prick thy finger, though to wound his heart : 
What valour were it, when a cur doth grin, 
For one to thrust his hand between his teeth, 
XVhen he might spul-n hiln with his foot away ? " 
Clifford and Northumberland seize York, who struggles against 
them (1. 6 ),-- 
" Clif Ay, ay, so strives the woodcock with the gin. * 
A'orth. So doth the cony struggle in the net." 
York is taken prisoner, as he says (1. 63), 
"So triumph thieves upon their conquer'd booty ; 
So true men yield, with robbers so o'ermatch'd." 

The four or rive notions or sayings here enunciated a 
designer or engraver could easily translate into as many E- 
blematical devices, and the lllilld which uses them, as naturally 
as if he had invented them, must surely have had some famili- 
arity xvith the kind of writlng of which proverbs are the lnain 
source and foundation. 

In this connection we will quote the proverb which " Clifford 
of Cumberland" ( Ho¢r.t, l'L, act v. sc. , 1. "8, vol. ri. p. 7) 
utters in French at the very" lnoment of death, and which agrees 

* Paralleled in .Esop's fiables, Alatwerp, 593 ; by Fab. xxxviii., De 1 Esriui«r 
." dit Rossittol ; lii., De 1 Qi,sc[ettr oe dit .]L'rlc ; and Ixxvii., Zht Zabourvtr &. d; hz 

320 CI.ASSII:ICA TI02. ICi, Av. YI. 

very closely with silnilar sayings in Emblem-books by French 
authors,--Perriere and Corrozet,--and still more in suitableness 
to the occasion on which it was spoken, the end of lire. 
York and Clifford,--it is the elder of that name,--engage in 
inortal Colnbat (1. 

" Cltf. My soul and body on the action both ! 
l'ork. A dreadful lay ! address thee instantly." 
[ Theyflg/tt, and CLIFFORofalls. 

At the point of death Clifford uses the words (.1. 28), La fin 
cam'amw les awz,rcs,*--" The end crowns the work." It was, no 
doubt, a COlllnlon proverb ; but it is one which would suggest to the 
Elnblem writer his artistic illustration, and, with a little change, 
froln SOlne such illustration it appears to have been borrowed. 
\Vhitney (p. 13 o) records a resemblance to it anlollg the sayings 
of the Seven Sages, dedicated "lo Sir HVGHE CHOLMELE" 
"" And SOLON said, Rem«mber still tky ocde." 

P«rri«re, 1539. 

The two French Emblems 
alluded to above are illus- 
trative of the proverb, "The 
end makes us all equal," 
and both use a very appro- 
priate and curious device 
from the gaine of chess. 
Take, first, Emb. 27 from 
Perriere's 77watre des }?o;«s 
Egis : Paris,  539, 

* Identical almost with "La fin covronne l'oevvre" in Messin's version of Bois- 
sard's Emblematu»« Liber (4to, I58), where (p. 2o) we bave the device of the letter 
¥ as emblematical of human life ; and at the end of the stanzas the lines,- 
'" L'estrolt est de vertu le sentier espineux, 
Qui couronne de vie en fin le vertueux : 
C'est ce que considere en ce lieu Pythagore." 

Sc-r. V.] .EAIBZEAIS llYTtf I'.I O I.E.I]TS. 

E Roy d'efchez, pendant que le ieu dure, 
Sur lès filhie&z ha grande preference, 
Sy l'on le tnatt, il «onui-t qu'il endure 
QEe l'on le mett,é au lac fans difference. 
Cecy nous fai notable demon[rance, 
0' apres le ieu de vie tranfitoire, 
Qfid mort IlOtlS 3. l'filS en 1 repertoire, 
Les roys ne iôt plufgrs que les vaflhulx  
Car dans le ihc (cÔIll,é à tOitS e|{ notoire), 
Roys & pyons en htneur fbnt efgaulx. 

"Fhc other, ri'oto Corrozet, is il his "IIEc.vI'),MGRAI'IlIF.''" 
Paris,  54o,-- 


3 " ".- CLA&.çIFICM TIO_/V. [CmP. Vl. 

Vr l'ef«hlquler font les ef«hez affis, 
Tous en leur rêg par ordre bi rafli, 
Les roys eu hault pour duyre les combatz, 
Les roynes pres, les cheualiers plus bas, 
Les folz deflbubz, puis apres les pions, 
Les rocz aufl de ce ieu champions. 
Ft quand le t,)ut el[ aflis eu lbn lieu 
Subtilement ou commeuce le leu. 
" Or xault le roy au leu de l'el'hiquier, 
Mieulx que la royne & moins le cheualier. 
Chafcun pion de tous ceulx la moins vauh, 
Mais quand c'efl hi & que le ieu deflhult 
Il u'ya roy, n royne, ne le roc, 
' enfemblement tout ne foit  vng bloc, 
Mis dans vng lac, fans ordre ne degr6, 
Et fhns auoir l'ung plus que l'aultrt  gré. 
Ainfi efl il de nous pauures humains» 
Aulcuns lbnt grands Empereurs des Romains, 
Les aultres roys» les aultres ducz & comtes, 
Aultres petis dont on ne fhi grandz comptes. 
Nous iouons tous aux efchez en ce momie, 
Eutre les biens ou l'ung plulu' aultrç abonde, 
Mais quand le Jour de la riWeR paflè, 
Tout corps humain efl en terre muflê, 
Autaut les grands que petis terre oeuurc, 
Tant feulement nous refle la bonné oeuurc. 

Corrozet's descriptive verses conclude xvith thoughts to which 
old Clifford's dying words nfight well be appendcd: " When 
the gaine of life is over,* every human body is hiddcn in 
the earth; as well great as littlc thc earth covcrs ; what alone 
rcmains to us is the good deed." "LA FIN COURONNE LES 

But Shakespearc uses the 
ahnost as Whitncy (p. 23o) 
tcrminates all,"-- 

expression, "the end crowns all," 
does the allicd proverb, "Time 

* In the Emblems of Lebeus-Batillitts (4to, Francfort, I596) , human life is com- 
pared to a gaine with dite. The cngraving by which it is illutrated rcpresents thrce 
men at play with a backganmu,n-board ))efore them. 


TcnlpUS omnia tcrnlilat. 
ll'hit««y, t586. 

"I " rte longe_/t daye, in time refignes to nighte. 
q-he great(/t o»e, i» time to «hfle doth turue : 
7he Raucn Jics, the EgleJbil«s of flighte. 
q-he Phcenix rare, in rime herJèl_/è :toth burne. 
q-he ].rincclie flagge at len.çthe his race ,toth ronue. 
zln,1 ail mufl ende, that cuer .zvas besonne. 

A sentilnent this corrcsponding ncal-ly with I/ector's words, 
in the Troihts amt Crcsshta (act iv. sc. 5 1. -,-,, vol. vi. 
p. 230),-- 

" The fall of evcry Phrygian stone will cost 
A drop of Grecian blood : the end crowns ail, 
And that old colnmon arbitrator, Time, 
Will one da.v end it." 

Prince ttenry (2//««y II:, act il. sc. 2, 1.41, vol. iv. p. 392), 
in reply to Poins, gives yet another turn to the proverb : " By 
this hand, thou thinkest me as far in the devil's books as thou 
and Falstaff for obduracy and persistency ; let the end try the 

In Whitney's address "to the Reader," lac speaks of having 
collectcd "sondrie deuises" against scveral great faults which 

3 "4 CLA&S'IFZCA r'l-OA r. [CHAP. VI. 

he names, "bycause they are growe so mightie that one bloe 
will hot beate theln downe, but newe headdes springe vp like 
]-O'dra, that ]-/crad«s weare not able to subdue them." " But," 
he adds, using ai1 old saying, "manie droppes pierce the stone, 
and with lnanie blowes the oke is ouerthrowen." 
Near lortilncr's Cross, in Ilerefordshire, a messenger relates 
how " thc noble ]3uke of York was slain " (3/-[cltu' I "l., act ii. 
sc. I, 1. 50, vol. v. 1 ). 252), and employs a similar, ahnost an 
idcntical, provcrb,-- 

" Environed he was with many foes, 
And stood against thcm, as the hope of Troy 
Against the Grccks that ould bave enter'd Troy. 
But ttcrculcs himsclf must yicld to odds ; 
And many strokes, though vith a littlc axe, 
tlew down and fell the hardcst-timber'd oak." 

This is ahnost the coincidence of the copyist, and but for the 
necessities of the lnetre, \Vhitney's words lnight have been 
literally quoted. 
" Manie droppes pierce the stone," has its parallel in the 
half-bantering, half-serious, conversation bctween King Edward 
and Lady Grcy (3 /-/«m, 7I., act iii. sc. , 1. 4 8, vol. v. p. ;8o). 
The lady prays the restoration of her children's lands, and the 
king intimates he has a boon to ask iii rcturn,-- 

"A'izff Ed.w. Ay, but thou canst do what I mean to ask. 
Gro'. \Vhy then I will do what your grace colnmands. 
Glo«t. [Ash?e to CLaI.] He plics hcr hard ; and much rain wears 
the marble. 
Clar. [Asid« to (;LOU.] ,-S red as tire! na); then ber wax must 

In Otho Va211ius (p. 210), where Cupid is bravely working at 
felling a tree, to the motto, " By COlltillual!ce," we filld the 

Sc'r. V.] .E3[.BLEzlIS II"ITH PRO I'ER.BS. 3-25 

« Not with one stroke at first the great tree gocs to grownd, 
But it by manie strokes is ruade to fall at last, 
The drop doth pierce the stone by falling long and fast, 
So by enduring long long sought-for loue is found." 

"To clip the anvil of my sword," is ai1 expression in the 
Coriola,ms (act iv. sc. 5, lines Ioo--I t2, vol. vi. p. 38o) very dif-fi- 
cuit to be explained, unless ve regard it as a proverb, denoting 
the breaking of the weapon and the laying aside of enmity. 
Aufidius makes use of it in his welcome to the banished Corio- 
« o Marcius, Marcius ! 
Each word thou hast spoke hath weeded fronl In)" heart 
A root of ancient envy. If Jupiter 
Should from yond cloud speak divine things, 
And say "Tis truc,' I'd not bdieve theln lnore 
Than thee, all noble Marcius. Let me twine 
Mine arms about that body, vhere against 
My grained ash an hundred times hath broke, 
And scarr'd the mooll with splinters : here I clip 
The anvil of my sword, and do contest 
As hotly and as nobly with thy love 
As ever in alnbitious strength I did 
Contend against thy valour." 

To clip, or cut, Le., strike the anvil with a sword, is exhibited 
by more than one of the Emblem writers, whose stanzas are 
lndeed to the saine effect as those of Massinger in his play, Thc 
.Duke of Florowa (act ii. sc. 3),-- 

Telnpted too far is like the trial of 
A good sword on an anvil ; as that often 
Flies in pieces without service to the owner ; 
So trust enforced too far proves treachcry, 
And is too late rcpented." 

In lais 3st Emblem, Perriere gives the dcvice, and stanzas 
which follow,-- 

3 2 6 CZ, 1SS[FICM TIOY. [(" l t. v. \ i. 

P«rriere, i539. 

N danger elt de rompre lbn efpée 
Qi fur l'nclume,' en ii-appe rudemc,t. 
Aufli l'amour el bien tort fincoppéc, 
QLand fou amy on prcffe ibllement. 
QEi le fera, perdra lhbitement 
Ce qu'il deburoit bien cheremêt garder. 
De tel abus, lè fault contregarder, 
C6m en ce lieu au6s docCtr;ne, ' expreff.. 
_A tl effort, ne te fau]t hazarder 
De perdré amy, quffd fouut tu le prflè. 

But the mealfing is, the putting of friendship to too severe a 
trial- "As he is in danger of breaking his sword who strikes it 
upon an anvil, sois love very soon cut iii pieces when foolishly 
a mail presses upon his fricnd." So \Vhitney (p. I9e ), to the 
lnotto, lzorltm[las cttilamla,--"'Vant of considcration to be 
"\U "o tha ,,.it fore, his ,,.r.ish'a ,a oth trie 
* * On anuill harde, to prooue if it be sure : 
Doth Hazardc lnuche, it shoulde in peeces flie, 
Aduentring that, which else lnighte well indure : 
For, there with strengthe he strikes vppon thc stithe, 
That men maye knowe, his youthfull armes haue pithe. 

\Vhich warncth those, that louinge frondes inioye, 
"With care, to keepe, and frendlie them to treate, 
And hOt to trye them still, with euerie toye, 
Nor presse them doune, when causes be too greate, 
Nor in requests importunate to bee : 
For ouermuche, dothe tier the courser free ?'" 

Touchstone, the clown, in As You Lik« It (act ii. sc. 4, 1. 43, 
vol. ii. p. 40o), nalnes the various tokens of his affections for 
Jane Snlile, and dcclares, " I remember, when I was in love I 
broke my sword upon a stone and bid him take that for coming 
a-night to Jane Smile-and I remember the kissing of her 
batlet and the cow's-dugs that her pretty chopt hands had 
It may, however, from the general inaccuracy of spelling in 
the early editions of Shakespeare, be allowed to suppose a 
typographical error, and that the phrase in question should 
read, not "anvil of my sword," but "handle;"I clip, or 
embrace the handle, grasp it firmly in token of affection. 

The innocence of broken love-vows is intimated 
at«d yMi«t (act il. sc. 2, 1. 9 o, vol. vil. p. 42), 
• ' Dost thou love me ? I know thou wilt say  Ay,' 

ill ROH«O 

38 CAISSIF[Cd TIOV.. [Cr.«r. vI. 

And I will take thy word : yet if thou swear'st, 
Thou mayst proe false : at loyers' perjurics, 
Thcy sa)', Jove laughs." 
And most closcly is the sentiment represented in the design by 
Otho van Vcen (p. I4o), of Venus dispcnsing Cupid from his 
oaths, and of Jupitcr in thc clouds smiling benignantly on the 
two. The mottoes are, ";MRIS IVSIVRANDVM P(ENAM NON 
11A I»ET,"L o7'c c.rcz«sal riara ev'iztrit;an d " Gi u ra mon to sparso 
ai VClltO." 
In Cal]imachts occurs Julict's vcry expression, "at loyers' 
pcrjurics Jove latghs," 
and #oto Tibullus we lcarn, that whatcver silly love may have 
cagerly sworn. Jupiter has forbidden to hold good, 

" Grath, mt.¢m, Ioui : ,el.illkaler irise valoe, 
htrass,'l ctt]i, tè qtti, tqui, t illefittzs 

The English lines in Otho van Veen are,-- 

" The louer freedome hath to take a louers oth, 
Whith if it proue wtrue hee is to be excused, 
For venus doth dispence in louers othes abused, 
And loue no fault comitts in swearing more than troth." 

The thoughts are, as expressed in Italian,-- 

"5"e b«t l'«mantc assti lrom«th', e giu'«, 
,V,,n si da l*'u,* à l« sue vo«i boE, te, 
At:i éuo'e, e GiaT,e se ue ride. 
l'Amoroso sjbegi«ro uon si cura." 

To such unsound morality, hovever, Shakespeare offers strong 
objections in the Friar's words (Rozco aml ulict, act iii. sc. 3, 
I. _6),-- 
" Thy noble shape is but a form of wax, 
Digressing from the valour of a man ; 

SECT. V.] .E_/]I-BZEA[S IIYTtt PRO I'E2?B.ç. 329 

Thy dear love sworn, but hollow perjury, 
Killing that love which thou hast vow'd to cherish." 

"Labour in vain,"--pouring water into a sieve, is shown br 
Perriere ha lais 77th Emblc|n,-- 

P«rricr«, x539. 

where however it is a blind Cupid that holds the sieve, and 
lovers' gifts are the waters with which the attempt is ruade to fill 
the vessel. 


Vi plus mettra dans le crible d'amours, 
Plus y perdra, car chofe n'y profitte : 
Le temps fi pert, biens, bagues & atour.% 
Sa douleur ctt en tout amer confitte. 
Folle ieunefl',é & fi-anc vouloir incite 
A tel defdui defpendre groffe foraine : 
Sut- ce ptTser doibuent biê Jeunes h0mes, 
Q.&me de ce fait meilleurs n'C peuut eflre: 
Et qud naur0t le vaillt de deux p6mes, 
Ne tCa temps leur erreur recognoittre. 

\Ve have cndeavoured to interpret the old Frcnch stanza into 
English rhyme, 

Who in love's tempting sieve shall place his store, 
Since nothing profits there, will lose the more ; 
Lost are his time, goods, rings and rich array, 
Till grief in bitterness COlnplete his day. 
Folly of youth and fi-ee desire incite 
Great sums to lavish on each brief delight. 
Surely young men on this ought well to ponder, 
That better calmot be, if thus they wander ; 
And when remains two apples' worth alone, 
'Twill hOt the time be their mistake to own." 

Shakespeare presents the very same thought and almost the 
identical expressions. To the Countess of Rousillon, Bertram's 
mother, Helena confesses love for ber son, All's 1'«ll t/zat Emts 
llWI (act i. sc. 3, l. 82, vol. iii. p. 27),-- 

" Then, I confess, 
Here on my knee, before high heaven and you, 
That before you, and next unto high heaven, 
I love your son. 
My friends were poor, but honest ; so's my love : 
Be hot offended ; for it hurts hot him 
That he is loved of me : I follolv him hOt 
By any token of presumptuous suit ; 
Nor would I have him till I do deserve him ; 
Yet never know how that desert should be. 

Sec'r. V.] EI}?LEIS IVITH .PRO IIER]3S. 33 t 

I know I love in vain, strive against hope ; 
Yet, in this captious and intenible sieve, 
1 still pour in the waters of my love, 
And lack hot to lose still : thus, Indian-like, 
Religious in my error, I adore 
The sun, that looks upon his worshipper, 
But knows of him no more." 

How probable do the turns of thought, "captious and 
intenible sieve," " the waters of my love," render the sup- 
position that Perriere's Emblem of Love and the Sieve had 
been seen by our dramatist. Cupid appears patient and 
passive, but the Loyer in very evident surprise sees "the rings 
and rich array" flow through "le crible d'amours." Cupid's 
eyes, in the device, are bound, and the method of binding them 
corresponds vith the lines, Romco aml 3:zdi«t (act i. sc. 4, 1. 4, 
vol. vil. p. 23),-- 

" .Ve'll have no Cupid hoodwink'd with a scarf, 
Bearing a Tartar's painted bov of lath, 
Scaring the ladies like a crow-keeper." 

Again, though not in reference to the same subject, there is in 
[«¢ch Ado Abo««t A'othizzg (act v. sc. l, 1. l, vol. ii. p. 69), the 
comparison of the sieve to labour in vain. Antonio is giving 
advice to Leonato when overwhelmed with sorrows,-- 

".4nl. If you go on thus you will kill yourself; 
And 'ris not wisdoln thus to second grief 
Against yourself. 
Lcot. I pray thee, cease thy counsel, 
Which falls into naine ears as profitless 
As water in a sieve : give not lne counsel ; 
Nor let no comforter delight mine ear 
But such a one whose wrongs do suit with mine." 

13y way of variation we consult Paradin's treatment of the 
saine thought (fol. 88,), in which he is followed by Whitney 
(p. I2), with the motto 

33 œe CL..4SSIFICA TION. [C,r. V I. 


Paradin, .56. 

'" "F rt E l'oëttcs faine, that DANAVS daughters deare, 
hfioyned are to fill the fatall tonne : 
Vhere, thovghe thcy toile, yct are they hOt the neare. 
But as they powre, the water forthe dothe runne : 
No pairie will serue, to fill it to the toppe, 
For, still at holes the samc doth runne, and droppe." 

" Every rose has its thorn," or " No pleasure vithout pain," 
receives exemplification from several sources. Perriere (Emb. 
3o) and Whitlicy (p. 65) present us with a motto implying 
2Vo bitt«r zc,ithout its swcct, but giving the gathering of a rose 
in illustration ; thus thc former writer,-- 

"l'osA «mara dztlcia." 
QvI veult la rose,' au vert buysson saisir 
Esmerueiller ne se doibt s'il se poinct. 
Gr/-td biê na'u6s s/ts quelque desplaisir, 
Plaisir ne vient sans douleur, si apoint. 
Conclusion somnmire, c'est le point, 
Qu' apres douleur, on ha plaisir : souuêt 
Beau reps se voit, tost apres le gràt vCt, 
Gràd biê suruiêt aprcs quelque malcur. 

Sv.c'r. V.] IZI[DZE_a[S II"ITll _I'.R O I:ERDS. 333 

Parquoy pêscr doibt tout h6me scauàt, 
Que volupté n'est iamais sans douleur." 

So Whitney (p. I65),-- 

-%,  ( 

llThittey, 586. 

q HARPE prickes preserue the Rose, on euerie parte, 
That who in lmste to pull the saine intendes, 
Is like to pricke lais fingers, till they snmrte ? 
But being gottc, it makes him straight mnendes 
It is so freshe, and pleasant to the smell, 
Thoughe he was prick'd, he thinkes he ventur'd well. 

And ho that faine woulde get the gallant rose, 
And will not reache, for feare his fingers blecde ; 
A nettle, is more fittcr for his nose ? 
Or hemblocke meete his appetite to fecde ? 
None meritcs sweete, who tasted not the sower, 
Who feares to climbe, deserues no fruicte, nor flowcr." 

In the Emblems of Otho V,'enius (p. I6O), Cupid is pluck- 
ing ,'f rose, to thc motto from Claudian, " ARMAT SPlNA 
ROSAS, IIELLA TEGU NT A l'ES,"Englished, "JVo/ol««««tr« zeitho¢tt 


'" In plucking of the rose is pricking of the thorne, 
I n the attayning sweet, is tasting of the sowre, 
With ioy of loue is mixt the sharp of manie a showre, 
But at the last obtayned, no labor is forlorne. » 

The pretty song from Loz,c's Laboztr's Lost (act iv. sc. 3, l. 97, 
vol. il. p. I44), alludes to the thorny rose,-- 

" On a day--alack the day ! 
Love, whose month is ever May, 
Spied a blossom passing fait 
t'laying in the wanton air : 
Through the velvet leaves the wind, 
All unseen, can passage find ; 
That the loyer, sick to death, 
Wish himsclf the heaven's breath. 
Air, quoth he, thy cheeks may blow ; 
Air, would 1 might triumph so ! 
But, aIack, my hand is sworn 
Ne'er to pluck thee from thy thorn. » 

The scene in the Temple-garden ; the contest in plucking 
roses between Richard Plantagenet and the Earls of Somerset, 
Suffolk, and Warwick ( ttc,z,3, l'l., act ii. sc. 4, lines 3o--75, 
vol. v. pp. 36, 37), c0ntinually alludes to the thorns that may be 
round. "Ve may sure the whole " brawl," as it is termed, into a 
brief space (1. 68), 

" 1-'lam Hath not thy rose a cankcr, Somerset ? 
Soin. Hath hot thy rose a thorn, Plantagenet ? 
Phot. Ay, sharp and piercing, to maintain his truth ; 
kVhiles thy consuming canker eats his falsehood." 

"True as the needle to the pole," is a saying which of 
course must bave originated since the invention of the 
mariner's compass. Sambucus, in lais lmbhwzs (edition 
1584, p. 84, or 599, P- 79), makes the property of the 
loadstone his emblem for the lnotto, Thc mbtd r«mtits 

SECT. V.] 111.I1.II-S IITTH PVO I'EI?tLç. 335 

I)ICITVR interna qi Magnes ferra mouere : 
Perpetub nautas dirigere inç ,iant. 
Semter enim Jtcllam frmè aflicit ille pola'em. 
lndicat bac horas, nos qariéque monet. 
lklens vtinam in celum nobis immota mancret, 
Nec fubitb dubiis.flucTuet illa malis. 
Pax coë'at tandem, Chri3qe , vnum claudat ouile, 
Lifque tui verbi iam dirimatur ope. 
Da,./itiens anima excelfas./ic appetat arces : 
Fontis vt orthd ceruus anhelus aquas. 

In the latter part of his elegiacs Sambucus introduces another 
subject, and gives a truly religious turn to the device,-- 

" Gather'd one fold, O Christ, let peace abound, 
Be vanquish'd by thy word, our jarring strife ; 
Then thirsting souls seek towers on heavenly ground, 
As pants the stag for gushing streams of life." 

The magnet's power alone is kept in view by Whitney (p. 43),-- 

" ]¥ vertue hidde, behoulde, the lron harde, 
a_ The loadestone drawes, to poynte vnto the starre : 
Whereby, wee knowe the Seaman keepes his carde, 
And rightlie shapes, his course to countries farre : 
And on the pole, dothe euer keepe his eie, 
And withe the saine, his compasse makes agrec. 

336 CLA.çS[F[CM T[OA r. [CuAv. Vl. 

,Vhich sheves to vs, our invard vertues shoulde, 
Still drawe ont hartes, althotghe the iron weare : 
The hauenlie starre, at ail rimes to behoulde, 
To shape our course, so right while wee bec heare : 
That Scylla, and Charybdis, wee maie misse, 
And vinne at lengthe, the porte of endlesse blisse." 

The pole of heaven itself, rather than the magnetic needle, 
is in Shakespeare's dramas the emblen of constancy. Thus in 
the )ulius Coesar (act iii. sc. , 1. 58, vol. vil. p. 363), lIetcllu.q, 
Brutus, and Cassius are entreating pardon for Publius Cimber, 
but Coesar replies, in words ahnost every one of which is an 
cnforccmcnt of thc saying, " Mens immota manct,"-- 

I could be vell moved, if 1 were as you ; 
If I could pray to move, prayers vould nove me : 
But I ara constant as the northern star, 
Of whose true-fix'd and resting quality 
Therc is no fellov in the firmament. 
The skies are painted with unnumber'd sparks ; 
They are all tire and cvery one doth shine ; 
But there's but one in all doth hold his place : 
So in the xvorld ; 'tis furnish'd vell with men, 
And men are flesh and blood, and apprehensive'; 
Yet in the number I do knov but one 
That unassailable holds on his rank, 
Unshak'd of motion : and that I ara he, 
Let me a little show it, even in this ; 
That I was constant Cimber should be banish'd, 
And constant do remain to keep him so." 

The .Iidsumm«r ]Vight's 1)rcam (act i. sc. I, 1. 8o, vol. il. p. 
2o5), introduces Hermia greeting her rival ttelena,-- 

" Her. God speed fair Helena ! whither away ? 
H«L Call you me fair ? that fair again unsay. 
Demetrius loves you fair : O happy fair ! 
Your eyes are Iode-stars." 

The scene changes, Helena is following Demetrius, but he turns 
to her and says (act il. sc. , 1. 94, vol. il. p. 27) ,- 

.lçC'l'. V. I ,IIBLE.MS Il'/TE PRO I'E_R]S. 337 

"' Hence, get thce gone, and follow me no more. 
tld. Vou draw me, you hard-hearted adamant 
But yet }'ou draw hot iron, for my heart 
ls true as steel : leave but your power to draw, 
And I shall have no power to fi,llow you.'" 

Fhe averlnent of lais fidclity is thus ruade by Troilus to 
Cressida (act iii. sc. :, I. 6 9, vol. ri. p. I9I),-- 

As tlUe as steel, as plantage to the illoon, 
As sun to day, as turtle to her mate, 
As iron to adamant, as earth to the centre. 
Vet after all comparisons of truth, 
As truth's authentic author to be cited, 
' As truc as Troilus ' shall crown up the verse 
Anti sanctify the numbers." 

So Romeo avers of one of lais followcrs (act ii. sc. 4, 1. 187, vol. 
vii. p. 58),-- 
'" I wal'rant thee, my man's as true as steel.'" 

" EX MAXIMO MINIMVM,"--COlt/' of l']l(" 'i'('tl/('St l']lg" lcast,--is 
a saying adopted by Whitney (p. 229), from the "PtCTA I'OEStS " 
(P..5.5) of Amdus,-- 

1555 . 

HaE Sutt R«lliqui, e Sacrarij, in quo 
Fertur .viua Dei fuifs.e intago. 
Hec efl illius,  domus ruina, 
lu qua olim Ratio tenebat arcem. 
.4t nunc horribilis figura Mortis. 
Ientofton caut, haud habe#s cerebrum 

X X 

338 CZMSSII;ICA TIO,V. [Cnt, r. v I. 

Both writers make the proverb the groundwork of reflcxions 
on a human skull. According to Anulus, " the relics of the 
charnel house were once the living images of God,"--" that ruin 
of a dome was formerly the citadel of reason." ,Vhitney 
thus moralizes,-- 

« 'fHERE liuely once, GODS image was expreste, 
--Wherin, sometime was sacred reason plac'de, 
The head, I meane, that is so ritchly bleste, 
With sighte, with smell, with hearinge, and with taste. 
Lo. nowe a skull, both rotten, bare, and drye, 
A relike meete in charnell house to lye." 

The dcvice and explanatory lines may well have given 
suggestion to the half-serious, half-cynical remarks by Hamlet 
in the celebrated grave-yard scene (Hauzlc¢, act v. sc. I, 1. 73, 
vol. viii. p. 53)- A skull is noticed which one of the callous 
grave-diggers had just thrown up upon the sod, and Hamlet 
says (1. 86),-- 

"That skull had a tongue in it, and could sing once: how the knave 
jowls it to the ground, as if it were Cain's jaw-bone, that did the first 
nlurder ! » 

And a little fl,'ther on,-- 

" Here's a fine revolution, ail we had the trick to see't. I)id these bones 
cost no more the breeding, but to play at loggats with 'ena ? naine ache to 
think on't."  

And when 'orick's skull is placed in his hand, how the 
l'rince moralizes ! (l. I77),-- 

'" Here htlng those lips, that 1 have kissed 1 know not how oft. Where 
be your gibes now ? your gambols ? your songs ? your flashes of merriment. 
that wcre wont to set the table on a roar ? Not one now, to nock vour OWl 

* The skeleton head on the shield in Death's escutcheon by tIolbein, may supply 
nother pictorial illustration, but it is hot suflïciently distinctive to be dwelt on at any 
length. The fac-simile reprint. by Pickering, Bohll, Quaritch, or Brothers, tender 
direct reference fo the plate vel T easy. 

SEÇT. V ] E«]ItTZt'l]l.S" Il ŒEETII t'RO I'ERBSS ". 339 

grinning ? quite chap-fallen ? Now get you to my lady's chamber, and tell 
her, let her paint an inch thick, to this favour she must corne ; make her 
laugh at that." 
And again (lines 9  and 200),-- 
"To vhat base uses we may return. Horatio : 
lmperial Caesar, dead, and turn'd to clay, 
Might stop a hole to keep the wind away." 
Of the skull Anulus says, " Here reason held her citadd ;" 
and the expression has its parallel in Edward's lainent 
(3 H«*U' 17., act il. sc. , 1. 68, vol. v. p. -"52), 
'" Sweet 1)uke of York, our prop to lcan upon ; " 
when he adds (1. ï4),-- 
" Nmv my soul's palace is become a prison ; " 
to which the more modern description corresponds,-- 
" The dome of thoegbt, the palace of the soul.'" 
A far nobler elnblem could be ruade, and I believe has been 
ruade, though I cannot remember where, from those lines in 
Richard lI. (act il. sc. , l. 267, vol. iv. p. I45), which allude to 
the death's head and the light of lire within. Northunberland, 
Ross and \Villoughby are discoulsing respecting thc sad state 
of the king's affairs, when Ross remarks,-- 
'" \Ve see the very wreck that we inust suffer : 
And unavoided is the danger now, 
For suffering so the causes of our wreck.'" 
And Northunberland replies in words of hope (1. 27o),-- 
" Not so ; even through the hollow eyes of death 
I spy life peering." 
It is a noble comparison, and most suggestive,--but of a flight 
higher than the usual conccptions of the Elnblcln writers Sup- 

340 ('LA SSIFICA TIO.M [C H AP. ¥ I. 

plied to them they could easily enough xvork it out into device 
and picture, but possess scarcely power enough to give it origin.* 
"A snake lies hidden in the grass," is no tmfrequent proverb ; 
and Paradin's "DEVISE HEROIQVES" (41) set forth both the 
fact and the application. 

Latet anguis in herba. 

Paradbt, x562. 

En cueillant les Fleurs,  les Fraizes ,tes champs, fe jàut d'autant garder ,tu 
,tatgereus Serpeut, qu'il nous peut enuetitner, & Jàb'e mourir nos corps. Et aufsi en 
colligeant les belles autor#ez,  graues fentences des fiures, faut cuiter d'autant les 
mauuaifes opinions, qu'elles nous peuuent peruerth', damner,  per,b'e nos ames. 

From the saine motto and device Whitney (p. 24) makes the 
application to flatterers,-- 
"  F flattringe speeche, with sugred wordes beware, 
 Suspect the harte, whose face doth fawne» and smile, 

* A note of inquiry, from Mr. W. Aldis ¥¢right, of Trinity College, Cambridge, 
asking me if Shakespeare's thought may not bave been derived from an emblematical 
picture, informs me that he bas an impression of having "somewhere seen an allego- 
ncal picture of a child looking through the eyeholes of a skull." 

Scï. \.l E_/llBLE21IS II'ITIt PROUERBS. 34t 

With trusting theise, the worlde is clog'de with care, 
And fewe there bee can scape theise vipers vile : 
\Vith pleasinge spccche they promise, and proteste, 
Whcn hatefull hartes lie hidd within their brest." 

According to the end part of ttau'3' 17. (act iii. sc. I, 1. ce 4, 
vol. v. p. 58), the ldng speaks favourably of Ilulnphrey, Duke of 
Gloucester, and glargaret the queen declares to the attendant 


" Henry my lord is cold in great afthirs, 
Too full of foolish pity, and Gloucester's show 
Beguiles him as the mournful crocodile 
With sorrov snares rclenting passengers, 
Or as the shake roll'd in a flowering bank, 
With shining checker'd slough, doth sting a child, 
That for the beauty thinks it excellent." 

In Lady Macbeth's unscrupulous advice to lier husband 
(.l/«cb«th, act i. sc. 5, 1. 6I, vol. vil. p. 438), the expressions 

OCCtl 1",  

• ' Your face, my thane, is as a book where naen 
lXlay read strange matters. To beguile the time, 
Look like the time ; bear welcolne in your eye, 
Your hand, your tongue : look like the innocent flower, 
But be the serpent under't." 
Romeo slays Tybalt, kinsman to Julia, and the nurse 
announces the deed to lier (Romco a,¢d Tuli«t, act iii. sc. 2, 1. 69, 
vol. vil. p. 75),-- 
• ' A)trse. Tybalt is gone, and Romeo banished ; 
Romeo that kill'd him, he is banished. 
uL 0 God ! did Romco's hand shed Tybalt's blood ? 
Nurse. It did, it did ; alas the day, it did ! 
uL 0 serpent heart, hid with a flmvering face ! 
Did ever dragon keep so fair a cave ? 
Beautiful tyrant ! fiend angelical ! 
Dove-feather'd raven ! wolvish-ravening lamb !" 

Though not illustrative of a Proverb, we will here conclude 
what has to be remarked respecting Serpents. An Emblem iii 


Paradin's " DEVISES HEOIQVE " (112) and in Whitney 
(p. 166), represents a serpent that has fastened on a lnan's 
fingel-, and that is being shaken off illtO a fil-e, while the 
nlall rClllaillS tlnhalllled ; the motto, "\Vho against us ?"1 

Qis contra nos ? 

The scelle described in the .dcls of t/,'c .dtostl«« , chap. xxviii, v. 
3--6, l'aradill thus narrates,-- 
" Salut Panl, en l' i/le de Malte Jùt mordu d'a lZio'e : ce neantmins (quoi que 
les Barbares du lieu le cuidaffent autromnt) ne qmlut is de la morsure, secouant de 
sa maiula Beste da»s le /èu ." car veretablement à qui Dieu .z,ea aider, il n'y a rieu 
que uifse mdre." 
\Vhitney, along with exactly the saine device, gives the full 

" Si Deus nobiscum, fuis cotD'a nos ?" 
" " IS seruantes GOD preserues, thoughe they in danger fMI : 
Euen as from vipers deadlie bite, he kept th' Appostle Paule." 
The action figured in this EmbIem is spoken of in the e[id- 
stmmcr ight's Drcam (act iii. sc. , 1, 54, vol. ii. p. 24). 

l'ar«dit:, .56u. 


SEcs'. V.] E3[I?[.E3I-ç II'ITIf PRO IER].ç. 343 

Puck has laid the "love-juice " Oll the wrong eyes, and in con- 
sequence Lysander avows lais love for Helen instead of for 
Herlnia ; and the dialogue then proceeds,-- 
"D«llz. I say I love thee more than he can do. 
lys. I f thou say so, withdraw, and prove it too. 
De»z. Quick, come! 
/-/ct. Lysander, whereto tends all this ? 
Zvs. Away, )'ou Ethiope ! 
D«m. No, no ; he'll... 
Seem to break loose ; take on as you would follow, 
But )'et corne not : )'ou are a tame man, go ! 
Lys. Hang off, thou cat, thou burr ! vile thing, let loose, 
Or I will shake thee from me like a serpent !" 
Cardinal PalMulph, the t'ope's legate, in ICizzg" )ro/zzz (act iii. 
sc. , l. 258, vol. iv. p. 42), urges Philip to be champion of 
the Chtucla, and says to him,-- 
"" France, thou mayst hold a serpent by the tongue, 
A chafed lion bv the mortal paw, 
A fasthag" tiger saler by the tooth, 
Than keep in peace that hand which thou dost hold.'" 
King Richard's address to the "gentle earth," when he landed 
iii Wales (Richard sri., act iii. sc. 2, 1. 1_% vol. iv. p. 164), calls us 
to the Elnblem of the snake entwined about the flower,-- 
" Feed not thy sovereign's foe, my gentle earth, 
Nor with thy sweets comfort his ravenous sense ; 
But let thy spiders, that suck up thy venom, 
And heavy-gaited toads lie in their way, 
Doing annoyance to the treacherous feet 
Which with usurping steps do trample thee : 
Yield stinging nettles to mine enemies ; 
And when they from thy bosom pluck a flower, 
Guard it, I pray thee, with a lurking adder 
Whose double tongue may with a mortal touch 
Throw death upon thy sovereign's enemies." 
" The Engineer hoist with his own petar" may justly be 
regarded as a proverbial saying. It finds its exact correspond- 

344 CLISSIFICM TIOA t. [CH.h.p. V [. 

ence in Beza's 8th Elnbleln (editiola I58O.), in xvhich for device is 
a cannon bursting, and with one of its fragments killing the 

l;cza, x58o. 

"' Ce171is u/ ùt ca'htm fzto'a! qztce machhca lorla, 
Fil hrc/thl[ori mors rocraht sit o . 
In sazclos qzticuzzqzte 19«i fuis i#zA" sowos, 
COlltlll$ lllt'Ft't'$ ]l¢F Illttllt'[ 7'11t7 

Thus rendered into French in 158 I,-- 

"' Vois tu pas le canon braqué contre les cieux, 
En se creuant creuer celui la qui le tire ? 
Le mesme t'aduiendra, cruel malicieux, 
Qui lasches sur les bons les balles de ton ire." 

The sentiment is the saine as that of the proverb in the 
motto which Lebeus-Batillius prefixes to lais I Sth Elnblem 
TIMVS,"--TO a,hatcz'cr /hizgs wc /wst, l, t/awz chic.]fy arc 
ovcr¢hrozçzz. The subject is Milo caught in the cleft of the tree 
which he had riven by his immense strength; he is held fast, 
and devoured by wolves. 
The application of Beza's Emblcm is made by Hamlet (act iii. 
sc. 4, 1. zos, vol. viii. p.  7), during the long interview with lais 
lnother, just after he had said,-- 

SEcx. V.] Ellt?LE_/I[S IUITH _Pld O l'l?t,'.ç. 345 

" No, in despite of sense and secrecy, 
Unpeg the basket on the house's top,  
Let the birds fly, and like the famous ape, 
To try conclusions, in the basket creep, 
And break your ovn ncck dovn." 

Then speaking of lais plot and of the necessity which 
him to knavery, he adds,-- 
'- Let it work ; 
For 'tis t/le sport to bave the enginer 
Hoist with his own pctar : and "t shall go hard 
But I will delve one yard below their mines, 
And blov them at the moon : O, 'tis most sweet 
When in one line tvo crafts dircctly meet." 


* In Johnson's and Steeven's Skakeseare(edition 785, vol. x. p. 434) the passage 
is thus explained, " Sir John Suckling, in one of his lette, may possibly allude to 
this saine story. ' It is the story of the jackanaes and the partridges ; thou starest 
after a beauty till it is lost to thee, and thcn let'st out another, and starest after that 
till it is gone too.'" 

hrora;olle, ed. 1551. 

Y Y 

346 CL,4SSIFICA TIOï  [CHAr. V l. 



MBLElXl writers make the _A5tztral, one 
of the divisions of their subject, and lln- 
derstand by it, in Vhitney's words, the 
expressing of the natures of creatures, 
for example, " the loue of the )-otage 
Storkes to the oulde, or of such like." 
We shall extend a little the application 

of the terln, taking in some facts of nature, as well as the natural 
properties and qualities of anitnals, but resenzing iii a great 
degree the Poetry, with which certain natural things are invested, 
for the next general heading, "Emblems for Poetic Ideas." 
There is no need to reproduce the Device of Prometheus 
bound, but simply to refer toit, and to note the allusions which 
Shakespeare makes to the mountain where the dire penalty was 
inflicted, "the frosty Caucasus." From the Titus ldro«icts ve 
have already (p. 268) spoken of Tamora's infatuated love,-- 

"faster bound to Aaron's charming eyes 
Than is Prometheus ty'd on Caucasus." 

John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, endeavours, in .Richard II. 
(act i. sc. 3, lines 275,294 , vol. iv. pp. 3o, 3I), to reconcile his 
son Henry Bolingbroke to the banishment which was decreed 
against him, and urges,-- 

SECT". ", I.] FACT.ç M2V19 PROtRTI.ç. 347 

Ail places that the eye of heaven visits 
Are to a wise man ports and happy havens. 
Teach thy necessity to reason thus ; 
There is no virtue like necessity. 
Think not the king did banish thee, 
But thou the king." 

13olingbroke, however, replies,-- 

" O, who can hold a tire iii his hand 
By thinking on the frosty Caucasus ?" 

The indestructibility of adamant by force or tire had fol ages 
been a received truth. 


[.e Bey de Batilly, x596. 

"Whom no dangers terrify," is a fitting motto for the 
Emblem that pertains to such as fear nor force llOr file. 
Speaking of the precious gem that figures forth their charac- 
tel, it is the remark of Lebeus-Batillius (Emb. --'9), "Duritia 
inenarrabilis est, simulque ignium victrix naturà & nunquam 
incalescens,"--for which we obtain a gond English expression 

3 48 CLA SSIFICA TIOA . [CHAt'. ¥ |. 

from Holland's Pliny (bk. xxxvii, c. 4): "Wonderfull and inen- 
arrable is the hardncss« of a diamaut; besides it hath a nature to 
conquer the firy of tire, nay, ),ou shall never make it hote." 
The Latin stanzas in illustration close with the lines,-- 

" Qualis, ,ton Adamas ullo conlunditur ictu, 
t "iqtte sua ri'tri durili«m suiberat." 

" As by no blow the Adamant is crushed, 
And by its own force overcomes the hardness of iron." 

\Vhcn the great Talbot was released from imprisonment 
(I Iq'cno' I,'I., act i. sc. 4, 1. 49, vol. v. p. 20), lais companions-in- 
arms on welcoming him bacl<, inquired, " How wert thon enter- 
tained ? " (I. 39)-- 

" \Vith scoffs and scorns and contumelious taunts. 

In iron walls they deem'd me not secure ; 
So great fear of my naine 'mongst thcm was spread 
That they supposed I could rend bars of steel 
And spurn in pieces posts of adamant." 

The strong natural affection of the bear for its young obtained 
record nearly three thousand years ago (2 Samud xvii. 8), 
" mighty inen, chafed in their minds" are spoken of "as a bear 
robbed of her whelps in the field."* Emblems delineated by 
Boissard and engraved by Theodore De Bry in 1596, at Emb. 
43 present the bear licking her whelp, in sign that the inborn 
force of nature is to be brought into form and comeliness by 
instruction and good learning. At a little later period, the 
so beautifully adorned by Crispin de Passe, adopts the sentiment, 
_Pc,olit inatltum paulatim t«z¢us amorcm,--that "by degrees 

* See a most touching account of a she-bear and ber whelps in the l'oyage of 
1)iscez,ery lo ghe A-orglt S«as in 772, under Captain C. J. Phipps, afterwm'ds Lord 

SECT. V|. ] FA CTS AArD P_ROP.E_RTI.E,ç. 349 

time puts the finish, or pcrfectncss to uncultivated love." The 
dcvice by which this is showll introduces a Cupid as well as the 
bear and her young one,-- 

De Passe, t596. 

and is accompanied by Latin and French stanzas,-- 

"" l"rsa noT,um fi'rtu," hmbcndo fl,tœeo'e firlum 
Pattlalim & fo,wtam, queg decet, otc dag'c," 
Sic dominam, 7,1 7,aldc sic cruda sit asl)cra Amahn" 
Bhtnditiis scnsi,z moll«l & oasefuio." 

t'eu à peu. 
"' Ceste lnasse de chair, que toute ourse faonne 
En la leschant se forme à son commencement. 
Par seruir : par flatter, par complaire en aylnant, 
L'amour rude à l'abord, à la fin se façonne." 

The sentiment of these lines fillds a parallel in the 
mer Night's ])franc (act i. sc. , 1. 232 , vol. il. p. 2o6 ),-- 

Things base and vile, holding no quantity, 
Love can transpose to form and dignity : 
Love looks not with the eyes, but with the mind ; 
And therefore is wing'd Cupid painted blind." 

Perchance, too, it receives illustration from the praise accorded 

35 o C£A SSIFICA TION. [c,, Av ri. 

to the young Dumain by Katharine, in Love's LabouFs Lost 
(act il. sc. I, I. 56, vol. ii. p. I I4), 

" A well accomplish'd youth, 
Of all that virtuc love for virtue lovcd : 
Most pmvcr to do most harm, lcast knowing iii; 
For he hath wit to makc an ill shape good, 
And shapc to win grace, though he had no wit." 

To thc dcnial of natural affection towards himself Glou- 
cester (3 IIotry IrI., act iii. sc. 2, I. 153, vol. v. p. 284) 
dcemcd it ahnost a thing impossible for him to " make lais 
heaven in a lady's lap,"-- 

" XVhy, love forswore me in my mother's womb : 
And, for I shou|d hot deal in ber soft laws, 
She did corrupt ri-ail nature with some bribe, 
"Fo shrink mine arm up likc a wither'd shrub ; 
To makc an envious mountain on my back, 
XVhere sits dcformity to mock in)" body ; 
To shape my legs of an unequal size ; 
To disproportion me in every part, 
Like to a chaos, or an unlick'd bear-whe|p 
That carries no impression like the data." 

Curious it is to note how slowly the continent which 
Columbus discovercd became fully recogniscd as an inte- 
gral portion of what had been denominated,  oiovl&,rl, 
--"the inhabitcd world." The rotundity of the earth and 
of the water was acknowledged, but Brucioli's " TRATTATO 
DELA SPlIERA," publishcd at Vcllice, D.M.XLIII., maintains 
that the earth is immovable and the centre of the uni- 
verse; and in dividing thc globe into climates, it does not 
take a single instance except from what is named the 
old world; in fact, the new world of America is never men- 
Somcwhat latcr, in 564, whcn Sanbucus published his 

Emblcms, and presented Symbols of lice ]arls of /ho Inhabitcd 
Earth, he gave only three ; thus (p. I 13),-- 

Partium r} &COVlaVnç l,mbola. 

Sambucus, x564. 

EST regio qu,euis climate certo 
Zlë)'e diflincTa,  commoditate. 
.O,.uMibet haud quiduis terra feretque. 
Afi'ica monflrofa efl femper habendo 
Antea quod nemo viderat vfquam. 
Fert Afia bnmanes frigidiore 
Nempe folo apros,  nimbigera vrfos : 
Sed r eliquas vincit viribus otaries 
Belua, quam Europee temperat aë'r. 
'aurus vt efl fortis, bufalus vnd. 
Ergo fit Europee taurus alumnus, 
AJ?ice at infigne fitque Chima'ra. 
Sint Afe immites vrfus, apo'que. 

The Bull is thus set forth as the alumnus, or nursling of 
Europe; of Africa the Chimzera is the ensign; and to Asia 
belong the untamed ]3ear and Boar; _America and the broad 


Pacific, from Peru to China, have neither token nor locality 
Shakespeare's geography, however, though at times very 
defective, extended further than its "symbols" by Sambucus. 
In the hunorous mapping out, by Dromio of Syracuse, of the 
fcatures of the kitchen-wench, who was determined tobe his 
wife (Co»zcdy of Errors, act iii. sc. 2, 1. 3I, vol. i. p. 429), the 
question is asked,-- 

",qJtl. S. Where Anerica, thc lndies? 
loto. S. Oh, sir, upon hcr nose, all o'er elnbcllished with rubies, car- 
buncles, sapphircs, declining their rich aspect to the hot breath of Spain." 

In Tw«lftl* Night (act iii. sc. 2, 1. 73, vol. iii. p. 271 ) Maria 
thus describcs the love-dcmentcd steward, 

" He does smile lais face into more lines than is in the nev map with the 
augmentation of the Indies ; you have hot seen such a thing as 'tis." 

2_lld in thc ,1[«v'j, ll'ivcs of II'iizdsor (act i. sc. 3, 1. 64, vol. i. 
p. I77), Sir John Falstaff avers respecting Mistress Page and 
Mistress Ford,-- 

" 1 vill be cheaters to them both, and they shall be exchequers to me ; 
they shall be my ]ïast and West Indies, and I will trade to them both." 

Yet in agreement with the map of Sambucus, with the three 
capes prominent upon it, of Gibraltar Rock, the Cape of Good 
Hope, and that of Malacca, Shakespeare on other occasions 
ignores America and all its western neighbours. At the consul- 
tation by Octavius, Antony, and Lepidus, about the dMsion of 
the Roman Empire (.7idiits Ccsa; act iv. sc. , 1. 2, vol. vil. 
p. 384), Antony, on the exit of Lepidus, remarks, 

" This is a slight umneritable man, 
Meet to be sent on errands : is it fit, 
The three-fold world divided, he should stand 
One of the three to share it ?'" 


riel quale fi dimoflrano»  infegnano i 
principii dellaaltrologa raccolto da 
tGiouanni di Sacrobuflo, OE altri 
Altronomi » & tradotto in 
lingua ltaliana. 


i!i tioni in plu luoghi dichiarato. 

In Vcn¢tiand. D. M. XLIII. 


And when the camp of Octavius is near Alexandria (Auo;«y 
amt Clc@a[ra, act iv. sc. 6, 1. 5, vol. ix. p. IO9), and orders are 
issued to take Antony alive, Coesar declares,-- 
"The time of universal peace is near : 
Prove this a prosperous day, the three-nook'd world 
Shall bear the olive freely." 
The Signs of the Zodiac, or, rather, the figures of the animals 
of which the zodiac is composed, were well known in Shake- 
speare's time from various sources; and though they are 
Emblems, and have given naine to at least one book of 
Emblelns that was published in I618,*--ahnost within the 
limits to vhich our inquiries are confined,--some may doubt 
vhether they strictly belong to Elnblem writers. Frequently, 
however, are they referred to in the dramas of which ve are 
speaking; and, therefore, it is not out of place to exhibit a 
representation of them. This ve do from the frontispiece or 
title page of an old Italian astronomical work by Antonio 
Brucioli (see Plate XIII.), who was banished from Florence 
for his opposition to the Medici, and whose brothers, in 1532, 
vere printers in Venice. It is not pretended that Shakespeare 
was acquainted vith this title page, but it supplies an appro- 
priate illustration of several astronomical phenomena to which 
he alludes. 
The zodiac enters into the description of the advancing day 
in Titus Audrouiczts (act ii. sc. I, 1. 5, vol. vi. p. 45o), 
"As when the golden sun salutes the morn, 
And, having gilt the ocean with his beams, 
Gallops the zodiac in his glistering coach, 
And overlooks the highest-peering hills ; 
So Tamora. 
Upon ber wit doth earthly honour wait, 
And virtue stoops and trembles at her frown." 

* "Zodiacvs Christianvs, seu signa  2, ,tiuhhc lr«cd«slitationis, oec., à A'atha,.le 
Sad«lo'o, 121110, p. 26, lXlonaci cD. DCXVIII." 
z Z 

354 CZASSIF[CA TIO . [CHAP. , l. 

It also occupies a place in a homely comparison in ,I[casurc 
fir 3[casurc (act i. sc. 2, 1. 58, vol. i. p. 3o3), to point out the 
duration of nineteen years, or the n-iooll'S cycle,-- 

• ' This new governor 
Awakes me ail the enrolled penalties 
\Vhich have, like unsconr'd armour, hung by thc wall 
So long, that nineteen zodiacs have gone round. 
And none of them been worn ; and for a naine 
Now puts the drowsy and neglected aet 
Vreshly on me : 'ris surely for a naine." 

The archery SCelle iii Titus Amtronicus (act iv. sc. 3, 1. 52, 
vol. ri. p. 5oi) lnentions several of the constellations and the 
figures by which thcy were knowll. The dialogue is betveen 
Titus and Marcus, 

'- Til. You are a good archer, Marcus ; 
[ Ire give* L/ent Llte arrovs. 
' Ad Jovem,' that's for you : here, ' Ad Apollinem : ' 
'Ad Marteln,' that's for myself: 
Here, boy, to Pallas : here, to Mercnry : 
To Saturn, Caius, hOt to Saturnine ; 
You were as good to shoot against the wind. 
To it, boy  Marcus, loose when I bid. 
Of my word, I have x ritten to effect ; 
There's hOt a god leff unsolicited. 
3[arc. Kinsmen, shoot ail your shafts into the court : 
We will aNict the emperor in his pride. 
Tir. Now, masters, draw. [Thçv shoot.] O, well said, Lucius  
Good boy, in Virgo's lap ; give it Pallas. 
A[«rc. My Lord, I aim a mlle beyond the moon ; 
Your letter is with Jupiter by this. 
Tir. Ha, ha  
Publius, Publius, what hast thou done ? 
See, see, thou hast shot off one of Taurus" horns. 
.lI«'«. This was the sport, my lord : when Publius shot, 
The Bull, being gall'd, gave Aries such a knock 
That doux n fell both the Ram's horns in the court." 

In allusion to the old mcdico-astrological idca that the 


different members of thc hunaan body were under the ill- 
fluence of their proper or peculiar constellations, the following 
dialogue occurs in the Twclfth 2Vight (act i. sc. 3, 1. 127, 
vol. iii. p. 23i) ,- 

" Sir .41z«L Shall we not set al»out some revels ? 
Sir Tabj,. "Vhat shall we do else ? were we hOt born under Taurus ? 
.Sïr M«d. Taurus ! That's sides and heart. 
A'I)- Tohu,. No sir ; it is legs and thighs. Let me see thee capcr : ha ! 
highcr : ha, ha ! excellent !" 

Falstaff, in the ./]/'vvy lUiz,cs of llT¢¢dsor (act il. sc. 2, 1. 5, 
vol. i. p. 9o), vaunts of the good selwices which he had 
rcndcred to his conpanions: " I have grated upon my good 
fricnds for thrce rcpricves for you and your coach-fellov Nym : 
or else you had looked througla the grate, like a geminy of 
In tclling of the folly of waiting on Achilles (Troihts 
azzd Crcssida, act ii. sc. 3, 1. 89, vol. ri. p. 175), U]ysses 

"' That were to enlard his fat-already pride, 
And add more coals to Cancer when he burns 
With entertaining grcat Hyperion.'" 

The figure of the ninth of the zodiacal constellations, 
Sagittarius, is named in Tvi&s «md Crcssida (act v. sc. 5. 
1. I I, vol. ri. p. 253),-- 
- Polixenes is slain, 
Amphimachus and Thaos deadly hurt ; 
Patroclus ta'en or slain ; and Palamcdes 
Sore hurt and bruised : the dreadful sagittary 
Appals our number.'" 
If it be demanded why we do not give a fuller account of 
thesc constcllations, we may almost remark as the fool does 

356 6"LISSIFIC4 TIOJ'V. [('H&P. V|. 

in Kiizg Lrar (act i. sc. 5, 1. 33, vol. viii. p. 295),--" The reason 
why the scven stars are no morc than seven, is a pretty 
Lear. Because they are not eight ? 
FooL Ves, indeed : thou wouldst make a good fool." 
How soon the American bird, which we naine a Turkcy, 
was known in England, is in somc degree a subject of 
conjecture. It bas bccn supposed that its introduction into 
this country is to be ascribed to Sebastian Cabot, who died 
in 557, and that thc year 528 is thc exact rime; but if so, 
it is strange that tbe bil-d in question should hot bave been 
called by SOlnC othcr naine than tlmt which indicates a 
European or an Asiatic origin. Coq d'Inde, or Poule d'Inde, 
Gallo d'India, or Gallilm d'India, thc French and Italian 
names, point out the direct American origin, as far as France 
and Italy are concerned ; for we must rcmember that the 
terre India, at the early period of Spanish discovery, was 
applied to the western world. But most probably the Turkey 
fleet brought the bird into England, by way of Cadiz and 
Lisbon, and hence the naine; and hcnce also the reasonable- 
ness of supposing that its permanent introductiola into tbis 
country was hot so early as the rime of Cahot. A general 
knowledge of thc bird was at any rate spread abroad in 
Europe soon aftcr the middle of the sixtcenth century, for 
we find it figured in tbe Enablem-books; one of wlaicla, 
Freitag's A[3'tholo£h Fthica, in 1579, P. 237, flwlaishcs a most 
lively and exact representation to illustrate " the violated right 
of hospitality." * 

* See also the Emblems of Camerarius (pt. iii. edition I596 , Emb. 47), where 
the turkey is fignred to illustrate " ,ABIE SVCCESA "I'VMESCIT,"--tr¢tiIff atlgel,'d il 
svells rvith rage. 
"' Ql¢allt ci, forme malum f'/7,entt accensa fitrore 
Ira sit, iratis Indica monst'at azis,"-- 
" How odious an evil to the violent anger may 
Inflamed to fury,--the Indian bird shows to the angrv." 

.qV.CT. VI.] 'MCTA" AI'VD PA'OPI¢TIt.ç. 357 

Ius hofpitalitatis violatum. 

Freitag, i579. 

Si habitauerit aduena in terra ¢vcflra,  moratus Juerit iatcr vos, non exrobretis ei. 
Lt,v. 9" 33- 
Le. And f a stranger sojourn vith thee in your land, ye shall hot vex him." 

Shakespeare, no doubt, xvas familiarly acquainted with the 
figure and habits of the Turkey, and yet may have seized for 
description some of the expressive delineations and engravings 
which occur in the Emblem writers. Freitag's turkey he 
characterises with much exactness, though the sentiment ad- 
vanced is more consistent with the lines from Camerarius. In 
the Tzc,clffft _/Vight (act ii. sc. 5, lines I5, 27, vol. iii. p. 257), 
Malvolio, as his arch-tormenter Maria narrates the circumstance, 
" has been yonder i' the sun practising behaviour to his own 
shadow this half hour;" he enters on the scene, and Sir Toby 
says to Fabian, " Ilere's an overweening rogue! " to which the 

3 5 8 doEA.çNIF1CA TIOA: [Cth. v l. 

reply is ruade, "O peace! Contemplation makes a rare 
turkey-cock of him; hoxv he jets under his advancing 
llumes !" 
The saine action is well lait off in showing the bearing of the 
" pragging knave, Pistol," as Fluellen terres him (H«n U, 
act v. sc. , 1. 3, vol. iv. p. 59),-- 

" Go«t,. V'hy hcre ho cornes, swelling like a turkey-cock. 
Fht. "Tis no matter for his swellings, nor his turkey-cocks. (;od pless 
you, Aunchient Pistol ! you scurvy, lousy knave, God pless  ou 

Rcfcrring again to thc " l'romcthcus ty'd on Caucasus," the 
Vulture may bc acccpted as the l';mblcm of cruel retribution. 
So whcn Falstaff cxprcsscs his satisfaction at the dcath of 
lIenry IV. (end part, act v. sc. 3, 1. 34, vol. ix-. p. 474), "Blessed 
«tre they that have been my friends ; and woe to lny lord chicf- 
justice ;" Pistol adds,-- 

Let vultures vile seize on his lungs also!" 

And Lear, telling of the ingratitude of one of lais daughters 
(King Lcar, act il. sc. 4, 1. e 9, vol. viii. p. 32o), says,-- 
"' Bclovcd Regan, 
Thy sister's naught : O Regan, she hath tied 
Sharp-tooth'd unkindness, like a vulture, here." 

A renlarkable instance of similarity 

tloral,,ll«,, t551. 

between \Vhitney and 
Shakespeare occurs in the de- 
scriptions which they both give 
of the Comluonwealth of Bees. 
\Vhitney, it may be, borrowed 
his device {p. 2o) from the "HIE- 
ROGLYI'HICA" of Horus _Apollo 
(edition 55, P. 87), where the 
question is asked, 

S:ca'. vl.l I;4CTS M.VI) PA'OtgRTIL'.S ". 359 

"How to represent a people obedient to their king ? They dcpict a EE, 
for of all animais bees alone have a king, whom the crowd of bees follow, 
and to whom as to a king they yield obcdience. It is intilnated also, as well 
from the remarkable usefulness of honey as from the force which the animal 
has in its sting, that a king is both useful and powerful for carrying on their 

It is worthy of remark that several, if hot ail, of the Greek 
and l{nlan authors naine the head of a hive not a qucen but a 
king. Plato, iii his Po[iNcs (Francfort edition, 6o2, p. 557A), 

"There is not born, as we say, in cities a king such as is naturally pro- 
duced in hives, decidedly differing both in body and soul." 

Xelaophon's Çyropwdia (bk. v. c. , § 23) declares of his 

"Thou seelnest to me to have been formed a king by nature, no less 
than he who in the hive is formed gencral of the bees." 

In his Gcorics Virgil always considers the chief bec to be a 
king, as iv. 75,-- 

" Et circa regem atque ipsa ad proetoria densze 
Miscentur, magnisque vocant clamoribus hostem."  

Description of the kings 

* See also other passages from the Georics,- 
"Ut, cure prima novi ducent examina reges 
Vere suo." iv. 21. 
"' Sin autem ad pugnam exierint, nain smpe duobus 
Regibus incessit magno discordia motu." iv. 67. 
(iv. 87--99,-- 
" tu reglbus alas 
Eripe." iv. io6. 
"ipste regem parvosque Quirltes 
Sufficiunt, aulasque et cerea rcgna refingunt." 

& 60 CLA SSIFICA l'lOY. 
" And thick around the king, and before the royal tent 
They crowd, and with lnighty din call forth the foe." 
Alciat's 48th Emblem (edition 58, p. 528, or 
155I, p. 161) sers forth the clclnency of a prince; 
description relates to wasps, hot bees, 

[Ç' I lAI'. 'l. 

but thc 

Principis clementia. 

Alciat, x ff t. 

YefparK qubd nulla ,vnquam Rex fpicula figet : 
d.zo,t, aliis duplo corpore major erit. 
Arguer imperium clemens, mo,terataq regna, 
San[ta imticibus credita iura bonis. 

"That the king of the wasps will never his sting illfix ; 
And that by double the size of body he is larger than othcrs, 
This argues a merciful empire and well-ordered fuie, 
And sacred laws to good judges entrusted." 

Whitney's stanzas (p. 2oo), dedicated 
Esquier," of Combermere, Cheshire, are 
YVe xvill take the chier part of theln ; 
evely one his native land is dear." 

to " Richard Cotton, 
original writing, not a 
the motto being, "To 

-'qECTo V[.] .F.dl CTS .4zVD II¢OIRTIS. 36 

Patria cuique cAara. 

THE bees at lengthe retourne into their hiue, 
- XVhen they haue suck'd the sweete of FLORAS bloomes ; 
And with one minde their orke they doe contriue, 
And laden corne with honie to their roonles : 
A worke of arte ; and yet no arte of man, 
Can worke, this worke ; these little creatures can. 

The maister bee, vithin the midst dothe liue, 
In fairest roome, and most of stature is ; 
And euerie one to him dothe reuerence giue, 
And in the hiue with him doe liue in blisse : 
Hee hath no stinge, yet none can doe him harme, 
For with their strengthe, the rest about him swarme. 

Lo, natures force within these creatures small, 
Some, ail the daye the honie home doe beare. 
And SOlne, farre off on flowers freshe doe fall, 
Yet all at nighte vnto their home repaire : 
And etterie one, her proper hiue doth knowe 
Althoughe thcl'e stande a thousande on a rowc. 


A Comrnon-wealthe, by this, is right expreste : 
Bothe him, that rules, and those, that doe obaye : 
Or suche, as are the heads aboue the rest, 
Whome here, the Lorde in highe estate dothe staye : 
By whose snpporte, the meaner sorte doe liue, 
And vnto them ail reuerence dulie giue. 

\Vhich when I waicd : I call'd vnto my minde 
Your Cv.] BERMA] RE that faine so farre commendes : 
A stately seate, whose like is harde to finde, 
\Vhere mightie love the borne of plentie lendes : 
\Vith fishe, and foule, and cattaile sondrie flockes, 
\Vhere chrismll springes doe gushe out of the rockes 

There, fertile ficldes ; there, lneadoves large extende : 
Thcre, store of grayne : with water, and with wood. 
And, in this place, your goulden time you spende, 
Vnto your praise, and to your countries good : 
This is the hiue ; yotlr tennaunts, are the becs : 
And in the saine, haue places by degrees." 

By the side of these stanzas let us place for comparison what 
Shakespeare wrote on the saine subject,--the Commonwealth of 
]3ees,--and I ana persuaded we shall perceive much similarity of 
thought, if hot of expression. In ]-f«zzGv . (act i. sc. 2, I. 7 8, 
vol. iv. p. 5o2), the Duke of Exeter and the .Archbishop of Can- 
cnter upola an argulnent respecting a well-governed 


"£'.r«. While that the arrned hand doth fight abroad, 
The advised head dcfends itself at home ; 
For governrnent, though high and low and lower, 
Put into parts, doth keep in one consent, 
Congreeing in a fifll and natural close, 
Like music. 
Cadet. Therefore doth heaven divide 
The state of man in divers functions, 
Setting endeavour in continua] rnotion : 
To which is fixed, as an aire or butt, 
Obedience : for so work the honey-bees, 
Creatures that by a rule in. nature teach 
The act of order to a peopled kingdorn. 


They have a king * and of-ficers of sorts ; 
\Vhere some, like magistrates, correct at home, 
Others, like merchants, venture trade abroad, 
Others, like soldiers, armed in their stings, 
Make boot upon the summels velvet buds, 
\Vhich pillage they with merl T march bring home 
To the tent-royal of their emperor ; 
\Vho, busied in his majesty, surveys 
The singing masons building roofs of gold, 
The civil citizens kneading up the honey, 
The poor mechanic porters crowding in 
Their heavy burdens at lais narrow gare, 
The sad-eyed justice, with his surly hum. 
Delivering o'er to executors pale 
The lazy yawning drone." 

Again, in the T, vil;ts aud Crcsshta (act i. sc. 3, l. 75, vol. ri. 
P- 44), Ulysses draws rioto the unsuitableness of a general, as 
he terres the ruling bee, over a hive, an explanation of the mis- 
chiefs from an incompetent commander,-- 

" Troy, yet upon his basis, had been down, 
And the great Hector's sword had lack'd a toaster, 
But for these instances. 
The specialty of rule hath been neglected : 
And, look, how man)" Grecian tents do stand 
Hollow upon this plain, so many hollow factions. 
Vs'hen that the general is hot like the hive 
To whom the foragers shall all repair. 
\Vhat honey is expected ? " 

The Dramatist's knowledge of bee-life appears also in the 
metaphor used by XVarwick (2 .,Hen,y /7/., act iii. sc. 2, 1. I2 5, 
vol. v. p. I68),-- 

* At a time even later than Shakespeare's the idea of a king-bee prevailed ; 
Waller, the poet of the Commonwealth, adopted it, as in the lines to Zelinda,-- 
" Should you no honey vow to taste 
But what the toaster-becs bave placed 
In compass of their cells, how small 
. portion to your share will fall." 
In Le Moine's 1)oe,ises tZeroiqz,es ci l]lorales (4to, Paris, I649 , p. 8} we read, " Du 
courage & du conseil au Roy des abeilles,"and the creature is spoken of as a male. 

364 CZ,4SSIFICM T/ON. [Cmu,. Vl. 

" The commons, like an angry hive of bees, 
That want their leader, scatter up and down, 
And care hOt who they sting in his revenge." 

In an earlicr play, 2 Igcur3 II: (act iv. sc. 5, 1. 75, vol. iv. 
P. 454), the comparison is taken from the bee-hive,-- 

When, like the bee, culling from evcry flower 
The virtuous sveets, 
Our thighs pack'd with wax, our mouths with honey, 
"Ve bring it to the hive ; and like the bees, 
Are murdcred for our pains." 

In thc foregoing extracts on the bcc-king, thc plca is inad- 
missible that Shakcspearc and Vhitney wcnt to the same 
fountain; for ncither of them follows Alciatus. The two 
accounts of the economy and policy of these " creatures small " 
are ahnost equally excellent, and present several points of 
rcsemblance, hot to name them imitations by the more recent 
writcr. Vhitney speaks of the " Master bee," Shakespeare of 
the king, or "emperor,"--both regarding the head of the hive 
hot as a queen, but a "born king," and holding forth the polity 
of thc busy community as an admirable example of a well- 
ordered kingdom or government. 

The conclusion of Whitney's reflections on those "that 
suck the sweete of FLORA'S bloomes," conducts to another 
parallelism ; and to show it we have only to follow out his idea 
of rcturning home after "absence manie a yeare," "when happe 
some goulden honie bringes." Here is the whole passage 
(p. 20I),-- 
" And as the bees, that farre and neare doe straye, 
And yet corne home, when honie they haue founde : 
So, thoughe some men doe linger longe awaye, 
Yet loue they best their natiue countries grounde. 
And from the saine, the more they absent bee, 
With more desire, they wishe the saine to see. 


Euen so my selfe ; throughe absence manie a yeare, 
A straunger meere, where 1 did spend my prime. 
Nowe, parentes loue dothe hale lnee by the eare, 
And saycth, corne home, deferre no longer time : 
Wherefore, when happe, SOlne goulden honie bringes ? 
I will retorne, and rest luy wearie winges. 

Oui& i. Pont. 4. 
Quid radius Roma ? 5"cytkico quid fi'içore tcius ? 
Ituc lamen o: illa barb«rus vrbe ftt 

The parallel is froln/ll's Il'ci1 that tFnds IV«II (act i. sc. 2, I. 58, 
vol. iii. p. I I9) , whl211 the Kin of France speaks the praise of 
Bertraln'S father,-- 
" ' Let me not lire,' quoth he, 
' After my flalne lacks oil, to be the snuff 
Of younger spirits, whose apprehensive senses 
All but new things disdain ; whose judgments are 
More fathers of their garmcnts ; whose constancies 
Expire bcfore their fashions.' This he wish'd : 
I after him do after him wish too, 
Since I nor wax nor honey can bring home, 
I quickly were dissolved fi'om my hive, 
To give some labourers room." 

The noble art and sport of Falconry were long the 
recreation, and, at rimes, the eager pursuit of lnen of high 
birth or position. Various notices, collected by Dr. Nathan 
Drake, in Shakcs)bcarc and his Timcs (vol. i. pp. 255--272), show 
that Falconry xvas-- 

" During the reigns of Elizabeth and Jalnes, thc most prevalent and 
fashionable of all amusements ; .... it descended froln the nobility to the 
gentry and vealthy yeolnanry, and no man could then have the smallest 
pretension to the character of a gentleman who kept not a cast of hawks." 

From joining in this amusement, or from frequently witness- 
ing it, Shakespeare gained lais knowledge of the sport and of the 
technical terres employed in it. We do hOt even suppose that 


our pictorial illustration supplied him with suggestions, and ",ve 
offer it merely to show that Emblem writers, as well as others, 
found in falconry the source of many a poetical expression.* 
The Italian we quote from, Giovio's " SENTENTIOSE IlXIPRESE" 
(Lyons, 562, p. 4), makes it a mark " of the true nobility ;" 
but by adding, " So more important things give place," implies 
that it was xvrong to let mere amusement occupy the rime for 
serious affairs. 


,tovio, x56a. 

Lo fikarbier fol tra piu Jàlcon portato, 
Franchi gli fa paffar lker ogni loco, 
Et par che dica ail' huom trlto & da ikoco, 
Nobil' è quel, ch' è di vairtù dotato. 

* To naention only Joachim Camerarius, edition I596 , Ex 'olatilibus (Emb. 
29--34) ; here are no less than rive separate devices connected with Haxvking or 


Thus we interpret the motto and the stanza,-- 

Many falcons the falconer carries so proud 
Through every place he lnakes them pass free ; 
And says to men sorrowing and of low degree, 
Noble is he, who with virtue's endowed." 

Falconers form part of the retinue of the drama (2 
Henry l'l., act ii. sc. x, 1. I, vol. v. p. 32), and the dialogue at 
St. Albans even illustrates the expression, "Nobil' è quel, ch' è 
di virtù dotato,"-- 

" Q. Al'arg'. Believe me, lords, for flying at the brook. 
I sav hOt better sport these seven years' day : 
Yet, by your leave, the wind was very high ; 
And, ten to one, old Joan had hOt gone out. 
A'. t[ety. But what a point, my lord, your falcon ruade, 
And what a pitch she flew above the rest ! 
To see how God in all his creatures works ! 
Yea, man and birds are fain of climbing high. 
'ttf. No marvel, an it like your majesty, 
My lord protector's hawks do tmver so vell ; 
They know their toaster likes to be aloft, 
And bears his thoughts above his falcon's pitch. 
Glo. My lord, 'tis but a base ignoble mind 
That mounts no higher than a bird can soar." 

On many other occasions Shakespeare shows lais familiarity 
with the whole art and mysteries of hawking. Thus Christo- 
phero Sly is asked (Taming of the Shrew, Introduction, sc. 2, 
1. 4I, vol. iii. p. IO), 

" Dost thou love hawking ? Thou hast hmvks will soar 
Above the morning lark." 

And Petruchio, after the supper scene, when he had thrown 
about the meat and beaten the servants, quietly congratulates 
himself on having "politicly began lais reign" (act iv. sc. , 
1. I74, vol. iii. p. 67),-- 



[CHAP. ¥I. 

" My falcon now is sharp and passing empty, 
And till she stoop she must not be full-gorged ; 
For then she never looks upon her lute. 
Another way I have to man my haggard, 
To make her corne and know her keeper's call, 
That is, to watch her, as we watch these kites 
That bate and beat and will not be obedient." 

Touchstone, too, in Ms lou Like It (act iii. sc. 3, 1. 67, vol. ii. 
p. 427), hooking several comparisons together, introduces hawk- 
ing anaong thcm " " .As thc ox hath his bow, sir, the horse lais 
curb, and the falcon her bells, so lllall hath his desires ; and as 
pigeons bill, so wedlock will be nibbling." 
Also in Jl[a«b«th (act ii. sc. 4, 1. IO, vol. vii. p. 459), after 
" hours dreadful and things strange," so " that darkncss does the 
face of earth cntomb, when living light should kiss it," the Old 
Man declares, 
"'Tis unnatural, 
Even like the deed that's donc. On Tuesday last 
A falcon towering in her pride of place 
\Vas by a mousing owl hawk'd at and kill'd." 

To renew our youth, like the eagle's, is an old scriptural 
expression (_Psalms, ciii. 5); and various are the legends and 
interpretations belonging to the phrase.* We must not wander 
anaong these,--but may mention one which is given by Joachim 
Camerarius, Ea: Voh, tilibus (Emb. 34), for which he quotes 
Gesner as authority, how in the solar rays, hawks or falcons, 
throving off their old feathers, are accustolned to set right their 
defects, and so to renew their youth. 

* Take an example from the Paraphrase in an old Psalter : "The arne," Le. the 
eagle, "when he is greved with grete elde, his neb waxis so gretely, that he may no 
open his mouth and take mete : bot then he smytes his neb to the stane, and bas avay 
the slogh, and then he gaes fil mete, and he commes yong a gayne. Swa Crist duse 
a way fra us oure elde of syn and mortalite, that sertes us to ete oure brede in hevene, 
aud newes us in hym." 

SECT. , I.] b'ACT_" A.ArD PROPERTIES. 369 


Camerarius,  596. 

Exuiis itii abjeHis, decus indue recTi, 
Ad folem ut ph«mas accipiter reno.vat. 

" Sin's spoils cast off, man righteousncss assumes, 
As in the sun the hawk renevs its plumes." 

The thought of the Stlll'S illflUellce in rei?ovatillg what is 
decayed is unintentionally advanced by the jealousy of A.driana 
in the Comcdy of Errors (act ii. sc. 1, 1. 97, vol. i. p. 4I I), when 
to her sister Luciana she blames her husband Antipholus of 


" XVhat ruins are in me that can be foulld 
By hiln not ruin'd ? then is he the ground 
Ofmy defcatures. My decayed fair 
A sunny look of his xvould soon repair." 

111 the Cymbcliuc (act i. sc. I, l. I3O , vol. ix. p. 167) , Post- 
hunms Leonatus, the husband of hnogen," is banished with 
great fierceness by her father, Cylnbeline, King of Britain. A 

3 7 o CZM SSIFICA TION. [ChAr. v I. 

passage between daughter and father contains the same notion 
as that in the Emblem of Camerarius,-- 

" Imo. There cannot be a pinch in death 
More sharp than this is. 
Cym. 0 disloyal thing, 
That shouldst rcpair my youth, thou hcap'st 
A ycar's age on me !" 

Nil penna, ld vli, s. 

Pradiu, x56z. 

Thc action of the 
ostrich in spreading out 
its feathcrs and beating 
the wind while it runs, 
firnished a device for 
l'aradin (fol. 23), which, 
with the motto, Thc 
fcathcr wthhg but thc 
ttsc, he employs against 
\Vhitney (p. 5) adopts 
motto, device, and mean- 

,, THE Hippocrites, that make so great a showe, 
-'- Of Sanctitie, and of Religion sounde, 
Are shaddowes meere, and with out substance goe, 
And beinge tri'de, are but dissemblers founde. 
Theise are compar'de, vnto the Ostriche faire, 
Whoe spreades her vinges, yet sealdome tries the aire." 

A different application is ruade in I I-loto 7 I.: (act iv. sc. I, 
1. 97, vol. iv. p. 3x7), yet the figure of the bird with outstretching 
wings would readily supply the comparison employed by Vernon 
while speaking to Hotspur of "the nimbled-footed madcap 
Prince of Wales, and his comrades," 

Ail furnish'd, ail in arms ; 


All plumed like estridges that with the wind 
Baited like eagles having lately bathed." 
It must, however, be conceded, according to Douce's clear 
annotation (vol. i. p. 435), that "it is by no means certain that 
this bird (the ostrich) is meant in the present instance." ./k line 
probably is lost from the passage, and if supplicd would only the 
more clearly show that the falcon was intendcd,--" cstrich," in the 
old books of falconry, denoting that bird, or, rather, the goshawk. 
In this sènse the word is used in A/tlo/o, ami Ceoatra (act iii. 
sc. 13, I. 195, vol. ix. p. IOO),-- 
""Fo be furious 
Is to be fi-ighted out of fear ; and in that mood 
The dove will peck the eslrigc." 
Though a fabulous animal, the Unicorn has properties and 
qualities attributed to it which endear it to writers on Heraldry 
and on lïmblems. These are wcll, it may with truth be said, 
finely set forth in Reusner's tïmMcms (cdition 158 I, p. 60), where 
the crcature is madc the ensigll for the motto, F«i/h umtcfi/«d 
Vic2rix ca(ta rides. 

Reuster, *58*. 

3 7 " C£ASSIFICA TIOA r. [ç' HAP. Vl. 

C.4fla pudicitioe defenflrix bellua : cornu 
I/'»um quw media J?onte, nigrum,, gerit : 
çhefauros ornans regum, precium% relkendens ." 
(Nain cornu lkrfens hoc leuat omne malum) 
Fraude capi mdla, nulla valet arte virorum 
Callida : nec gladios, nec Jèra tela lkauet : 
8olius in grcmio requlefcens fpontè puell« : 
Fceminea capitur, vicTa fopore, manu. 
Le. " This creature of maiden modesty protectress pure. 
In the mid-forehead bears one dark black horn, 
Kings' treasures to ornament, and equalling in worth : 
(For where the horn abides, no ex-il can be born). 
Captured nor by guile, nor by crafty art of man, 
Trembling nor at swords nor iron arms, firm doth it stand ; 
Of choice reposing in the lap of a maiden alone, « 
Should sleep overpower, it is caught by woman's hand." 
A volume of tales and wonders might be collected respect- 
ing the unicorn ; for a sketch of these the article on the subject 
in the Pcnny Cyclopcedia (vol. xxvi. p. z) may be consulted. 
There are the particulars given which Reusner mentions, and 
the medical virtues of the horn extolled, which, at one time, it 
is said, ruade it so estimated that it was worth ten times its 
weight in gold. It is remarkable that Shakespeare, disposed as 
he was, occasionally at least, to magnify nature's marvels, does 
not dwell on the properties of the unicorn, but rather discredits 
its existence; for when the strange shapes which Prospero 
conjures up to serve the banquet for Alonso make their 
appearance (Tc»qcst, act iii. sc. 3, l. zI, vol. i. p. 5o), Sebastian 

* The Virgin, in ]3rucioli's Sig»s of [he Zodiac, as given in our Plate XIII., has a 
unicorn kneeling by ber side, to be fondled. 
5" The wonderful curative and other powers of the horn are set forth in his 
tmblems by Joachim Camerarius, tx Animalibus Quadrttedibus (Emb. I", 13 and I4L 
He informs us that "Bartholomew Alvianus, a Venetian general, caused to be in- 
scribed on his bannel-, I drive away 2oisous, intimating tbat himself, like a unicorn 
putting to flight noxious and poisonous animals, would by his own warlike valour 
extirpate lais enemies of the contrarv factions." 


« Now I will believe 
That there are unicorns ; that in Arabia 
There is one tree, the phoenix' throne ; one phoenix 
At this hour reigning there." 

Timon of Athens (act iv. sc. 3, 1. 33, vol. vii. p. 28)just 
hints at the animal's disposition : "Wert thou the unicorn, pride 
and wrath would confound thee, and make thine own self the 
conquest of thy fury." 
Decius Brutus, in ulius Ccesar (act il. sc. I, l. 2o3, vol. vil. 
P. 347), vaunts of his power to influence Coesar, and among 
other things names the unicorn as a wonder to bring him to 
the Capitol. The conspirators doubt whether Cesar will 
come forth ;-- 
" Never fear that : if he be so resolved, 
I tan o'ersway him ; for he loves to hear 
That unicorns may be betray'd with trees, 
And bears with glasses, elephants with holes, 
Lions with toils, and men with flatterers." 

The humorous ballad in the Po'cy t?eliques (vol. iv. p. I98 ), 
written it is supposed close upon Shakespeare's times, de- 


" Old stories tell, how Hercules 
A dragon slew at Lerna, 
,Vith seven heads and fourteen eyes 
To see and well discern-a : 
But he had a club, this dragon to drub, 
Or he had ne'er done it. I warrant ye." 

It is curious that the device in Corrozet's HccatomEraphie of 
the Dragon of Lerna should figure forth, in the multiplica- 
tion of processes or forms, what Hamlet terres "the law's 
That is the very subject against which even Hercules,-- 
" qu' aqerre honneur par ses nobles conquestes,"is called into 

374 CI, ASSIF]CAT]Or. [CH^P. VI. 
requisition to rid mon of the nuisance. \Ve need hot quote in 
full so familiar a arrative, and xvhich Corrozet embellishes with 

Corrozel, 154o. 

twenty-four lines of French verses,--but content ourselves xvith 
a free rendering of his quatrain,-- 
"AI1 clever though a man may be in various tricks of law, 
Though he may think unto the end, his suit contains no flaw, 
Yet up there spring forms three or four with which he hardly copes, 
.And lawyers' talk and lawyers' fees dash dovn his fondest hopes." 

It is hOt, ho»vever, with such speciality that Shakespeare 
uses this tale respecting Hercules and the Hydra. On the 
occasion serving, the questions may be asked, as in ffalJl[cl (act 
v. sc. I, 1. 93, vol. viii. p. I54), " Why may not that be the skull 
of a lawyer ? Where be his quiddities now, his quillcts, his 
cases, his tenures, and his tricks ? why does he surfer this rude 
knave now to knock him about the sconce with a dirty shovel, 
and will hOt tell hiln of his action of battery ?" 
But simply by way of allusion the Hydra is introduced ; as 
in the account of the battle of Shrewsbury ( ][«u O, lU. act v. 
sc. 4, 1. 25, vol. iv. p. 34e), Douglas had bccn fighting with ont 
whom he thought the king, and conles upon "anothcr king:" 
" they groxv," he declares, " like Hydra's heads." 
In Ot}cllo (act il. sc. 3, 1. 9 o, vol. vil. p. 498), some time 
after the general had said to hiln (I. 238),-- 

"' Cassio, I love thee ; 
But never more be officer of mine," 

Cassio says to Iago, 

" I xvill ask him for my place again ; he shall tell me [ ana a drunkard 
Had I as many mouths as Hydra, such an answer would stop them ail." 

So of the change which suddenly came over the Prince of 
Wales (ttcmy V., act i. sc. , 1. 35, vol. iv. p. 493), on his father's 
death, it is said,-- 
"' Never Hydra-headed wilfulness 
So soon did lose his seat and all at once 
As in this king." 

This section of our subject is sufficiently ample, or ve might 
press into our service a passage from Timo¢z of tthct¢s (act iv. 
-I vol. vil. 28I), in which the question îs asked, 
sc. 3, 1. » 7, P" 
"What wouldst thou do with the world, _Apemantus, if it lay in 
thy pover?" and the ansxver is, " Give it the beasts, to be 
rid of the men." 

3 7 6 CLA SSfFfCM TfO.IV. [C H AP. V I. 

In the wide range of the pre-Shakespearean Emblematists 
and Fabulists we might peradventure find a parallel to each 
animal that is named (l. 324), _ 

" If thou wert the lion, the fox would beguile thee : if thou xvert the lamb, 
the fox would eat thee: if thou wert the fox, the lion would suspect thee 
when peradventure thou wert accused by the ass : if thou wert the ass, thy 
dulness would torment thee, and still thou livedst but as a breakfast to the 
wolf: if thou wert the wolf, thy greediness would afttict thee, and oft thou 
shouldst hazard thy life for thy dinner " ..... wert thou a bear, thou 
wouldst be killed by the horse : wert thou a horse, thou wouldst be seized 
by the leopard : wert thou a leopard, thou wert german to the lion, and the 
spots of thy kindrcd were jurors on thy life : all thy safety xvere remotion, 
and thy defence absence." 

And so may xve take wallfing, and make our defence for 
writing so much,--it is the absence of far more that might be 
'" Letting ' I dare not ' wait upon  1 would,' 
Like the poor cat i' the adage." 
AIacbeth, act i. sc. 7, 1. 44- 

* See the fable of the Wolf and the Ass from the 1)ialogt¢es of CreaO«res 
(PP. 53--55 of this volume). 

.4tteau, x55e. 

Secr. Vl I.] POETIC IDEIS. 377 



N LTHOUGH many persons may maintain that the 
last two or three examples from the Naturalist's 
division of our subject ought tobe reserved as 
Emblems to illustrate Poetic Ideas, the animals 
themselves may be inventions of the imagination, but the pro- 
perties assigned to them appear less poetic than in the instances 
which are now to follow. The question, however, is of no great 
importance, as this is nota work on Natural History, and a 
strictly scientific arrangement is not possible when poets' fancies 
are the guiding powers. 
How finely and often how splendidly Shakespeare makes use 
of the symbolical imagery of his art, a thousand instances might 
be brought to show. Three or four only are required to make 
plain our meaning. One, from All's lKell /bat E1zds lKdl (act 
i. sc. , 1. 7 6, vol. iii. p. I I2), is Helena's avoxval to herself of her 
absorbing love for Bertram,-- 
« My imagination 
Carries no favour in't but Bertram's. 
I am undone : there is no living, none, 
If Bertram be away. 'Twere all one 
That I should love a bright particular star 
And think to wed it, he is so above me : 
In his bright radiance and collateral light 
Might I be comforted, not in his sphere. 
The ambition in my love thus plagues iiself: 

3 c 

37 S CL,4 NS[F[CA TION. [C n A v. \ I. 

The hind that would be mated by the lion 
Must die of love. 'Tvas pretty, though a plague, 
To sec him every hour ; to sit and drav 
His arched brows, his hawking eye, his curls, 
In our heart's table ; heart too capable 
Of every line and trick of lais sweet favour : 
But now he's gone, and my idolatrous fanc) 
Must sanctify his reliques." 
Another instance shall be fiom Tmihts and Cressida (act iii. 
sc. 3, 1. 45, vol. ri. p. 98). Neglected by lais allies, Achilles 
demands, " What, are my deeds forgot ?" and Ulysses pours 
forth upon hiln the great argument, that to preserve faine and 
honour active exertion is continually demanded,-- 
" Time hath, my lord, a wallet at his back 
Wherein he puts alms for oblivion, 
A great-sized monster of ingratitudes : 
Those scraps are good deeds past, vhich are devour'd 
As fast as they are ruade, forgot as soon 
As donc : perseverance, dear my lord, 
Keeps honour bright : to have donc, is to hang 
Quite out of fashion, like a rusty mail 
I n monulnental mockery." 
And so on, with inimitable force and beauty, until the crowning 
thoughts corne (I. I65),-- 
" Time is like a fashionable host 
That slightly shakes his parting guest by the hand, 
And with his arms outstretch'd, as h.e would fly, 
Grasps in the comer : welcome ever smiles, 
And farewell goes out sighing. O, let not virtue seek 
Remuneration for the thing it was ; 
For beauty, wit, 
High birth, vigour of bone, desert in service, 
Love, friendship, charit)5 are subject all 
To envious and calumniating time. 
One touch of nature makes the whole world kin ; 
That all with one consent praise new-born gawds, 
Though they are made and moulded of things past, 
And give to dust that is a little gilt 
More laud than gilt o'er-dusted." 

Svcv. vit.] POtïTIC /DE/,ç. 379 

As a last instance, from the lVint¢r's Talc (act iv. sc. 4, 1. 135, 
vol. m. p. 3 »), take Florizel's commendation of lais beloved 
Perdita,-- " XVhat ),ou do 
Still betters what is done. \Vhen 3"ou speak, sweet, 
l'ld have you do it ever : when you sing, 
l'ld bave 3-ou buy and sell so, so give altos, 
Pray so ; and, for the ordering your ail'airs, 
To sing theln too : when you do dance, I wish you 
A wave o' the sea, that you might ever do 
Nothing but that ; more still, still so, 
And own no other function : each your doing. 
So singular in each particular, 
Crowns what you are doing in the present deeds, 
That ail your acts are queens." 
Our Prelude we may take from Le Bey de Batilly's tïmblt'ms 
(Fra,«cofm'li 1596, Emb. 5 I), in which with no slight zeal he cele- 
brates "The Glory of Poets." For subject he takes "The Chris- 
tian Muse" of lais Jurisconsult friend, Peter Poppmus of Barraux, 
near Chambery. 


380 CLASSIFICA TIOA r. [C.«P. vl. 

" Quos Pha'bus ad aurea ca'li 
Lilltbta sttblilltis Iouis oltltiolenlis ilg atth 
SisNt,  «lhelz'i tolsl'al come'cia ca'lus; 
i.c. "Vhom at heaven's golden threshold, 
Vithin the halls of lofty Jove omnipotent 
l'hoebus doth place, and to them clearly shows 
The intercourses of ethereal companies. 
loth holy prophets and the care of gods 
Arc poets named ; and those there are who think 
That they possess the force of power divine." 
In vigorous prose Le Be), declares "their home of glory is 
the world itsclf, and for them honour without death abides." 
Then personally to his fricnd Poppus he says, 
" Onward, and things not to bc fearcd fear not thou, who speakest 
nothing little or of humble measure, nothing mortal. While the pure 
priest of the Iuses and of Phoebus with no weak nor unpractised wing 
through the liquid air as prophet stretches to the lofty regions of the clouds. 
Onward, and let father Phoebus himself bear thee to heaven." 

Now by the side of Le 13ey's laudatory sentences, may be 
placed the Poet's glory as sung in the [idszttzer Ari/tl's 
I)ream (act v. sc. I, 1. I2, vol. ii. p. 258),-- 

"The poet's eye, in a fine frenzy rolling, 
Doth glance froln heaven to earth, from earth to heaven ; 
And as imagination bodies forth 
The forms of things unknown, the poet's pen 
Turns them to shapes, and gives to air)" nothing 
A local habitation and a naine." 

The Swan of silvery whiteness may have been the heraldic 
badge of the Poets, but that "bird of wonder," the Phcenix, 
which, " Left sweete Arabie : 
And on a Coedar in this coast 
Built vp her tombe of spicerie," 

* See p. 11 ofJ. Payne Collier's admirably executed Reprint of " THE Y'HOENIX 
NEST," from the original edition of 1593. 

SEca'. VII.] .POETfC IDEAS. 38, 

is the source of many more Poetic ideas. To the Emblem 
writers as well as to the l'oets, who preceded and followed the 
time of Shakespeare, it really was a constant theme of admira- 
One of the best pictures of what the bird was snpposed to be 
occurs in Freitag's "IYTHOLOGIA ETHICA" (Antwerp, I579). 
The drawing and execution of the device are remarkably fine; 
and the motto enjoins that "youthful studies should be changed 
with advancing a " 
ge, -- 

Iuuenilia udia cure proue&iori 
œetate permutata. 

Frcitag, i57 % 
" Dponite ,vos, Jecumlum priflinam conuefationem, .veterem hominem, qui cor- 
rumpitt flcundum d,teria erroris."Ephef 4. 
After describing the bird, Freitag applies it as a type ot the 
resurrection from the dead ; but its special moral is, 

38 z CLASSIFICA TIOV.. [Cn:v. VI. 

"That ye put off concerning the former conversation the old man, which 
is corrupt according to the deceitful lusts." 

Ancient authors, as well as the comparatively modern, ver)" 
gravely testify to the lengthened life, and self-renovating power, 
and splendid beauty of the Ihoenix. In the "EUTERPE" o 
Herodotus (bk. ii. 73) we meet with the following narra- 

".«-L 8 K«I fio pu," K. -. a. " There is another sacred bird, named the 
l'hoenix, which I myself never saw except in picture ; for according to the 
people of Heliopolis, it seldom makes its appearance among them, only 
once in every 50o years. They state that he cornes on the death of his 
sire. If at all like the picture, this bird may be thus described both in size 
and shape. Some of lais feathers are of the colour of gold ; others are red. 
In outline he is exceedingly similar to the Eagle, and in size also. This bil'd 
is said to display an ingenuity of contrivance which to me does hot seem 
credible : he is represented as coming out of Arabia and bringing with him 
his father, embahned in myrrh, to the temple of thë Sun, and there burying 
him. The following is the manner in which this is done. First of all he 
sticks together an egg of myrrh, as much as he can carry, and then if he can 
bear the burden, this experiment being achieved, he scoops out the egg 
sufficiently to deposit his sire within ; next he fills with fresh myrrh the 
opening in the e««,,, by which the body was enclosed ,- thus the whole mass 
containing the carcase is still of the saine weight. The embalming being 
completed, he transports him into Eg)'pt and to the temple of the Sun." 

Pliny's account is brief (bk. xiii. ch. iv.),-- 

" The bird Phoenix is supposed to have taken that naine from the date 
tree, which in Greek is called çoîu ; for the assurance was ruade me that the 
said bird died with the tree, and of itself revived when the tree again 
sprouted forth." 

Numerous indeed are the authorities of old to the saine or a 
similar purport. They are nearly all comprised in the intro- 
ductory dissertation of Joachim Camerarius to his device of the 
Phoenix, and include about eighteen classic writers, ten of the 
Greek and Latin Fathers, and three modern writers of the 
sixteenth centur)-. 


Appended to the xvorks of Lactantius, an eloquent Christian 
Father of the latter part of the third century, there is a Çarmcn 
De _PhwMce,--" Song concerning the Phoenix,"--in elegiac verse, 
which contains very many of the old tales and legends of "the 
Arabian biid," and describes it as,-- 

"Isa sibi broles, suus est ater, & suus ha, res : 
Nutri.r ifisa sui, sem2#er ahtmna sibL" 

She to herself offspring is, and her own father, and her own heir : 
Nurse is she of herself, and ever ber own foster daughter." 

(See Lactantii @o% st¢tdio Gallwi, Leyden, 8vo. 166o, pp. 
904 - 923 • ) 
Besides Camerarius, there are at least five Emblematists 
from whom Shakespeare might bave borrowed respecting 
the Phcenix. Horapollo, whose Iicroglj,kics were edited 

in I55I; Claude Paradin and Gabriel Symeoni, whose I«roic 
Devises appeared in 1562 ; Arnold Freitag, in I579; Nicholas 
Reusner, in I58I ; Geffrey \Vhitney, in I586 , aud Boissard, in 
I588,--these all take the Phcenix for one of their emblems, and 
give a draxving of it in the act of self-sacrifice and self- 
renovation. They make it typical of many truths and 
doctrines,--of long duration for the soul, of devoted love to 
God, of special rarity of character, of Christ's resurrection 
from the dead, and of the resurrection of all mankind. 
There is a singular application of the Phoenix emblem 
which existed before and during Shakespeare's time, but of 
which I find no pictorial representation until 633. It is in 
Henry Hawkins' rare volume, "H HAP®ENON,"--The Viin,-- 
"Symbolically set forth and enriched with piovs devises and 
emblemes for the entertainement of Devovt Sovles." This 
peculiar emblem bestows upon the bird two hearts, which are 
united in closest sympathy and in entire oneness of affection and 
purpose ; they are the hearts of the Virgin-Mother and her Son. 

384 6ŒEASSIFICA TIOA r. lC nAe. V I. 

Ï[akins" Parthcnos, x633. 
" I). Ehold, how Death aymes with his mortal dart, 
And wounds a Phoenix with a twin-like hart. 
These are the harts of Jesus and lais Mother 
So linkt in one, that one vithout the other 
Is not entire. "/'hey (sure) each others smart 
Must needs sustaine, though two, )'et as one hart. 
One Virgin-Mother, Phenix of her kind, 
And xve her Sonne without a father find. 
The Sonne's and Mothers paines in one are mixt, 
His side, a Launce, her soule a Sword transfixt. 
Two harts in one, one Phenix loue contriues : 
One wound in two, and two in one reuiues." 
"Vhitney's and Shakespeare's uses of the device resemble 
each other, as we shall see, more closely than the rest do,--and 
present a singular coincidence of thought, or else show that the 
later vriter had consulted the earlier. 
" Thc tTh'd always alonc," is the motto which Paradin, Reus- 
ner, and Whitney adopt. Paradin (fol. 53), informs 

* There are similar thoughts in Shakespeare's tgha'nix andTurtle (Works, lines 25 
and 37, vol. ix. p. 67t), 
«' So they loved, as love in twain And,-- " Property was thus appalled, 
Had the essence but in one ; That the self was not the saine ; 
Two distincts, division none, Single nature's double naine 
Number thcre in love ,,vas »lain.'" Neither two nor one was called.'" 

SECT. Vil ] I'OtTIC IDEAS. 385 

Vnica retaper auis. 


Comme le Phenlx cil à jamais ff'M, & ,vnique Oifeau au morale de fon Theo- 
«Jece. Auffî font les trcsbonnes chofes de merueillettfe rarité,  bicn der fi'mees, i,ia talle. 
Dculfe que torte Ma,lame Alienor d'Auflriche, Roine Douairiere de France. 
i.c. "As the Phoenix is always alone, and the only bird of its kind in the 
world, so are very good things of marvellous rarity and very thinly sown. It is 
the device which Madam Eiinor of Austria bears, Queen Dowager of France." 
The Phcenix is Reusner's 36th Emblem (bk. ii. p. 98),-- 
Vnlca retaper auis. 

.e thuris lacrymis, 1 ucco ,viuit amomi : « 
Fert cunas Phcenix, bufla tbaterna, fuas. 

"» Reusner adopts this first line fromOvid'sFablcofthetha'nix(Alclam., bk. xv. 37-1.3),-- 
" Sed thuris lacrymis, & succo vivit amomi.'" 

386 CLA SS1.FICA TION. [CHAr'. V I. 

Sixteen elegiac lines of Latin are devoted to 
and signification, mixed with some curious 

its praise 

" On tears of frankincense, and on the juice of balsam lives 
The Phcenix, and bears its cradle, the coffin of its sire. 
Always alone is this bird ;--itself its own father and son, 
By death alone does it give to itself a new life. 
For oft as on earth it bas lived the ten ages through, 
Dying at last, in the tire it is born of its own funeral pile. 
So to hilnself and to lais, Christ gives life by his death, 
Life to lais servants, wholn in equal love he joins to himself. 
True Man is he, the one true God, arbiter of ages, 
\Vho illmnines with light, with his spirit cherishes ail. 
Happy, who by holy baptislns in Christ is rcborn, 
In thc sacred strealn he takcs hold of life,--in thc stream he 
obtains it." 

And again, in reference to the birth unto lire eternaI, 

" If men report true, death over again forms the Phoenix, 
To this bird both life and death the saine funeral pile may prove. 
Onward, executioners ! of the saints burn ye the sainted bodies ; 
For whom ye desire perdition, to them brings the flalne new birth." 

Whitney, borrowing his woodcut and motto from Plantin's 
edition of "LES DEVISES HEROIQVES," 1562 , to a very 
considerable degree makes the explanatory stanzas his own 
both in the conception and in the expression. The chier 
town near to his birth-place had on December IO, 1583, 
been almost totally destroyed by tire, but through the 
munificence of the Queen and many friends, by t586, "the 
whole site and frame of the town, so suddenly ruined, was 
with great speed re-edified in that beautifull manner," says 

the chronicler, "that now it is." The Phoenix (p. I77 ) is 
standing in the midst of the flames, and with outspreading 
wings is prepared for another flight in renewed youth and 

vil.] POETIC IDEAS. 387 

lnica femper auis. 
To my countrimen of the Namptwiche in ChefsMre. 

1[Vdl,tey, *586. 

" TuE Phoenix rare, with fethers freshe of hewe, 
" ARABIAS righte, and sacred to the Sonne : 
Whome, other birdes with wonder seeme to vewe, 
Dothe liue vntill a thousande yeares bee tonne : 
Then makes a pile : which, when with Sonne it burnes, 
Shee files therein, and so to ashes turnes. 
Whereof, behoulde, an other Phoenix rare, 
With speede dothe fise most beautifull and faire : 
And thoughe for truthe, this manie doe declare, 
Yet thereunto, I meane hOt for to sweare : 
Althoughe I knowe that Aucthors witnes true, 
What here I write, bothe of the oulde, and newe. 
Which when I wayed, the newe, and eke the oulde, 
I thought vppon your towne destroyed with tire : 
And did in minde, the newe NAMPWICHE behoulde, 
A spectacle for anie mans desire : 
Whose buildinges braue, where cinders weare but late, 
Did represente (me thought) the Phoenix rate. 
And as the oulde, was manie hundreth yeares, 
A towne of fame, before it felt that crosse : 
Euen so, (I hope) this WICHE, that nowe appeares, 
A Phoenix age shall laste, and knowe no losse : 
Which GODvouchsafe, who make you thankfull, all : 
That see this rise, and sawe the other fall." 

388 CLMSSIFIC.I TION. [Cr^P. ri. 

The Coltcor&itc« to Shabcspcarc, by Mrs. Cowden Clarke, for 
thoroughness hitherto unmatched,* notes down eleven instances 
in which the Phoenix is named, and in most of them, vith 
some epithct expressive of its nature. It is spoken of as the 
Arabian bird, the bird of vonder ; its nest of spicery is men- 
tioncd; it is ruade an emblem of death, and employed in 
metaphor to flatter both Elizabeth and James. 
Besides thc instances already given (p. e36), ve here select 
othcrs of a gencral nature ; as :--When on the renowned Talbot's 
death in battle, Sir William Lucy, in presence of Charles, the 
Dauphin, exclaims over the slain (I Hoir. VI., act iv. sc. 7, 1.92), _ 
"o that I could but call these dead to life ! 
It were cnough to fright the realm of France:" 
his requcst for lcavc to give thcir bodies burial is thus met, 
"Pucelle. 1 think this upstart is old Talbot's ghost, 
He speaks with such a proud commanding spirit. 
For God's sake, let him bave 'ena ...... 
Charles. Go, take their bodies hence. 
Lucy. I'll bear them hence ; but from their ashes shall be rear'd 
A phoenix, that shall make ail France afeard." 
And York, o the haughty sulnmons of Northumbcrland and 
Clifford, dcclares (3 Heu. UI., act i. sc. 4, 1. 35),-- 
"My ashes, as the Phoenix, may bring forth 
A bird that will revenge upon you ail." 
In the Phoeui.r and the Ttrtlc (lines œeI and 4% vol. ix. p. 671), 
are the lines,- 
" Here the anthem doth commence : 
Love and constancy is dead ; 
Phoenix and the turtle fled 
In a lnutual flame from hence. 
Whereupon it ruade this threne 
To the phoenix and the dove, 
Co-supremes and stars of love, 
As chorus to their tragic scene." 

* To render it still more useful, the words should receive something of classifica- 
tion, as in Cruden's Cmlcordace go the Englisk tible, and the tumber of the Kle 
should be given as well as of the Mc[ and Sct'ltt'. 

Scï. vII.] tOETIC IDEAS. 389 

The "threne," or La»wntatio,z (1. 53, vol. ix. p. 672), thon 
« Beauty, truth and rarity 
Grace in all simplicity, 
Here enclosed in cinders lic. 

Dcath is nmv the phcenix' nest ; 
.And the turtle's loyal breast 
To eternity doth rest." 

The Maiden in The Lovcr's Complaiut (1. 92, vol. ix. p. 63,";) 
thus speaks of her early love,-- 

" Small shmv of man xvas yet upon his chin ; 
tIis phcenix dmvn bcgan but to appcar, 
Like unshorn velvet, on that terlnless skin, 
Whose bare out-bragg'd the xveb it seem'd to xvear." 

Some of the charactcristics of the Phcenix are adduced in 
the dialogue, Richard III. (act iv. sc. 4, 1. 418, vol. v. p. 6o6), 
between Richard III. and the queen or widmv of Edward IV. 
The king is proposing to marry her daughter,-- 
"Q. Elix. Shall I be tempted of the devil thus ? 
A: Riclz. A5 if the devil tempt thee to do good. 
Qucot. Shall I forget myself, to be mysdf? 
K. Rich. Ay, if yourself's remembrance wrong yourself. 
Qucoz. But thou didst ldll lny children. 
1(. Riclt. But in your daughter's vomb I bury them : 
Where in that nest of spicery, they shall breed 
Selves of themselves, to your recomforture." 
Another instance is from Antouy and C/coi)alfa (act iii. sc. 2, 
1. 7, vol. ix. p. 64). Agrippa and Enobarbus meet in Cmsar's 
ante-chamber, and of Lepidus Enobarbus declares,-- 
"0 hmv he loves Coesar ! 
Affri2b. Nay, but hmv dearly he adores Marc Antony ! 
tnob. Coesar ? Why, he's the Jupiter of men. 
Affri2b. What's Antony ? The god of Jupiter. 
'nob. Speak you of Coesar ? How ? the nonpareil ! 
Affri2b. 0 Antony ! O thou Arabian bird !" 


.And in C.j'mbcli¢e (act i. sc. 6, 1. I5, vol. ix. p. I83), on being 
welcomed by Imogen, Iachimo says, 
"AIl of ber that is out of door lnost rich 
If she be furnish'd with a lnind so rare. 
She is alone th' Arabian Bird, and l 
Have lost the wager." 
But the fullest and most remarkable example is from 
l'III. (act v. sc. 5, 1. z8, vol. vi. p.  4). Cranmer assumes the 
gift of inspiration, and prophesies of the nexv-born child of the 
king and of Anne Bullen an increase of blessings and of all 
princely graces, 
" Truth shall nurse ber, 
Holy and heavenly thoughts still counsel her : 
She shall be loved and fear'd : her own shall bless her ; 
Her foes shake like a field of beaten corn, 
And hang their heads with sorroxv. Good grows with her : 
In ber days every man shall eat in safety, 
Under his own vine, what he plants, and sing 
The lnerl T songs of peace to all his neighbours : 
God shall be truly known ; and those about her 
From her shall read the perfect ways of honour, 
And by these claire their greatness, not by blood. 
Nor shall this peace sleep with her ; but, as when 
The bird of wonder dies, the maiden phoenix, 
Her ashes new create another heir, 
As great in admiration as herself, 
So shall she leave her blessedness to one-- 
When heaven shall call her from this cloud of darkness 
Who from the sacred ashes of ber honour 
Shall star-like rise, as great in fame as she xvas, 

And so stand fix'd." 
There is another bird, the emblem of tranquillity and of 
peaceful and happ3 days; it is the KING-'ISHEg, xvhich the 
poets have described with the utmost embellishment of the 

fanc),. _Aristotle and Pliny tell even more marvellous tales 
about it than Herodotus and Horapollo do about the Phoenix. 
The fable, on which the poetic idea rests, is txvo-fold ; one 
that _Alcyone, a daughter of the wind-god -/Eolus, had been 

SECT. Vil.] POETIC [DIz'A.ç. 39  

married to Ceyx ; and so happily did they live that they gave 
one another the appellations of the gods, and by Jupiter in 
anger xvere changed into birds; the other narrates, that Ceyx 
perished from shipwreck, and that in a passion of grief _A_lcyone 
threw herself into the sea. Out of pity the gods bestmved on 
the txvo the shape and habit of birds. Ovid has greatly elflarged 
the fable, and has devoted to it, in his -a[etamorphoscs (xi. Io), 
between three and four hundred lines. We have only to do 
with the conclusion,- 
"The gods at length taking compassion 
The pair are transformed into birds ; tried by one destiny 
Their love remained firm ; nor is the conjugal bond 
Loosened although they are birds ; parents they becolne, 
And through a seven days' quietness in midwinter 
In nests upborne by the sea the King-fishers breed. 
Safe then is the sea-road ; the winds Aolus guards, 
Debarring from egress ; and ocean's plain favours his children." 

According to Aristotle's description (Hist. Anim. ix. 4),-- 

"The nest of the Alcyon is globular, with a very narrow entrance, so that 
if it should be upset the watêr would hOt enter. A blow from iron has no 
effect upon it, but the human hand soon crushes it and reduces it to powder. 
The eggs are rive." 
"The halcyones," Pliny avers, " are of great naine and much marked. 
The very seas, and they that saile thereupon, know well when they sit and 
breed. This bird, so notable, is little bigger than a sparrow ; for the more 
part of her pennage, blew, intermingled yet among with white and purple 
feathers ; having a thin small neck and long withal they lay and sit about 
mid-winter, when daies be shortest ; and the times while they are broodie, is 
called the halcyo* daies; for during that season the sea is cahn and 
navigable, especially on the coast of Sicilie." Philemon tïrolland's Plinie, x. 3 . 

We are thus prepared for the device which Paolo Giovio sets 
before lais readers, with an Italian four-lined stanza to a French 
motto, lVe kuow wdl the wcathcr. The drawing suggests that 
the two Alcyons in one nest are sailing "on the coast of Sicilie," 
in the straits of Messina, with Scylla and Charybdis on each 
hand--but in perfect cahnness and security,-- 

3 9 "- C[.A SSIFIC,4 T/O.'<. If ni, v. v 1. 


Giovia, 562- 
Sat gl" Alcion(j augei il tempo eletto, 
Ch' al nido, e ail" oua lot non nuoca il mare. Nous £auons 
Infellce quell' huom, ch'el ,tl afpettare bien le temps. 
Non fa, per date al fuo difegto effetto. 
'" Happy thc Alcyons, whom choice times defend. 
Nor in the ncst nor etc the sea can harm; 
But luckless man knows hOt to meet alarm, 
Nor to his purpose gives the wished for end." 
The festival of Saint Ix{lartin, or Martlcmas, is held Novembcr 
 th, at the approach of winter, and was a season of merriment 
and good cheer. Itis in connection with this festival that Shake- 
speare first introduces a mention of the Alcyon (I H«z«,y VI., 
act i. sc. 2, 1. I2 9, vol. v. p. 14). The iX{laid of Orleans is propound- 
ing her mission for the deliverance of France to Reignier, Duke 
of Anjou,-- 
" Assign'd I am to be the English scourge. 
This night the siege assuredly I'll raise : 
Expect Saint iXlartin's summer, halcyon days, 
Since I have enter'd into these wars." 


It vas, and I believe still is, an opinion prevalent in somc 
parts of England, that a King-fisher, suspended by the tail or 
beak, will turn round as the vind changes. To this fancy, allu- 
sion is ruade iii ]ing Lcar (act il. sc. 2, 1. 73, vol. viii. p. 307),-- 
" Renege, affirm and turn their halcyon beaks 
XVith every gale and vary of thcir mastcrs, 
Knowing nought, like dogs, but following." 
The Poet delights to tell of self-sacrificing love ; and hence the 
celebrity which the IELICAN has acquired for the strong natural 
affcction which impels it, so the tale runs, to pour forth the very 
fotmtain of its lire in nourishment to its young. From Epiphanius, 
bishop of Constantia in the island of Cyprus, whose th.l,siolo,z,s 
was printed by Plantin in I588 , we have the supposed natural 
history of the Pelicans and their young, which he symbolizes in 
the Saviour. His account is accompanied by a pictorial repre- 
sentation, "HEPI TIIE HEAEKANO'e,"--Conccrning t/w t)clic«m 
p. 30). 

Etit*hanius. 1588. 

3 E 


The good bishop narrates as physiological history the fol- 

"Beyond ail birds the Pclican is fond of her young. The female sits on 
the ncst, guarding her offspring, and chcrishes and caresses them and wounds 
them with ]oving ; and pierces their sides and they die. After three days 
thc male pclican cornes and finds them dcad, and x ery much his heart is 
pained. Drivcn by grief he smites lais own side, and as he stands over the 
wounds of the dead young ones, the blood trickles down, and thus are the) 
ruade alive agal" 11. ' 

Reusncr and Camcrarius both adopt the Pelican as the 
cmblcln of a good king who dcvotes himsclf to the people's 
welfare. For Law amt for Flod,', is the ve W appropriate motto 
they prefix ; Camerarius simply saying (ed. 596, p. 

• ' .ç«ngui»e vivifi««! l'di«anus pignora, sic 
l'fo l,uli vitce csl jbrodigus itSsc sue." 
" By blood the Pelican his young revives ; and so a king 
For his people's sake himself of life is prodigal." 

Reusner (bk. ii. p. 73) gives thc following device,-- 

Pro lege, & grege. 

SECT. VII.] PO.ET".IC ID.EA,5: 395 

And tclls hoxv,-- 

"Alphonsus the wise and good king of Naples, with his own honoured 
hand painted a Pelican which xx ith its sharp bcak xvas laying open its breast 
so as with its own b]ood to save the lires of its young. Thus for peoplc, for 
law, itis right that a king should die and by his own death restore life to the 
nations. As by his own dcath Christ did restore life to the just, and with 
life pcace and righteousness." 

He adds this personification of thc Pelican,-- 

" For people and for sancfioned law heart's lire a king will pour ; 
So ri'oto this blood of mine do I lire to lny yOtlllg restore." 

The other motto, which Hadrian Junit, s and Geffrey Whitney 
select, opens out another idca, Quod in te est, .promc,--" Bring 
forth what is ]11 thee." It suggests that of the soul's wealth we 
should impart to others. 
Junius (Emb. 7) thus addresses the bird he has chosen, 

"By often Stl-iking, O Pelican, thou layest open the deep recesses of thy 
breast and givest lire to thy offspring. Search into thine own lnind (nly 
friend), seek what is hidden within, and bring forth into the light the seeds 
of thine inner powers." 

_And very admirably does Whitney (p. 87) apply the senti- 
ment to one of the most eminent of divines in the reign of 
Queen Elizabeth,--namely, to Dr. _Alexandcr Nowell. the 
celebrated Dean of St. Paul's, illustrious both for his learning 
and his example, 

" r-HE Pellican, for to reuiue her younge, 
Doth peirce her brest, and geue them of her blood : 
Then searche your breste, and as yow haue with tong% 
\Vith penne proceede to doe out countrie good : 
Your zeale is great, your learning is profounde, 
Then helpe our wantes, with that you doe abounde." 

The fitll poetry of the thoughts thus connected with the 
Pelican is taken in, though but briefly expressed by Shake- 


speare. In ttaml«t (act iv. sc. 5, 1. 35, vol. viii. p. I35), on 
Laertes determining to seek revenge for his father's death, the 
king adds fuel to the flame,-- 
"Ifbg. Good Lacrtes, 
If you desire to know the certainty 
Of your dcar father's death, is't writ in your revenge, 
That, swoopstake, you will draw both friend and foe, 
Winner and loscr ? 
La,'r. None but his enemies. 
A'bg. Will you know them then ? 
Lao: To his good friends thus ide I'll ope my arms ; 
And like the kind life-rendcring pelican, 
Repast thtnn with my blood." ,v 
Vrom Ptichard II. (act ii. sc. , 1. -'o, vol. iv. p. 4o) we learn 
how in zeal and true loyalty John of Gaunt counsels his head- 
strong nephew, and hov rudely the yotmg king replies,- 
" Now, by my seat's right royal majesty, 
X, Vert thou not brother to great Edward's son, 
This tongue that runs so roundly in thy head 
Should run thy head from thy unreverent shoulders. 
Gautt. O, spare me not, my brother Edward's son, 
For that I was his father Edward's son ; 
That blood already, like the pelican, 
Hast thou tapp'd out and drunkenly caroused." 
The idea, indeed, almost supposes that the young pelicans 
strike at the breasts of the old ones, and forcibly or thought- 
lessly drain their life out. So it is in Iiug Lcar (act iii. sc. 4, 
I. 68, vol. viii. p. 342), when the old king exclaims,-- 

« The whole stanza as given on the last page, beginning with the line, 
" The Pclllcan, for to reuiue her younge," 
is quoted in Knight's "PICTOmL SIJKSPER" (vol. i. p. I54), in illustration of 
these lines from ][amle! concerning " the kind life-rendering pelican." The woodcut 
which Knight gives is also copied from Whitney, and the following remark added,-- 
"Amongst old books of emblems there is one on which Shakspere himself might bave 
looked, containing the subjoined representation. It is entitled ' A Choice of Em- 
blemes and other ]ï)evices by Geffrey Whitney, i586.'" Knight thus appears 
prepared to recognise what we contend fol', that Emblem wfiters were known to 


" Death, traitor ! nothing could have subducd nature 
To such a lowness but his unkind daughtcrs. 
Is it the fashion that discarded fathers 
Should have thus little mercy on their flcsh ? 
Judicious punishmcnt ! 'twas this flcsh begot 
Those pclican daughters." 

_And again (2 _/-2"«ny I'1., act iv. sc. , I. 83, vol. v. p. 182), in 
the words addressed to Suffolk,-- 

"By devilish policy art thou grown grcat, 
And, like ambitious Sylla, over-gorged 
"With gobbets of thy mothcr's bleeding heart." 

The description of the wounded stag, rchcarsed to the 
banished duke by one of his attendants, is as touching a narra- 
tive, as full of tenderness, as any which show the Poet's 
wonderful power over our feelings ; it is from As t'ou Like Il 
(act il. sc. I, 1. 29, vol. il. p. 394),-- 

To-day my Lord of Amiens and myself 
Did steal behind hin [aques] as he lay along 
Undcr an oak whose antique root peeps out 
Upon the brook that brawls along this wood : 
To the which place a poor sequester'd stag, 
That from the hunter's aim had ta'en a hurt, 
Did corne to languish, and indeed, my lord, 
The wretched animal heaved forth such groans, 
That their discharge did stretch his leathern coat 
Almost to bursting, and the big round tears 
Coursed one another down his innocent nose 
In piteous chase ; and thus the hairy fool, 
Much marked of the melancholy Jacques, 
Stood on the extremest verge of the swift brook, 
Augmenting it with tears." 

Graphic and highly ornamented though this description may 
be, it is really the counterpart of Gabriel Symeoni's Emblem of 
love incurable. The poor stag lies wounded and helpless,--the 
mortal dart in his flank, and the life-stream gushing out The 

39 8 CZA SSIFICA TION. [ c n,v. 
scroll above bears a Spanish motto, T/ris kohts thcir lcmcdy 
o! I; and it serres to introduce the usual quatrain. 

Giovio and Symeoti, x562. 

qî'oua il ceruio ferito al fuo gran male 
Nel dittamo Creteo fido ricorfo, 
Ma laffo (io' lsb) rimedio ne foccofo 
41l' amorofo colpo alcun non vale. 

Eflo tiene 
lu reme- 
dio, y non 

" The smitten stag hath found sad pains to feel, 
No trusted Cretan dittany  is near, 
Wearied, for succour there is only fear,-- 
The wounds of love no remedy can heal." 

* Virgil's ./Eneid (bk. xii. 412--44), thus expressed in I)ryden's rendering, will 
explain the passage ; he is speaking of Venus,- 
" A branch of healing dittany she bronght : 
Which in the Cretan fields with care she sought : 
Rough is the stem, which wooly leafs surround ; 
The leafs with flow'rs, the flow'rs with purple crown'd." 
See also Joachim Camerarius, Ex .4nimali3us Quadru;#. (ed. 1595, Emb. 69, p. 71}. 


To the saine motto and the saine device Paradin (fol. I68) 
flrnishcs an explanation,-- 
" The ttevice of lo,e il«ctrable," he says, « may be a slaff OEoutded b j, at 
alT'ow, havitg a bit¢c/t ( Dfft«zy bt ils ¢o¢tt]t, hi«h is « hcrb lh«t gros 
abuudanlly it lhe #html of C:#. By e«thtg lhis lhe ŒEaoumlal sl«g hc«ls all 
ils injuries. The mollo, 'Esto tienne su relnedio, y no yo,' follo,s those 
fr Dahne, so,s , ' Hei mihi, qugd nullis amor est medicabilis herbis.'" 
The connected lines in Ovid's I«tamohos«s (bl« i. fab. 9), show 
that even Apollo, the god of healing, whose skill does good to all 
othcrs, does no good to himself. The mbh'ms of Otho Vnius 
(P- 54) gives a very similar account to that of Symeoni, 
Hei u¢ihi, quod tullis s# A++¢or medicabilis ho'b/s, 
The following is the English version of that datc. 
"A hel fr [he lo¢tcr." 
" The hert that wounded is, knowes how to fynd relief, 
And makes by dictamon the arrow out to fall, 
And with the self:saine herb hee cures his wound withall, 
But love no herb can fynd to cure his inward grief." 
In the presence of those who had slain Cmsar, and over his 
dead body at the foot of Pompey's statue, "which all the while ran 
blood," Marc Antony poured forth his fine avowal of continued 
fidelity to his friend (/uli+ts C«sa; act iii. sc. , 1. zos, vol. vii. p. 

368), - 

" Pardon me, Julius ! Here wast thou bay'd, brave hart ; 
Here didst thou fall, and here thy hunters stand, 
Sign'd in thy spoil and crimson'd in thy lethe. 
O world ! thou wast the forest to this hart ; 
And this, indeed, O world, the heart of thee. 
Hmv like a deer strucken by many princes 
Dost thou here lie !" 
The saine metaphor from the wounded deer is introduced in 
Hamlct (act iii. sc. 2, 1. 59, vol. viii. p. 97)- The acting of the 

400 CLASSIF[CA TIOn. [CtAv. vI. 

play has had on the king's mind the influence xvhich Hamlet 
hoped for; and as in haste and confusion thc royal party dis- 
perse, he recites the stanza,-- 
« \Vhy, let the stricken deer go weep, 
The hart ungallcd play ; 
For some must watch, whilst some must sleep : 
Thus runs the world away." 
The very briefest allusion to the subject of our Emblem is 
also containcd in the lVint«r's Tale (act i. sc. 5, 1. il 5, vol. iii. 
p. 323). Leontes is discoursing with lais queen Hermione, 
"But to be paddling pahns and pinching fingers, 
As now thcy are, and making practised smiles, 
As in a looking glass, and then to sigh, as 'twere 
The mort o' the deer ; O, that is entertainlnent 
My bosom likcs not, nor my brows !" 
The poetical epithet " golden," so frequently expressive of 
excellence and perfection, and applied even to qualities of the 
mind, is declared by Douce (vol. i. p. 84) to have been derived 
by Shakespeare either ri'oto Sidney's Arcadia (bk. ii.), or from 
.Arthur Golding's translation of Ovid's A[«tamorhoscs (4to, 
fol. 8), where speaking of Cupid's arrows, he says, 
« Thal causent lo,e is all offfold« with point full sharp and bright. 
That chaseth love, is blunt, whose steele with leaden head is dight." 
This borrowing and using of the epithet " golden" might 
equally well, and with as much probability, have taken place 
through the influence of .Alciat, or by adoption from Whitney's 
very beautiful translation and paraphrase of Joachim Bellay's 
Fable of Ct@id and Dcath. The two were lodging together at 
an inn,* and unintentionally exchanged quivers" death's darts 
were ruade of bone, Cupid's were "dartes of goulde." 

 In Haechtan's Parvus J2rltndlts (ed. 579), Gerard de Jode represents the sleep- 
ing place as "sub tegmine fagi,"---but the results of the mistake as equally unfoiçtt- 
nate vith those in Bellay and Whitney. 


The conception of the tale is admirable, and the narrative 
itself full of taste and beauty. Premising that the same device 
is employed by \Vhitney as by Alciat, we will first give almost 
a literal version from the I54th and I55th Emblems of the 
latter author (edition  58 I),-- 
" \Vandering about was Death aloug with Cupid as companion, 
With himself Death was bearing quivers ; little Love his weapons ; 
Together at an inn they lodged ; one night together one bed they shared; 
Love was blind, and on this occasion Death also was blind. 
Unforeseeing the evil, one took the darts of the other, 
Death the golden veapons,--those of bone the boy rashly seizes. 
Hence an old man who ought nmv to bc near upon Acheron. 
Behold him loving,--and for lais brow flmver-fillets preparing. 
13ut I, since Love smote me with the dart that was changed, 
I ana fainting, and their hand the fates upon me are laying. 
Spare, O boy ; spare, O Death, holding the ensigns victorious,-- 
Make me the lover, the old man lnake him sink beneath Acheron.'" 
And carrying on the idea into thc next Emblem (I55),- 
'- Why, O Death, with thy wiles darest thou deceive Love the boy, 
That thy vcapons he should hurl, while he thinks them his own ?" 
\Vhitney's " sportive tale, concerning death and love," 
possesses sufficient merit to be given in full (p. I32), - 

De morte,  amore ." Iocofi«m. 
«/'o EDWARD D', Efquier. 


"' yTHI1.E furi0us Mors, from place, to place did flie, 
 And here, and there, her fatall dartes did throwe : 
At lengthe shee mette, with Cpid passing by, 
XVho likewise had, bene busie with his bowe : 
VVithin one hme, they bothe togeather stay'd, 
And for one nighte, awaie theire shooting lay'd. 

The morrowe next, they bothe awaie doe haste, 
And eache by chaunce, the others quiuer takes : 
The fi'ozen dartes, on Cupiddes backe weare plac'd, 
The fierie dartes, the leane virago shakes : 
Whereby ensued, suche alteration straunge, 
As all the worlde, did wonder at the chaunge. 

For gallant youthes, whome Cupid thoughte to wounde, 
Of loue, and life, did make an ende at once. 
And aged men, whome deathe woulde bringe to grounde : 
Beganne againe to lotie, with sighes, and grones ; 
Thus natures lawes, this chaunce infringed soe : 
That age did lotie, and youthe to graue did goe. 

Till at the laste, as Cupid drewe his bowe, 
Before he shotte : a younglinge thus did crye, 
Oh Venus sonne, thy dartes thou doste not knowe, 
They pierce too deepe : for all thou hittes, doe die : 
Oh spare our age, who honored thee of oulde, 
Theise dartes are bone, take thou the dartes of goulde. 

XVhich beinge saide, a while did Cupid staye, 
And sawe, how youthe was almoste cleane extinct : 
And age did doate, with garlandes freshe, and gaye, 
And heades all balde, weare newe in wedlocke linckt : 
Wherefore he shewed, this error vnto Mors, 
Who miscontent, did chaunge againe perforce. 

Yet so, as bothe solne dartes awaie conuay'd, 
VVhich weare not theirs : 3"et vnto neither knowne, 
Some bonie dartes, in Cupiddes quiuer stay'd, 
Some goulden dartes, had Mors amongst her owne. 
Then, when wee see, vntilnelie deathe appeare : 
Or wanton age : it was this chaunce you heare." 

For an interlude to our remarks on the "golden," we lnust 
mention that the pretty tale Co;zccr;tb(ç Dcal/z a;zd Czzpid was 

SEc'c. VII.] /'O,ET[C ]DEA,ç. 4o3 

attributed to Whitney by one of Shakespeare's contemporaries; 
and, if known to other literary mell of the age, very reasonably 

may be supposed not ullklloWll to the 
Peachaln, in I612, p. 172 of his Emb[«ms, 
xvas from \Vhitney that he derived his own 

dramatist. Henry 
acknowledges that it 

" De .4[ortc, ct Cuphin«." 
"" I)EA'I_'H meeting once, with CVPID in an ]nne 
 .Vhere roome was scant, togeither both they la)'. 
Both weariè, (for they roving both had beene,) 
Now on the morrow when they should away, 
CI-PID Death's quiver at lais back had throwne, 
And I)EATH tooke C'pZDS, thinking it his owne. 

}3y this o're-sight, it shortly came to passe, 
That young men died, who readie were to ved : 
And age did revell with his bonny-lasse, 
Composing girlonds for lais hoarie head : 
lnvert hOt Nature, oh ye Povers twaine, 
Giue CVPID'S dartes, and DEA TZar take thine againe." 

Whitney luxuriates iii this epithet " golden ;"golden fleece, 
golden hour, golden pen, golden sentence, golden book, golden 
palm are found rccorded in his pages. At p. 214 we have the 


" A Leaden svorde, vithin a goulden sheathe, 
Is like a foole of natures finest moulde, 
To whome, shee did her rarest giftes bequethe, 
Or like a sheepe, within a fleece of goulde." 

We may indeed regard Whitney as the prototype of Hood's 
world-famous " gliss Killnansegg, with her golden leg," 

"' And a pair of Golden Crutches." 

(vol. i. p. 189. ) 

Shakespeare is scarcely more sparing in this respect than the 
Cheshire Emblematist ; he mentions for us "golden tresses of 
the dead," " golden oars and a silver strealn," "the glory, that in 
gold clasps locks in the golden story," "a golden casket, .... a 


golden bed," and " a golden mind." .l[erchatt of l'oticr (act il. 
sc. 7, lines 2o and 58, vol. il. p. 3 2),-- 
'" A golden mind stoops not to shows of dross. 
But here an angel in a golden bed 
Lies ail within." 

And applied direct to Cupid's artillery in 3"Iidstmmer Ni,ht's 
Dream (act i. sc. , 1. 68, vol. ii. p. zo4) , Hermia makes fine use 
of the epithet golden,- 
" My good Lysander ! 
I swear to thee by Cupid's strongest bow, 
By lais best arrmv with the golden head." 
SO in Tzvclftlt ATght (act i. sc. I, 1. 33, vol. iii. p. 224), Orsino, 
Duke of l1ilan, speaks of Olivia,-- 
• " 1), she that bath a heart of that fine frame 
To pay the dcbt of lin e but to a brother, 
How will she love, when the rich golden shaft 
Hath kill'd the flock of all affections else 
That lire in her ; when liver, brain and heart 
These sovereign thrones, are all supplied, and fill'd 
Her sweet perfections with one self king ! » 
And u hen Helen praised the complexion or comeliness of 
Troilus above that of Paris, Cressida avers (Troihs amt Cressida, 
act i. sc. 2, 1. oo, vol. ri. p. 34),-- 
"I had as lief Helen's golden tongue had commended Troilus for a copper 

As \Vhitney's pictorial illustration represents them, Death and 
Cupid are flying in mid-air, and discharging their arrows from the 
clouds. Confining the description to Cupid, this is exactly the 
action in one of the scenes of the [id«ztmcr _A ïghts Z?r«am 
(act il. sc. , 1. 55, vol. ii. p. 26). The passage xvas intended 
to flatter Queen Elizabeth ; it is Oberon who speaks,-- 
"That very time I saw, but thou couldst hot, 
Flying between the cold moon and the earth, 

TJeatrum vit, e buman¢, 

TAS H V M A N./E. 


 omninm criarum. 

:c'r. v[ I.l l'OF, TIC IDAA,ç. 4oq 

Cupid all arm'd : a certain aire he took 
At a fair vestal throned by the west, 
And loosed his love-shaft smartly ri'oto his bow, 
As it should pierce a hundred thousand hearts : 
But I lnight see young Cupid's fiery shaft 
Quench'd in the chaste beams of the watery moon, 
And the imperial votaress passed on, 
In maiden meditation, fancy free. 
Yet mark'd I where the boit of Cupid fell : 
h fell upon a little western flover, 
Before milk-white, now purple with love's wound, 
And maidens call it love-in-idleness.'" 

Scarcely by possibility could a dralnatist, who was also an 
actor, avoid the imagery of poetic ideas with xvhich lais own 
profession ruade him familiar. 1 ara hot sure if Sheridan 
Knowles did hot escape the temptation ; but if Shakespeare had 
done so, it would have deprived the world of some of the most 
forcible passages in our language. The theatre for which he 
wrote, and the stage on which he acted, supplied materials for 
lais imagination to work into lines of surpassing beauty. 
Boissard's " THEATRWXl VITA HUIIAN.E" (cdition Metz, 4to, 
1596) presents its first Emblem with the title,--/r-/-ttlJzalz lz" 
is as a Thcatre of all 3[iscric«. (See Plate XIV.) 

"' The life of man a circus is, or theatre so grand : 
Which evcry thing shows forth filled full of tragic fear ; 
Here wanton sense, and sin, and death, and Satan's hand 
Molest mankind and persecute with penalties severe.'" 

The picture of hulllall life which Boissard draws in lais 
"Address to the Reader" is gloomy and dispiriting; there are in 
it, he declares, the various miseries and calamities to which man is 
subject while he lives,--and the conflicts to which he is exposed 
from the sharpest and cruellest enemies, the devil, the flesh, and 
the world ; and from their violence and oppression there is no pos- 
sibility of escape, except by the favour and help of God's mercy. 
Very similar ideas prevail in some of Shakespeare's lines ; as 

4o6 CLA&çlF[CA TI02: [cul, v. \' I. 

" the thousand natural shocks that flesh is heir to" (Ig«mlct, 
act iii. sc. , 1. 6e, vol. viii. p. 79) ; " llly heart all mad with misery 
beats in this hollow prison of my flesh" (Tius Amlrouials, 
act iii. sc. te, 1. 9, vol. vi. p. 483); and, " shake the yoke of in- 
auspicious stars rioto this world-wearied fleslf' (/ïomco 
5g¢lli«t, act v. sc. 3, 1.  I I, vol. vii. p. I Z6). 
But more particularly in As I;'ou Lile« It (act ii. sc. 7, 1. 36, 
vol. ii. p. 4o9),-- 
"Thou seest we arc not ail alone unhappy : 
This wide and universal theatrc 
Pl-esents more wocful pageants than the sccne 
\Vherein we play in." 

Also in ]]acbt't/l (act v. 
• " .\nd all our 
Fhe way to 

sc. 5, 1. 22, vol. vii. p. 5e),. 
yesterdays have lighted fools 
dusty death. Out, out, brief candle ! 

Life's but a walking shadow, a poor player 
That struts and frets his hour upon the stage 
And then is heard no more : it is a tale 
Told by an idiot, full of sound and fury 
Signifying nothing." 
And when the citizens of Angiers haughtily closed their gates 
against both King Philip and King John, the taunt is raised 
(Kbg 5olm, act ii. sc. , 1. 373, vol. iv. p. 26),-- 
'" By heaven, these scroyles of Angiers flout you, kings, 
And stand securely on their battlêments, 
As in a theatre, whence they gape and point 
At Four industl'ious scenes and acts of death." 
The stages or ages of man have been variously divided. In 
the Arundel MS., and in a Dutch work printed at Antwerp in 
8o, there are ten of these divisions of Man's Lire.* The 
celebrated physician Hippocrates (B.C. 46o--357), and Proclus, 

« See " ARCHet?;OLOGIA," vo1. xxxv. 853 , pp. 67--89 ; " Obsel'vations on the 
Origin of the lV)ivision of Man's Lire into Stages. By John \Vinter Jones, Eq." 

SF.CW. VII.] POETfC [DEM.S TM. 4o 7 

the Platonist (A.P. 41;--485), are said to have divided human 
life, as Shakespeare has done, into s«z,cn ages. _And a inosaic on 
the pavement of the cathedral at Siena gives exactly the saine 
division. This mosaic is very curious, and is supposed to have 
been executed by Antonio Federighi in the year I476. Martin's 
" SIIAKSPERE'S SEVEN iGES," published in I848 , contains a 
little narrative about it, furnished by Lady Calcott, who shortly 
before that time had been travclling iii Italy,-- 

" We found," she says, « in the cathedral of Sienna a curious proof that 
the division of human life into seven periods, fl-olr infancy to extreme old age 
with a view to draw a moral inference, was eomnlon before Shakspeare's 
rime: the person who was showing us that fine church directed out 
attention to the large and bold designs of Beccafulni, which are inlaid in 
black and white in the paveinent, entirely neglecting some works of a inuch 
older date which appeared to us to be still more interesting on account of the 
siinplicity and elegance with which thcy are designed. Several of these 
represent Sibyls and other figures of a mixed moral and religious character ; 
but in one of the side chapels we were both suprised and pleased to filld 
seven figures, each in a separate compartment, inlaid in the pavement, 
representing the Sex'en Ages of Man." 

Lord Lindsay notices the saine work, and in his " CHRISTIAN 
ART," vol. iii. p. I I Z, speaking of the Pavement of the Duomo at 
Siena, says,--" Seven ages of life in the Southerla Nave, near 
the Capella del Voto." 
Of as old a date, even if not more ancient, is the Representa- 
tion of the Seven Ages fi'om a Block-Print belonging to the 
British Museum, and of which we present a diminished fac- 
simile (Plate XV.), the original measuring I5 in. by o- in. 
The inscription on the centre of the wheel, R¢a '#e que 
«c.p,,'ima no,,'a¢m;"The wheel of life which seven times is noted:" 
on the outer rim,--Fst v«lut aqua l«bnntur dflci«ns ira. Sic 
o7ati nascuntur in bac mortali z'#a," It is as water so failing, 
they pass away. So furished are they born in this mortal 
lire." The figures for the seven ages are inscribed, Infins «d c,iL 


almo«,--" An infant for vii. years." _Pueritia * ad xv. afios,-- 
"Childhood up to xv. years." Adol«scêtia ad.r.rv, aïo«,--"Youth- 
hood to xxv. years." Iuvgtns ad .r.t'xv. attos,--" Young man- 
hood to xxxv. years." 17rilitas ad L auno«,--"Mature manhood 
to 5o years." Scnatus ad l.r.t', amos,--" Age to 7o years." 
Dccrcitus «tsquc ad mortcm,--" Decrepitude up to death." The 
angel with the scrolls holds in her right hand that on which is 
written twcrauo, in her left, Corr,lVio,--" Corruption;" below 
her left, clav, for clavi«, " a key." 
Some parts of the Latin stanzas are difficult to decipher ; 
they appear, however, to be the following, read dowmvard,-- 
"- Est hominis status in flore significatus 
Situ sentires quis esses et unde venisses 
Sunt triaque vere quœe faciunt me sœepe dicere. 
Secundum timeo quia hoc nescio quando 
Vlos cadit et periit sic homo cinis erit 
Nunquam rideres sed olim soepe lteres 
Est primo durum quare scio me moriturum 
Hinc ternum flebo quare nescio ut manebo.'" 
The lines, however, are to be read across the page,- 
" Est hominis status in flore significatus, Flos cadit et periit sic homo cinis erit. 
Situ sentires quis esses et unde venisses, Nunquam rideres sed olim soepe 
Sunt triaque vere qum faciunt me seepe dicere, Est primo durum quare scio 
me moriturum. 
Secundum timeo quia hoc nescio quando, Hinc ternum flebo quare nescio 
ut lnanebo. ' 
They are only doggerel Latin, and in doggerel Eglish may be 
' I,o here is man's statein flowers significate : 
The flower fades and perishes,--so man but ashes is ; 
\Vho mayst be thou feelest,--whence coin'st thou revealest ; 

« It may be noted that the Romans understood by t,ter,lia the period from infancy 
up to the I7th year; by Xdoles«entia, the period from the age of I tO 30; by 
yuvozltts, the season of life from the 2oth to the 4oth year. lçrilitas, manhood, 
begau when in the 6th year a youth assmned the ,irilis, "' the nmnly gown.'" 

,»:c'r. VII.I POF.T[C IDEM.ç. 409 

Laugh shouldst thou never,--but be weeping for ever ; 
Three things there are truly,--which make me say duly, 
The first hard thing 'ris to know,--that to death I must go ; 
The second 1 fear then,--since 1 know hot the when ;-- 
The third again will I weep,--for I know hot in lire to keep." 
ïhe celebrated speech of Jaqucs to his dethroned toaster, 
"AI1 the world's a stage," ri'oto As l'oz« Lik« Il (act il. sc. 7, lines 
I39--I65, vol. ii. p. 4o9), is closely constructed on the model of 
the Elnblelnatical Devices in the foregoing Block-print. The 
Silnple quoting of the passage will be sufficient to show the 
parallelism and correspondence of the thoughts, if hot of the 
'" raqucs. All the world's a stage, 
And all the men and women merely players : 
They have their exits and their entrances ; 
And one man in his rime plays many parts, 
His acts being seven ages. At first the infant, 
Mewling and puking in the nurse's arms. 
Then the whining school-boy, vith his satchel 
And shining morning face, creeping like snail 
Unwillingly to school. And then the lover, 
Sighing like furnace, with a woeful ballad 
Made to his nistress' eyebrow. Then a soldier, 
Full of strange oaths, and bearded like the pard, 
Jealous in honour, sudden and quick in quarrel, 
Seeking the bubble reputation 
Even in the cannon's lnouth. And then the justice, 
In fair round belly with good capon lined, 
XVith eyes severe and beard of formal cut, 
Full of wise saws and modern instances ; 
And so he plays his part. The sixth age shiffs 
Into the lean and slipper'd pantaloon, 
With spectacles on nose and pouch on side, 
His yonthful hose, well saved, a world too wide 
For his shrunk shank ; and his big manly voice, 
Turning again toward childish treble, pipes 
And whistles in his sound. Last scene of all, 
That ends this strange eventful history, 
ls second childishness and mere oblivion, 
Sans teeth, sans eyes, sans taste, sans evcry thing." 

4o CLA._.ç._.çI.D'IC.,4TIO_/V. [(_'Ha),. vl. 

In far briefer phrase, but with a similar comparison, in reply 
to the charge of having "too much respect upon the world," 
Antonia (3[«r«haJl! of l'Jlic«, act i. sc. I, I. 77, vol. ii. p. 28J) 
"" I hold the world but as the vorld, Gratiano ; 
A stage, where every man must play a part, 
And mine a sad one." 

The pencil and the skill alone are wanting to multiply the 
Emblems for the Poetic Ideas which abound in Shakespeare's 
dramas. I Iis thotghts and their conabilmtions are in general 
so clothed with life and with other elements of beatlty, that 
materials for pictures exist in all parts of lais writings. Our 
office, however, is hot to exercise the inventive faculty, nor, even 
when the inventiol bas been perfected for us by the poet's fancy, 
to give it a visible form and to portray its outward graces. We 
have simply to gather up the scattered records of the past, and 
to show what correspondencies there really are between Shake- 
speare and the elder Embleln artists, and, when we can, to point 
out where to him they bave been models, imitated and thus 
approved. Though, therefore, we might draw many a sketch, and 
finish lnany a picture from ideas to be supplied from this unex- 
hausted fountain, we are mindful of the humbler task belong- 
ing to him who collects, and on his shelf of literary antiquities 
places, olaly-what bas the starnp of nearly three centuries upon 

"B, aissard, 1596. 

s,« r. v I ! . ] 31"0' AZ) - rST'H'TZC" 411 

ECTION \rli I 

3IOR,4L A]VD zlï, STtlE TIC £3IBLE]IS. 

EJOICING much if the end should crown the 
earliel" portions of our work, we enter noxv on the 
last and most xvelcome section of this chapter,-- 
on the Elnblems which depict moral qualities and 
asthetical properties,--the Elnblems which concern the j udgments 

and perceptions of the mind, 
the conscience, and the life. 
We will initiate this di- 
vision by the lnotto and 
device which \Vhitney (p. 
64) adopts from Sambu- 
eus (edition 564, p. 3o), 
--" Things lying at 
feet,"that is, of 
mediate importance 

urency. The Emblems 
are warnings from the 
hen which is eating her 

and the conduct of the heart, 

e ante pe,tcs. 

own e,«s,, and ri'oto the cow which is drinking her own 
The Hungarian poet thus sers forth lais thelne,-- 


" The hen which had seen the eggs to her care entrusted, 
Is here sucking them, and hope she holds forth by no pledge. 
It is hcrself shc serres and not others,--of future days heedless, 
No sense of fecling has she for the good of posterity. 

4  2 CLASSIFICA TIOA: [C)av. ri. 

This a fault is in lnany,--things gained vithout labour 
Thoughtless they waste, unmindfid of times that are coming. 
So cows suck their own udders,--the milk proper for milk pails 
They pilfer away,--and why bear to them the rich fodder ? 
Not alone for oursclves do we live,--we live from the birth hour 
For out friends and our country, and whom the ages shall bring." 

The sentiment is admirable, and xvell placed by Whitney in the 
foremost ground,-- 

NT OT for our selues, alone xvee are create, 
But for our fi'endes, and for out countries good : 
And those, that are vnto theire fi'endes ingrate, 
And hot regarde theire ofspringe, and theire blood, 
Or hec, that wastes lais substance till he begges, 
Or selles lais landes, which seru'de lais parentes well : 
Is like the henne, when shee hathe lay'de her egges, 
That suckes them vp and leaues the emptie shell, 
Euen so theire spoile, to theire reproche, and shame, 
Vndoeth thcire heire, and quite decaycth theire naine." 

These txvo, Sambucus and Whitney, are the types, affirming 
that our powers and gifts and opportunities were ail bestowed, 
hot for mere selfish enjoyments, but to be improved for the 
general welfare ; Shakespeare is the antitype • he amplifies, and 
exalts, and finishes; he carries out the thought to its comple- 
tion, and thus attains absolute perfection; for in _/][casztrc for 
21[cas¢zrc (act i. sc. , 1.28, vol. i. p. 296), Vincentio, the duke, 
addresses Angclo,-- 
°' There is a kind of character in thy lifc, 
That to th' obscrver doth thy history 
Fully unfold. Thyself and thy belongings 
Are not thine own so proper, as to waste 
Thyself upon thy virtues, they on thee. 
Heaven doth vith us as we with torches do. 
Not light them for ourselves ; for if out virtues 
Did hOt go forth of us, 'twere ail alike 
As if we had thcm not. Spirits are not fincly touch'd 
But to fine issues ; nor Nature never lends 
The smallest scrnple of her excellence, 

VIII.] A£ORA£ .4ND «tSTHtTI6: 4i 3 

But, like a thrifty goddess, she determines 
Herself the glory of a creditor, 
Both thanks and use." 

No5 there is beauty in the types, brief though they be, and 
Oll a very lowly subject: but how admirable is the antitype! 
It entirely redeems the thought from any associated meanness, 
carries it out to its full excellence, and clothes it with vestments 
of inspiration. Such, in truth, is Shakespearc's great praise ;-- 
he can lift another man's thought out of the dust, and make it 
a fitting ornament even for ail archangel's diadem. 

One of Whitney's finest Emblems, in point of conception 
and treatment, and, I belicve, pcculiar to himself, one of 
those " newly devised," is founded on the sentiment, " By 

help of God" (p. 2o3). 
The representation is 
that of the hand of Divine 
Providence issuing from a 
cloud and holding the gir- 
dle which encompasses the 
earth. With that girdle 
Sir Francis Drake's ship, 
" the Golden Hind," was 
drawn and guided round 
the globe. 
The whole Emblem 
possesses considerable in- 
terest,- for it relates to 
the great national event of 

.4uxilio diuino. 
RICHARDE DRAKE, Efquier, in fraife of 
Sir FRACS DRAKE Knight. 
IVl¢itney, 586. 

Shakespeare's youth,--the first acconaplishment by Englishmen 
of the earth's circunmavigation. XVith 11o more than 164 able- 
bodied men, in rive small ships, little superior to boats with a 
deck, the adventurous commander set sail I3th December, 1577; 

414 CLASS[FICA T[O /: [Cll.V VI. 

he went by the Straits of Magellan, and on his return doubled 
the Cape of Good Hope, the I5th of March, I58O, having then 
only fifty-seven mcn and three casks of water. The perilous 
voyage was ended at Plynaouth, September the 26th, 15;80, after 
an absence of two years and ten months. 
These fcw particulars give more meaning to the Poet's de- 

THtOVC,tE scorchinge heate, throughe coulde, in stormes, and tempests 
By ragged rocks, by shelfes, & sandes : this Knighte did keepe his course. 
By gapinge gulfes hee pass'd, by lnonsters of the flood, 
By pirattes, thceues, and cruell foes, that long'd to spill his blood. 
That wonder greate to scape : but, GOD was on his side, 
And throughe them all, in spite of all, his shaken shippe did guide. 
And, to requite his paines : ly helibe of iboever d«uize. 
His happe, at lengthe did aunswere hope, to finde the goulden mine. 
Lct GR]ECIA then forbeare, to praise ber IASON boulde ? 
Who throughe the watchfull dragons pass'd, to win the fleece of goulde. 
Since by IIEDEAS hclpe, they weare inchaunted ai1, 
And IASON without perrilles, pass'de : the conqueste therefore small ? 
But, hee, of whome I write, this noble minded DRAKE, 
Did bringe away his goulden fleece, when thousand eies did wake. 
\Vherefore, yee woorthie wightes, that seeke for forreine landes : 
Yf that you can, corne alwaise home, by GANGES goulden sandes. 
And you, that liue at home, and can not brooke the flood, 
Geue praise to them, that passe the waues, to doe their countrie good. 
Before which sorte, as chiefe : in tempeste, and in cahne, 
Sir FRANCIS DRAKE, by due deserte, may weare the goulden palme." 

Hov similar, in part at least, is the sentiment in I4amk't 
(act v. sc. _', 1. 8, vol. viii. p. 64) ,- 

'" Our indiscretion sometilnes serves us well 
When our deep plots do pall ; and that should learn us 
There's a divinity that shapes our ends, 
Rough-hew theln how we will." 

Ill the Elnblem we may note the girdle by which Drake's 
ship is guided ; may it not bave been the origin of Puck's fancy 


in the 3[idsu»zmcr Viht's Drcam (act ii. sc. I, 1. t73, vol. ii. 
p. 216), when he ansxvers Oberon's strict command,-- 
" And be thou here again 
Ere thc Leviathan can swim a league. 
Puck. I'll put a girdlê round about the earth 
In forty minutes." 
Besicles, may it not have been flore this voyage of Sir 
Francis Drake, and the accounts which were published respect- 
ing it, that the correct knowledge of physical geography was 
derived which Richard II. displays (act iii. sc. , 1. 37, &c._ 
vol. iv. p. I65) ? as in the lines, 
"when thê sêarching êyê of heaven is hid, 
Behind the globe, that lights the lower world. 
whên from under this têrrêstrial ball 
Hê rires thê proud tops of thê êastêrn pinês 
And darts his light through every guilty hole. 
revêll'd in thê night 
\Vhilst wê wêrê vandêring with thê antipodes." 
.A_ nlere passing allusion to the same sentiment, a hint re- 
specting it, a single line expressing it, or only a word or two 
relating to it, may sometimes very decidedly indicate an 
acquaintance with the author by whom the sentiment has been 
enunciated in all its fulness. Tlms, Shakespeare, in speaking of 
Benedick, in 3[uch ,ddo about lVot]zDzff (act v. sc. I, 1. 17o , vol. il. 
P. 75), makes Don Pedro sa)',- 
"An if she did hot hate him deadly, she would love him dearly : the old 
man's daughter told us all." 
To which Claudius replies,- 
"AIl, all ; and, moreover, God saw him when he was hid in the garden." 
Now, Whitney (p. z-9) has an Emblem on this very 
subject ; the lnotto, " God lires and sces." It dcpicts Adam 


concealing himself, and a divine light Cil'cling the words, "VBI 
ES ? "-- lUhcrc art thou ? 

11 "ltitney, x586. 

]_I.:H1NDE a figtree great, him selfe did ADAM hide : 
And thought from GOD hec there might lurke, and should not bec 
Oh foole, no corners secke, thoughe thou a sinner bec ; 
For none but GoD can thee forgiue, who all thy waies doth sec."  

With the saine motto, "VBI ES?" and a similar device, 
Georgette de Montenay (editions 1584 and 162o) carries out the 
saine thought,-- 

* Soon ai'ter Whitney's time this embleln was repeated in that very odd and 
curious volume ; "Stature Buch, Darinnen Christliche Tugenden 13,eyspiel Einhundert 
ausserlesener Emblemala, mit sch6nen Kupffer-sfiicke geziener : " l'ranckfurt-am- 
Mayn, Anno tDcxIx. Svo, pp. 447- At p. 29o, Elnb. 65, with the words " 
Es ?" thea-e is the figure of Adam hiding behind a tree, and anmng descriptive stanzas 
in seven or eigfit languages, are some intended to be specimens of the langttage at that 
day spoken and written in 13ritain :-- 
" Adam did breake God's commandement, 
In Paradise against his clissent, 
Therefore he hyde him vnder a tree 
]3ecause Iris Lorde, him s//ould not sec. 
But alas) to God is all t]zing euident. 
Than ke faunde kim in a moment 
.-/nd will alwayes such wicked men 
Feind, if thcy doo from him runn." 

Scr. ri ! l.] J[OR.4L _:tVD ..SZ'HETIC. 4.t 7 

" Mdam ibotsoit eslrefort bien caché, 
Quaud il se meil ait«si souz le.flffuier. 
.[ais il n'y a cachetté, où le pechd 
Au-y«u «le IDie«t se puisse desMer. 
Se paue douze, qui OEwudra s'oublicr, 
Que Dieu u poid «tes ]totntes h mesch«nce, 
Qt' à se dozter à lou! lbechg licotce. " 
The similarity is too great to be named on Shakespeare's 
part an accidental coincidence; it may surely be set down as 
a direct allusion, hot indced of the mere copyist, but of the 
writer, who, having in his mind another's thought, does not 
quote it literally, but gives no uncertain indication that he 
gathered it up he cannot tell where, yet bas incorporated it 
among lais own treasures, and makes use of it as entirely 
his own. 

From Corrozet, Georgette de Montenay, Le Bey de Batilly, 
and others their contemporaries, we might adduce various 
Moral and Aïsthetical Emblems to which there are similarities 
of thought or of expression in Shakespeare's Dramas, but too 
slight to deserve special notice. For instance, there are ingrati- 
tude, the instability of the world, faith and charity and hope, 
calumny, adversity, friendship, fearlessness,but to dwell upon 
them would lengthen out statements and remarks more than 
is necessary. 

We will, however, make one more extract from Corrozet's 
" HECATOMGRAPHIE" (Emb. 83); to the motto, Bcauty 
comçaMoz of goodtess; which might have been in Duke Vin- 
centio's mind (Ucasure for [easztre, act iii. sc. I, l. I75, vol. i. 
p. 34o) when he addressed Isabel, 
"The hand that bath made you fair hath made you good ; the goodness 
that is cheap in beauty lnakes beauty brief in goodness ; but grace, being 
the soul of your complexion, shaii keep the body of it ever fait." 

4 ) 8 CL4 SSIiVlCA TIOA . [C H AV. V I. 

]eaulté compa[gne de bonté. 
Comme la pierre prec[eufe 
ER à l'anneau d'or bien conioln&e» 
Ainfi la beaulté gracieulè 
Doibt erre auecq la bonté Jointe. 

IA pierre bonne 
 '1 A l'homme donne 
I[7  "'"''é' 
 mud la perfonne 
 voir f'adonne 
Sa grand clarté 
Mais & beaulté 
Et dignité 
Augmente quand l'or l'enuironne 
e le comparÇ à la bonté 
Potn fa trelrande vtilité 
i à telle vertu conlBnne. 

• Formç elegante 
Beaulté patente 
De personnage 
Du tout augmente 
Se rend luylànte 
Q.p_and il eR rage 
Non au vilàge, 
lklals au courage 
Reluy la bonté excellente 
Et alors c'eR vng chef d'ouurage 
Qand on eR tresbeau de corfage 
Et quau cueur el vertn latente. 

SECT. V I l I, ] AIORAL M_Vb . 'STHI TIC: 419 

The French verse which immediatcly follows the Elnblem well 
describes it,-- 
'" As, for the precious stone 
The ring of gold is coin'd ; 
So, beauty in its grace 
Should be to goodness join'd." 

Thc dramas we have liberty to select from furnish several 
instances of the saine thought. First, from the Tz,o Gcutl«»at 
of I2"roa (act iv. sc. 2, 1. 38, vol. i. p. 135), in that exquisitely 
beautiful little song which answers thc question, " Who is 

Silvia ? "-- 

'; Who is Silvia? what is she, 
That all our swains comlnend her ? 
Holy, fait, and wise is she ; 
The heaven such grace did lend her, 
That she might admired be. 

ls she kind as she is fair? 
For beauty lives with kindness. 
Love doth to ber eyes repair, 
To help him of his blindness, 
And, being help'd, inhabits there. 

Then to Sih'ia let us sing, 
That Sih'ia is excelling ; 
She excels each lnortal thing 
Upon the dull earth dwelling : 
To her let us garlands bring." 

But a closer parallelism to Corrozet's Emblem of beauty 
joined to goodness occurs in //oz U, l'III. (act il. sc. 3, lines 6o 
and 75, vol. vi. pp. 45, 46} ; it is iii the soliloquy or aside" speech 
Chamberlain, who had been saying to _Aime 

of the Lord 

" The king's majesty 
Commends his good opinion of you» and 
Does purpose honour to )'ou no less flowing 
Than Marchioness of Petnbl'oke." 

With perfect tact Anne meets the flowing honours, and says, 

4-'0 CLMSSIFICM TIOA . [CrAv. Vl. 

'" Vouchsafe to speak my thanks and my obedience, 
As from a blushing handmaid to his highness, 
Whose health and royalty I pray for." 
In an asidc the Chamberlain owns,-- 
" I have perused her well : 
Beauty and honour in her are so mingled 
That they have caught the king : and who knows yet 
But from this lady may proceed a gem 
To lighten ail this isle ? " 
So on Romeo's first sight of Juliet (Romeo and Yuli«t, act i. 
sc. 5, 1. 41, vol. vil. p. 3o), her beauty and inner vorth called 
forth the confession,-- 
"o, she doth teach the torches to burn bright ! 
It seems she hangs upon the cheek of night 
Like a rich jewel in an E;.hiope's ear ; 
Beauty too rich for use, for earth too dear." 
And the Sonnet (cv. vol. ix. p. 6o3, 1.4) that represents love,- 
"Still constant in a wondrous excellence ;" 
also tells us of the abiding beauty of the soul,-- 
«  Fair, kind, and true,' is all rny argument, 
' Fair, kind, and true,' varying to other words ; 
And in this change is rny invention spent, 
Three themes in one, which wondrous scope affords. 
' Fair, kind, and true,' have often lived alone, 
,Vhich three till now never kept seat in one." 
The power of Conscience, as the soul's bulwark against 
adversities, has been sung ffom the time when Horace wrote 
(Epist. i. I. 60),-- 
" Hic murus aëneus esto, 
Nil conscire sibi, nulla pallescere culpa,"-- 
"This be thy wall of brass, to be conscious to thyself of no shalne to 
become pale at no crime." 
Or, in the still more popular ode (Car»c. i. ), which being of 
old recited in the palaces of Moecenas and Augustus at Rome, 

Svcï. viii.] AIORAL .4.VI) -ES77tI'J71C: 

has, after the flow of nearly nineteen centuries, been revived it 
the drawing rooms of Paris and London. and of the whole 
civilized world ;-, 
" Integer vitae, scelerisque purus, 
Non eget Mauris jaculis, neque arcu, 
Non venenatis gravida sagittis, 
Fusce, pharetra,"--- 

" He, sound in lais life, from all transgression free, 
Doth need no Moorish javelins, nor bended bow, 
bIor of arrows winged with poisons a quiver-tree, 
Fuscus, to strike his foe."  

13oth these sentiments of the lyric poet have beell imitated or 
adapted by the dranmtic; as in 2 I,'ur_y I7. (act iii. sc. 2, 1. 232. 
vol. v. p. 171), where the good king exclaims,-- 

"What stronger breast-plate than a heart untainted ! 
Thrice is he arm'd, that bath lais quarrel just, 
And he but naked, though lock'd up in steel, 
Vhose conscience with injustice is corrupted." 

And agahl, in ]ïlls A ldroliots (act iv. sc. 2, 1. 18, vol. ri. p. 
492), in the words of the original, on the scroll which Demetrit, s 
picks up.-- 
'" D«m. XVhat's here ? A scroll, and written round about ! 
Let's see : 
[Reads.] ' Integer vitae, scelerisque purus, 
Non eget Mauri jaculis, nec arcu.' 
ChL O, 'tis a verse in Horace ; I know it well : 
I read it in the grammar long ago. 
Mat. Ay, just ; a verse in Horace ; right, you bave it. 
[Aside.] Now, what a thing it is to be an ass ! 
Here's no sound jest : the old man bath found their guilt, 
And sends them weapons wrapp'd about with lines, 
That wound, beyond their feeling, to the quick." 

« For a fine Emblem to illustrate this passage, see " HORATII EMBLEMATA," by 
Otho Voenius, pp. 58, 59, edit. Antwerp, 4to, I6I; also pp. 70 and 7, to give 
artistic force to the idea of the "just man firm to his purpose.'" 

4 z 2 CZ.,4 SSIFIC.,4 TIOV. [Cl A V. V I. 

Several of the Emblem writers, however, propound a senti- 
ment not so gencrally lllOWll, in which Apollo's favourite tree, 
the Laurel, is the token of a soul unalarmed by threatening evils. 
Sambucus and Whitney so consider it, and illustrate it with the 
motto,--2"c puez" cousci«w« is mau's [aurd trz: 

The saying rests on the ancient persuasion that the laurel is 
the sign of joy, victory and safety, and that itis never struck 
cven by the bolts of Jove. Sambucus, personifying the laurel, 
celebrates its praise in sixteen elegiac lines beginning, 

" PRONA oirens cMumJ)eg-to, necfulmina terreet, 
Ob fcelus excelfa quee iacit arce pater," &c. 
Spread out flourishing heaven I survey, nor do lightnings terrify, 
Though for crime's sake the father hurls them from citadels on high, 
Yea even with my leaves I crackle, and although burnt • 
Daphne I naine, whom the master's love so importuned. 
So conscious virtue strengthens, and placed far from destruction 
Pleasing my state is to powers above, and long time is flourishing. 
Men's voices he never fears, nor the weapons of tire, 
x, Vho hath girded his mind round with snoxv-bright love. 
This mind the raging Eumenides will hOt distress, nor the home 
For the sad and the guiltless overturn'd without cause. 
Even the hoary swan worn out in inactive old age 
Gives forth admonitions, as it sings from a stifling throat ; 


Pure of heart with its mate conversing, it washes in water, 
And morals of clearest hue in due form rehearses. 
XVho repents of unlawful life, and whom conscious errols 
Do hOt oppress,--that man sings forth hynms everlasting." 

These thoughts in briefer and more nervous style Whitney 
rchearses to the old theme, A bracn zc,all, a so¢tnd cotsciccc 

(p. 67),-- 

Murus eeneus, fana confiientia. 
"/-0 MI.S HOBaRT Efquier. 
I)THE fi'eshe, and greene, the Laurell standeth sounde, 
Thoughe lightninges flasshe, and thunderboltes do flie : 
Where, other trees are blasted to the grounde. 
Yet, hOt one leafe of it, is xvithered drie : 
Euen so, the man that hathe a conscience cleare. 
When wicked men, doe quake at euerie blaste, 
Doth constant stande, and dothe no perrilles feare, 
Vhen tempestes rage, doe make the worlde agaste : 
Suche lnen are like vnto the Laurell tree, 
The others, like the blasted boughes that dic." 

But a much fuller agreement with the above motto does Whitney 
express in the last stanza of Emblem 3:,-- 

" A conscience cleare, is like a wall of brasse, 
That dothe hOt shake, with euerie shotte that hittes ; 
Eauen soe there by, our liues wee quiet passe, 
When guiltie mindes, are rack'de with fearful fittes : 
Then keepe thee pure, and soile thee hOt with sinne, 
For after guilte, thine inwarde greifes beginne." 

The saine property is assigned to the Laurel by Joachim 
Camerarius ("Ex Rg Hgl<BaIa," p. 35, edition I59O ). lle 
quotes sevcral authorities, or opinions for supposing that the 
laurel was not injured by lightning. Pliny, he says, sup- 
ported the notion; the Emperor 
betook himself to the shelter of 
before hiln did the saine thing, 
tection a girdle lnade ri-oto the 

Tiberius in thunder storms 
the laurel; and _Augustus 
adding as a further pro- 
skin of a sea-calf. Our 

424 CLMSSIt, TCM TI035. 

inodern authorities give no countellance to either of these 
Now, combilfing the thoughts on Conscience presented by 
the Emblems on the subject which have been quoted, can xve 
rail to perceive in Shakespeare, when he speaks of Conscience 
and its qualifies, a general agreement with Sambucus, and more 
especially with \Vlfitney ? 
How finely, in ]cmy ITIL (act iii. sc. 2, 1. 372, vol. ri. 1 ). 
76), do the old Cardinal and lais faithfld Cromwell converse,-- 

"" Enter ÇROMWELL, and stand$ amazed. 
ll'oL \Vhy, how nov, Cromwell '. 
(.)'oto. I have no pover to speak, sir. 
Il "aL \Vhat, amazed 
.-Xt my misfortunes ? can thy spirit wonder 
A great man should decline? Nay, an you eep, 
1 ara fall'n indeed. 
O'om. t low does your grace ? 
IVoL \Vhy, well : 
N ever so truly happy, my good Crolnwell. 
I know myself now; and I feel within me 
A peace abovc ail earthly dignities, 
A still and quiet conscience. 

1 aih able now, methinks, 
Out of a fortitude of soul I feel, 
To endure more miseries and greater far 
Than my weak-hearted enelnies date offer." 

And, on the othcr halld, the stings of Conscience, the d_eep 
remorse for iniquities, the self-condemnation which lights upon 
the sinful, never had expounder so forcible and true to nature. 
When Alonso, as portrayed in the Tcipcst (act iii. sc. 3, 1. 95, 
vol. i. p. 53), thought of his cruel treachery to lais brother 
Prospero, he says,-- 
« O, it is monstrous, monstrous ! 
lethought the billows spoke, and told me of it : 
The winds did sing it to lne ; and the thunder. 

SECT. VIII.] ci[ORAL .t eVD .STHE T[C. 425 

That deep and dreadful organ-pipc, pronounced 
The naine of Prosper : it did bass my trespass." 

And the King's dream, Oll the eve of Bosworth battle 
(Richard II[., act v. sc. 3, lines I79, I93, and 200, vol. v. p. (;25), 
what a picture it gives of the tumult of his soul !-- 

" O coward conscience, how dost thou affright me ! 

My conscience hath a thousand several tongues, 
And every tongue brings in a several talc, 
And cvery talc condcmns me for a villain. 

There is no creature loves inc 
And, if I die, no soul shall pity me :-- 
Nay, wherefore should they ? since that I lnyself, 
Find in myself no pity to myself. 
Methought, the souls of ail that. I had lnurder'd 
Came to my tent ; and cveryone did thrcat 
To-morrow's vengeance on the hcad of Richard." 

Various expressions of the dramatist may end this notice of 
the Judge within us,-- 

"' The wornl of conscience still begnaw thy soul." 
" Every man's conscience is a thousand swords 
To fight against that bloody homicide." 
" l'll haunt thee, like a wicked conscience still, 
That mouldcth goblins swift as frenzy thought." 
" Thus conscience doth make cowards of us all." 

In some degree allied to the power of 
retribution for sill ordained by the Divine Wisdoln. 
hot an Emblem to present in illustration, but the 
King" Lear (act v. sc. 3, 1. 7 , vol. viii. p. 416),-- 
,, The gods are just, and of out pleasant vices 
Make instruments to plague us,"-- 

conscience is thc 
We have 
lines from 

3 1 

4 - 6 CZASSIFICA T.I-O . [CP. VI. 

are so co-incident with a sentiment in the ColoEessions (bk. i. c. 
2, § I9) of the great Augustine that they deserve at least to 
be set in juxta-position. The ]3ishop is addressing the Supreme 
in prayer, and naming the sins and follies of lais youth, says,-- 
"De ibeccanli meiibso juslè retribuebas mihL JUSISTI enim, £" sic esl, ul 
#œena sua sibi sil omnis inordinalus animis." 
i.e. « By my own sin Thou didst justly punish me. For thou hast commanded, 
and so it is, that every inordinate affection should bear its own punishment. "v 
" Timon ofAthcns," we are informed by Dr. I)rake (vol. il. p. 
447), " is an admirable satire on the folly and ingratitude of 
mankind ; the former exemplified in the thoughtless profusion 
of Timon, the latter in the conduct of his pretended friends ; it 
is, as Dr. Johnson observes, 
"'A very pmverful warning against that ostentatious liberality, which 
scatters bounty, but confers no benefits, and buys flattery but hot 
There is some doubt whether Shakespeare derived lais idea 
of this play from the notices of Timon which appear in Lucian, 
or from those given by Plutarch. The fact, however, that the 
very excellent work by Sir Thomas North, Knight, The Lires 
of thc A?oblc Grccias and Romaics, &c., xvas published in 1579, 
--and that Shakespeare copies it very closely in the account of 
Timon's sepulchre and epitaph, show, I think, Plutarch to have 
been the source of his knowledge of Timon's character and 
One of the Emblem writers, Sambucus, treated of the same 
subject in eighteen Latin elegiacs, and expressly named it, 
Timot the [ism«throtc. The scene, too, which the device 
represents, is in a garden, and we can very readily fancy that 

* Shakespeare illustrated by parallelisms from the Fathers of the Church might, I 
doubt hot, be rendered very interesting and instructive by a writer of competent 
learning and enthusiasm, not to naine itftrore, in behalf of lais subiect. 


the figure on the leff is the 
reason with lais toaster,-- 

old stevard Flavius corne to 

ODERAT Aic cunctos, nec fe, nec amabat amicos, 
Mwôw &vOednov, nomina digna gerens. 
Hoc ¢vitium, OE morbus de bili nafcitur atra, 
/lnxiat hec, curas fi«ppeditat, graues. 
4/apropter cecidiffe piro, fregi.ffeç crura 
Fertur, 6 auxilium non petii.ffe malo. 
Suauibus à fociis,  confuetudine dulci 
P.i fe fubducunt, .vulnera feua ferunt. 
Conditio hec mifera efl, trifles fufpiria ducunt, 
Cumf nihil caufie efl, occubuiffe .velint. 
/lt tu dura poteris, noto fociere fodali, 
Subleuet .vt pre_ffum, cor dolore .vacet. 
.os nulla attingunt prorfus commercia grato 
Arque fodalitio, fubfMiis carent : 
Cut DO funt proprij, aut falfus peruertit inanes 
Senfus, ,vt hos flolidos, vana corda putes. 
7"u .verb tandem nobis dialecTica fponte 
Donata, in lucem mittito,fi memor es. 

In this case we have given the Latin of Sambucus in full, 
and append a nearly literal translation,-- 


"Ail lnen did he hate, nor loved himself, nor his kindred,-- 
One hating mankind was the naine, vorthy of hiln, he bore. 
This faultiness and disease fi'om the black bile arise, 
.Vhen fieely it flows heavy cares it increases. 
Wherefore from a pear tree he is said to have fallen, 
To have broken his legs, nor help to have sought for the evil. 
From pleasant COlnpanions, and sweet conversation 
They who withdrav themselves, cruel xvounds have to bear. 
Wretched this state of theirs, sorrowful what sighs they draw, 
And though never a cause arise, 'tis their wish to have died. 
But thou, while the pover relnains, join thy vell-known companion, 
Thee overwhehned he strengthens, and free sets the heart ri'oto its grief. 
,Vholn, with a fi-iend that is pleasing, never intercourse touches, 
Without COlnpanionship, long without assistance they remain. 
Either the gods are out own, or false feeling perverteth the soul, 
And you fancy lnen stupid, and their hearts all are vain. 
To us at length reasoning power fieely being gn'anted, 
Into light do thou send them, if of light thou art mindful." 
The character here sketched is deficient iii the thorough 
heartiness of hatred for which Shakespeare's Timon is dis- 
tinguished, yet may it have served him for the primal material 
out of which to create the drama. In Sambucus there is a 
mistiness of thought and language which might be said almost 
to prefigure the doubtful utterances of some of our modern 
philosophers, but iii Shakespeare the toaster himself takes in 
hand the pencil of true genius, and by the contrasts and 
harnlonies, the unmistakeable delineations and portraitures, lays 
on the canvas a picture as rich in its colouring as it is constant 
iii its fidelity to nature, and as perfect in its finish as it is bold 
iii its conceptions. 
The extravagance of Tilnon's hatred may be gathered from 
only a few of his expressions, 
" Burn, house ! sink, Athens ] henceforth hated be 
Of Tilnon man and ail humanity." 
Timot of.4lhe«s, act iii. sc. 6, 1. m 3. 
' Tilnon will to the woods, where he shall find 
The unkindest beast more kinder than mankind. 

Situa'. VIII.] .a[ORAL AArD .STft'ETIC. 4z 9 

The gods confound--hear me, you good gods all !-- 
The Athenians both within and out that wall ! 
And grant, as Timon grows, his hate lnay grow 
To the whole race of lnankind, high and loxv ! 

"AI1 is oblique ; 
There's nothing level in our cursed natures 
But direct villany. Therefore be abhorr'd 
AIl feasts, societies and throngs of lnen." 

" I anl misanthropos, and hate lnankind. 
For thy part, I do wish thou wert a dog, 
That I lnight love thee something." 

Act iv. sc.1, 1. 35- 

Act iv. sc. 3, 1. 18. 

Act iv. sc. 3, 1. 51. 

" I never had honest lnan about nie, I ; all 
1 kept were knaves, to serve in meat to villains." 
Act iv. sc. 3, I. 475. 

And so lais ungoverned passion of hatred goes on until it 
cuhninatcs in thc epitaph placed on his tomb, which hc namcs 
his "cverlasting mansion," 

" Upon the beached verge of the salt flood." 

That epitaph as glven by Shakespeare, from North's PIMar«k 

(edition 579, P. lOO3), is ahnost a litcral rendcring from 
the real epitaph recorded in the Greek Anthology (Jacobs, 
vol. i. p. 86), 

Toî, vobta ' of) 'edo-eo-Oe, uat¢ol  t¢at¢gos hr3ottrO.'" 

Of which a very close translation will be,-- 

" Here, having rent asunder a doemon oppressed soul, I lie ; 
The naine ye shall hOt inquire, but ye bad ones badly shall perish." 

The epitaph of the drama (Timou tf Athcus, act v. sc. 4, 1. 69, 

43 o CLA SSZFICA TION.. [C nAP. ¥ I. 

vol. vii. p. 305) is thus read by Alcibiades from the wax impres- 
sion taken at the tomb,-- 

" Here lies a wretched corse, of vretched soul bereft : 
Seek not my naine : a plague consume you wicked caitiffs left ! 
Here lie I, Timon ; who, alive, ail living men did hate : 
Pass by and curse thy fill : but pass and stay not here thy gait." 

Plutarch* introduces a mention of Timon into the life of 
Marc Antony, whom he compares in some respects to the 
misanthrope of Athens. He gives the same epitaph as that of 
the Anthology above quoted, except a letter or tvo,-- 

ToUuola.a ' oU rtvo'ourOt» ¢a¢ol  ¢a¢go àrrd&ourOt." 

Plutarch avers, "Ka't rovro v cwrov ertçC,,vra wotqe»'«t eov«t, 
" And people say that during his life he hiniself ruade this 
epitaph." The narrator then adds, " oro e wptçp@et,ov, 
KatXov et,"" ut this round the margin is by Calli- 

" I, Timon the manhater dwell within : but pass by 
To bewail me thou hast spoken many things ;--only pass by." 

The two epitaphs Shakespeare bas combined into one, 
showing indeed his acquaintance with the above passage 
through North's Phttarch, but not discriminating the authorship 
of the two parts. North's translation of the epitaphs is simple 
and expressive, but the Langhornes, in I77O , vulgarise the lines 
"At last l've bid the knaves farewell 
Ask not my name, but go to hell." 

* Opo'a, vol. i. p. 649 , Francofurti, 62o. 


" My name is Timon : knaves begone, 
Cl.lrse llle but COlne not near my stone." 

How Wrangham, in his edition of the Langhornes, I826, could 
without notice let this pass for a translation, is altogether un- 
accountable ! 
Shakespeare's, adapted as it is by Sir Thomas North in r6r2, 
may certainly be regarded as a direct version from the Greek, 
and might reasonably be adduced to prove that he possessed 
some knowledge of that language. Probably, however, he 
collected, as he could, the general particulars respecting the 
veritable and historical Timon, and obtained the help of some 
man of learning so as to give the very epitaph which in the 
rime of the Peloponnesian war had been placed on the thorn- 
surrounded sepulchre of the Athenian misanthrope. 
To conclude this notice we may observe that the breaking of 
the legs, which Sambucus mentions, is said to have been the 
actual cause of the real Timon's death ; for that in lais hatred of 
mankind he even hated himself, and would not allow a surgeon 
to attempt his cure. 

F.nvy and Hatred may be considered as nearly allied, the 
latter too often springing from the former. _Alciat, in lais 7st 
Emblem, gives a brief description of Envy,-- 

Thus amplified with considerable force of expression by 
Whitney (p. 94), *-- 

* Reference might be ruade also to Whitney's fine tale, ConccrMnff Envl, atd 
Avarice, which inmediately follows the 1)«scritqion of Enzy. 

432 CLASSIFICA TIO2V. [C iiAl,. V I. 


" ATHAT hideous hagge ,vith visage sterne appcares ? 
* * Whose feeble limmes, can scarce the bodie staie : 
This, Enuie is : leane, pale, and full of yeares, 
Who with the blisse of other pines awaie. 
And what declares, ber eating vipers broode ? 
That poysoned thoughtes, bee euermore her foode. 

%Vhat meanes her eies ? so bleared, sore, and redd : 
Her mourninge still, to see an others gaine. 
And what is mente by snakes vpon hcr head ? 
The fruite that springes, of such a venomed braine. 
But whie, her harte shee rentes vithin her brest ? 
It sheves ber sclfe, doth worke her owne vnrest. 

\Vhie lookes shee vronge ? bicause shee voulde not see, 
An happie wight, which is to ber a-hell : 
What other partes within this furie bee? 
Her harte, with gall :her tonge, with stinges doth swell. 
And laste of all, ber staffe with prickes aboundes : 
Which shoves her vordes, wherewith the good shee voundes." 

dramatist speaks of the horrid creature with equal 
Among lais phrases are,-- 

" Thou makest thy knife keen ; but no metal can, 

SECT. VIII.] 2]lroIz-Z A-ArD .STETIC. 433 

No, hOt the hangnmn's axe bear half the keenness 
Of thy sharp envy." 
[«rch«nl of Uenice, act iv. sc. 1, 1. 12 4. 

" And for we think the eagle-vinged pride 
Of sky-aspiring and ambitious thoughts, 
\Vitb rival-hating envy, set on you 
To wake out peace." 
Richard II., act i. sc. 3, 1. 12 9, 

"Would curses kill, as doth the lnandrake's groan, 
I would invent as bitter-searching terres, 
As curst, as harsh and horrible to hear, 
1)eliver'd strongly through my ri,md teeth, 
\Vith full as many signs of deadly hate, 
As lean-faced Envy in hcr loathsome cave." 
", H«n. l'I., act iii. sc. 2, 1. 31o. 

"'tis grcater skill 
In a true hate, to pray they have their will : 
The very devils cannot plague theln better." 
(mbeline, act ii. sc. 5, 1. 33. 

" Men that make 
Envy and crooked malice nourishmcnt 
Dare bite the best." 
tien. UIII., act v. sc. 3, 1. 43. 

"That monster envy." 

Periclcs, act iv. Introd., 1. I2. 

The ill-famed Thersites, that railcr of the Grecian camp, 
may close the array against "the hideous hagge with visage 
sterne" (Troihzs and Crcssida, act il. sc. 3, I. 8, vol. vi. 
p. I69), 
"1 have said lny prayers ; and devil Envy say Amcn." 

The wrong done to the soul, through denying it at the 
last hour the consolations of religion, or through negligence 
in hot informing it of its danger when severe illness arises, 
is set forth with true Shakespearean power in Holbein's 
3 K 


SilJmhtc]rcs & Historiccs faa's tc ht [ort (Lyons, I538 ), on 
sign. Nij, 
"O si cculx, qui font tcllcs choses, scauoicnt le mal qu'ilz font, ilz ne 
c6mcttroient iamais vne si grande faulte. Car de me oster mes biens, 
pcrsccuter llla personne, dcnigrer ma renomm6e, ruyner nla naaison, 
destruirc m6 parêtaige, scdalizcr ma famille, crilniner ma vie, ces ouures s6t 
dg cruel ennemy. Mais d'estre occasion, q le pcrde in6 ame, pour n6 la 
c6seiller au besoing, c'est vne oeuure dag diable d'Enfer. Car pire est q vng 
diable l'h6me, qui trompe le malade." 
It is in a similar strain that Shakespeare in Otlzdlo (act iii. 
sc. 3, lines 45 and x59, vol. viii. pp. 512, 53) speaks of thc 
wrong donc by keeping back confidence, and by countcnancing 
" ONt. Thou dost conspire against thy friend, Iago, 
If thou but think'st him wrong'd and mak'st his car 
A strangcr to thy thoughts. 
I«go. It werc not for your quiet nor your good, 
Nor for my manhood, honesty, or wisdom, 
To let you know my thoughts. 
()llt. XVhat dost thou mcan ? 
logo. Good naine in man and woman, dear my lord, 
ls the immediate jewel of their souls ; 
XVho steals my purse steals trash ; 'tis somcthing, nothing ; 
'Twas naine, 'tis his, and has been slave to thousands ; 
But he that filches from me my good naine 
Robs me of that which hOt enriches him 
And makes me poor indced." 
The gallant ship, courageously handled and with high soul of 
perseverance and fearlessness guided through adverse waves, has 
for long ages been the type of brave men and brave vomen 
struggling against difficulties, or of states and nations anfid 
opposing influences battling for deliverance and victory. Even 
if that gallant ship fails in her voyage she becomes a fitting 
type, how "human affairs may decline at their highest." So 
Sambucus, and Whitney affer him (p. x), adapt their device 
and stanzas to the motto, 

SECT. VIII,] l/OR,IL .,t.'VD . I'.STHETIC. 435 

Res humanoe in fummo d¢clinant. 

,'¢a:iq«ctts, 584. 

I r media libr«t Phcebus ,lum lumina ceelo, 
Diffoluit ra,tiis, que cecLtere, niues. 
Cùm res humant in fimmo flant,flepe liquefi'unt : 
Et nihil aternum, quo,t ralit atra dies. 
Nil iuuat htgentes habitare palatia Rêges, 
Con,titio miferos hec ea, témque marier. 
Mors eequat cunos, opibus nec partit i» horam, 
FrbAque ,tum Folitant, oc_yus illa venit. 
Heu, leuiter q;entus pellit nos omnis inermes, 
Concidlmus citiùs quàm leuat aura rofas. 
"T,r gallante Shipp, that cutts the azure surge, 
- And hathe both ride, and wisshed windes, at will : 
Her tackle sure, with shotte her foes to vrge, 
V'ith Captaines boulde, and marriners of skill, 
"Vith streamers, flagges, topgallantes, pendantes braue, 
When Seas do rage, is swallowed in the waue. 
The snowe, that falles vppon the mountaines greate, 
Though on the Alpes, which seeme the clowdes to reache, 
Can hot indure the force of Phoebus heate, 
But wastes awaie, Experience doth vs teache : 
V'hich warneth ail, on Fortunes wheele that clime 
To beare in minde how they haue but a time." 

But with brighter auguries, though from a similar device, 
Alciat (Emb. 43) shadows forth hope for a COlumonwealth 
when dangers are threatening. A noble vessel with its sails set 

436 CZASS[F[C.4 T[O. [CnAV. VI. 

is tossing upon the billows, the winds, however, xvafting it 
forward ; then it is he gives utterance to the thought, 
th« Com_pauiou of 17ctor.j, ; and thus illustrates his meaning,*-- 
"Ely storms that are numbcrlcss our Commonwealth is shaken, 
And hope for safety in the fiturc, hope alone is present : 
So a ship with thc ocean about her, whcn the winds seize her, 
Gapcs with wide fissures 'raid the trcacherous watcrs. 
What of help, the shining stars, brothers of Helen, can bring : 
To spirits cast down good hope soon doth restore." 
Whitney (p. 37), from the salue motto and device, ahnost 
with a clarion's SOUllCl, re-echocs the thought, 

,, TttE shippe, that longe vppon the sca dothe salle, 
- And here, and therc, with varrijng windes is toste : 
On rockes, and sandes, in daunger ofte to quaile. 
Yet at the lengthe, obtaines the wished coaste : 
Which beinge wonne, the trompetts ratlinge blaste, 
Dothe teare the skie, for ioye ofperills paste. 
* The original lines at-e, 
" INNVItEIIS agitur Re@ublica nostra 23rocellis, 
Et @es wenturae sola saltttis adest : 
Non secus ac nauis medio circum eequore, veuti, 
Quam ralMunt ; falsis tamq. fatiscit aquis. 
Qudd ci If elenœe aducniant lucentia «idcra fragr«« : 

S ECT. V I I l. ] «J'OR,I L ,4 VD « -STIfE TIC. 4,3 7 

Thoughc toaster reste, thoughe Pilottc take his ease, 
Yet nighte, and day, the ship hcr course dothe keepe : 
So, whilst that man dothe saile theise worldlie seas, 
His voyage shortes : althoughe he wake, or sleepe. 
And if he keepe lais course directe, he winnes 
That wished porte, wherc lastinge ioyc beginnes." 

To a similar purport is the " FINIS CORONAT OPVS,"--T/lc 
cm! crowns thc work,of Otho Vœenius (p. Io8), if pcrchance 
Shakespcare may have scen it. Cupid is watching a sca-tosscd 
ship, and appcars to say, 

" Unlcss thc raft though tossed by various storms 
Thc port dcsircd obtains, think that it perishcs ; 
Vain is the daily love if it no triumph forms, 
For wcll ho work begins, who well work finishcs." 


howcvcr, rendered at thc timc into English and 

" ll'hcrc lhc cndisgoodall isgood." 
« The ship toste by the waues doth to no purpose sailc, 
Vnlesse thc porte shee gayn whcreto her cours doth tend. 
Right so th' euent of loue appeereth in the end, 
For losse it is to loue and neucr to prcuaile." 
" Il fine corona l'opere." 
'uza vtdcr gia»tai l'aza[o orlo : 
Imhtffa[o d'Amor quel co  k & 
C/te COt ratio so'ar tai iloll s'aaga." 

Messin in lais translation of Boissard's tmbh'ms (edition I588, 
p. 24) , takes the motto, "_A_v NAVIRE AGITÉ s¢'111b[c 
l'homme," and dilates into four stanzas the neatly expressed 
single stanza of the original. 


Ii«staltti sempcr proa'hl«a mlfraffio. 
Optima res hozthli esl noz nasci : 2broaima, si te 
ASsci fh vclcnl, q«tàit cit3 )bosse mol L" 
" This lifc is as a kecl cntrusted to the sea, 
Ever to threatening shipwreck nearest. 
Not to be born for lnan is best ; next, if to thee 
The fatcs give birth, quick death is dcarest." 

Shakespeare takes up these various ideas of vhich the 
ship iii storln and iii calm is typical, alld to some of them 
undoubtedly gives uttcrance from the lips of the dauntless 
Nargaret of Anjou (3 f]ctO' l'f-, act v. sc. 4, I. I, vol. v. 
p. 3z5),-- 
" Great lords, visc mon nc'er sit and vail thcir loss, 
But chcerly scek how to redress their harms. 
.Vhat though the lnast be now blown overboard, 
The cable broke, out holding-anchor lost, 
And half out sailors swallow'd in the flood ? 
Yet livcs out pilot still : Is't meet that he 
Should leave the hchn and like a fearful lad 
.Vith tearful eyes add water to the sea 
And give lnore strength to that which hath too much ; 
.Vhiles, in his moan, the ship splits on the rock, 
.Vhich industry and courage lnight have saved ? 
Ah, what a shalnc ! ah, vhat a fault vere this ! 
Sa),, V'arwick was our ancbor ; what of that ? 
And Montague our top-lnast ; what of hiln ? 
Our slaughter'd friends the tackles ; what of these ? 
.Vhy, is hOt Oxford here another anchor ? 
And Somerset another goodly toast ? 
The friends of France our shrouds and tacklings ? 
And, though unskilful, why hOt Ned and I 
For once allow'd the skilfid pilot's charge ? 
We will hOt froln the hehn to sit and weep, 
But keep our course, though the rough wind say,--no, 
From shelves and rocks that threaten us with wreck. 
As good to chide the waves as speak them fair. 
And what is Edward but a ruthless sea ? 
What Clarence but a quicksand of deceit ? 
And Richard but a rugged fatal rock ? 


Ail thcse the enemics to our poor bark. 
Say, you can swim ; alas, 'tis but a while : 
Tread on the sand ; why, there you quickly sink : 
Bestride the rock ; the tide will wash you off, 
Or else you famish ; that's a thrcefold death. 
This speak I, lords, to let you understand, 
If case some one of you would fly ff'oto us, 
That there's no hopcd-for mercy with the brothers 
More than with ruthless waves, with sands and rocks. 
XVhy, courage thcn ! what cannot be avoided 
'Twere childish weakness to lamcnt or fear." 

\Vell did the bold queen merit the outspoken praises of her 
" Mcthinks, a WOlnan of this valiant spirit 
Should, if a coward hcard hcr spcak these words, 
Inftse his breast with magnanilnity, 
And make him, naked, foil a man at arms." 

_/knd in a like strain, when Agamemnon xvould shmv that 
the difficulties of the ten years' siege of Troy vere (1. 2o),-- 

" But the protractive trials of great Jove 
To find persistive constancy in men ;" 

the venerable Nestor, in Troilus m«d Crcssida (act i. sc. 3, 1. 33, 
vol. vi. p. 42), enforces the thought by adding, 

" In the reproof of chance 
Lies the true proof of men : the sea being smooth, 
How many shallow bauble boats dare sail 
Upon her patient breast, making their way 
With those of nobler bulk ! 
But lct the ruffian Boreas once enrage 
The gentle Thetis, and anon behold 
The strong-ribb'd bark through liquid mountains cut, 
Bounding between the two moist elements 
Like Perseus' horse. 

EveD so 
Doth valour's show and valour's worth divide 

440 CZ,4SSIFICXTIO. [C,v. VI. 

In storms of fortune : for in her ray and brightness 
The herd hath lnore annoyance by the breesê 
Than by the tiger ; but when the splitting wind 
Makes flexible the knees of knotted oaks, 
And flies fled under shade, why then the thing of courage 
As roused with rage with rage doth sympathize, 
And with an accent tuned in selfsame key 
Retorts to chiding fortune." 

To the saine great sentiments Georgette Montenay's 
" EMILEMES CIIRESTIENNES" (Rochclle edition, p. I I) supplies 
a vcry suitablc illustration ; it is to thc motto, Q««cilz tizz«bo ?-- 
" Whom shall I fear ? "-- 

"Du ffrand lberil dcs w'ns & d« la »ter, 
C'est kamme a bi«tz cafft«aissat«c« très clair,; 
t ne o'aiml dbaitl de se voir abistttcr 
Rusque son dgieu l'adresse et hty csdah'e." 

The device itself is excellent,a singe mariner on a tem- 
pestuous sea, undaunted in his little skiff; and the hand of 
Providence, issuing from a cloud, holds out to him a beacon 

" On a student entangled in love," is the subject of Alclat's 
IoSth Emblem. The loyer appears to have been a jurisconsult, 
whom Alciat, himself a jurisconsult, represents,-- 

" Immcrsed in studies, in oratory and right well skilled, 
And great especially in ail the processes of law, 
Haliarina he loves ; as much as ever loved 
The Thracian prince his sisteîs beauteous maid. 
Why in Cyprus dost thou overcome Pallas by another judge ? 
Sufficient is it not to conquer at Mount Ida?" 

The unfinished thoughts of Alciat are brought out more 
complctely by Whitney, xvho thus illustrates lais subject 
(p. 135), 

SEc'v. VIII.] llfOltAL .,4N19 «îESTIIETIC. 44  

yn fludiofum cIum amore. 

"/ Reuerend sage, of wisedolne most profounde, 
Beganne to doate, and laye awaye his bookes : 
For CVPID then, his tender harte did wounde, 
That onlie nowe, he lik'de his ladies lookes ? 
Oh VENVS staie ? since once the price was thine, 
Thou ought'st hot still, at I)ALLAS thus repine." 

Note, now, how the thoughts of the Emblematists, though 
greatly excelled in the language which clothes them, are matched 
by the avowals which the severe and grave Angelo made to 
himself in _]l[t'as¢tre for _/][cas¢tre (act il. sc. 4, 1. , vol. i. p. 327). 
He had been disposed to carry out against another the full 
severity of the law, which he now felt himself inclined to infringe, 
but confesses,-- 

"When I would pray and think, I think and pray 
To several subjects. Heaven hath my enapty words : 
XVhilst my invention, hearing hot my tongue, 
Anchors on Isabel: Heaven in my mouth, 
As if I did but only chew his naine ; 
And in my heart the strong and swelling evil 
Of my conception. The state, whereon I studied, 
Is like a good thing, being often read, 
Grown fear'd and tedious ; yea, my gravity, 
XVherein-let no man hear me--I take pride, 

3 L 


Could I with boot change for an idle plumc, 
lVhich the air beats for vain. O place, O form, 
How often dost thou with thy case, thy habit, 
XVrench awe ri'oto fools, and tie the wiser souls 
To thy false seeming ! Blood, thou art blood : 
Let's write good angel on the devil's horn ; 
'Tis not the devil's crest." 

But the entire force of this parallelism in thought is scarcely 
to be apprehended, unless we mark _A_ngelo's previous conflict of 
desire and judglnent. Isabel utters the wish, " Heaven keep 
your honour sale!" _/knd after a hearty "_/klnen," the old man 
confesses to himself (p. 324), _ 

" For I ara that way going to temptation, 
VVhere prayers cross." 
Act ii. sc. 2, 1.  58. 
" XVhat's this, what's this ? Is this her fauit or naine ? 
The tempter or the tempted, who sins most ? 
Not she ; nor doth she tempt : but it is 1 
That, lying by the violet in the sun, 
Do as the carrion does, not as the flower, 
Corrupt with virtuous season. Can it be 
That modesty may more betray our sense 
Than woman's lightness." 
Act il. sc. z, 1. 162. 
"What, do I love her, 
That I desire to hear her speak again, 
And feast upon her eyes ? XVhat is't I dream on ? 
O cunning enemy, that, to catch a saint, 
With saints dost bait thy hook ! Most dangerous 
Is that temptation that doth goad us on 
To sin in loving virtue." 
Act ii. sc. 2, 1. 177. 

There is ai1 Emblem by \Vhitney (p. I3I), which, though in 
some respects similar to one at p. 178 of the "PEGMA" by Costa- 
lius, 1555, entitled " Iron," "on the miser)" of the human lot," is 
to a very great degree his own, and which makes it appear in a 

• qrCT. VIII.] i]ORAL A.VI) .STHITIC. 443 

stronger light than usual, that a close resemblance exists 
between lais ideas and even expressions and those of Shake- 
speare. The subject is "Writings remain," and the device the 
overthrow of stately buildings, wlfile books contilme unharmcd. 

Scrilta manent. 
'-/'0 Sh" ARTHVRE /k|aNWaRIN6I Knight. 

Il Itiltey, z586. 

" [ " mightie TROIE, with gates of steele, and brasse, 
*- Bee worne awaie, with tracte of stealinge time : 
If CARTHAGE, faste : if THEBES be growne with grasse. 
If BABEL stoope : that to the cloudes did clime : 
If ATHENS, and NVMANTIA suffered spoile : 
If .]EGYPT spires, be euened vith the soile. 

Then, what maye laste, which time dothe not impeache, 
Since that wee see, theise lnonumentes are gone : 
Nothinge at all, but time doth ouer reache, 
It eates the steele, and weares the marble stone : 
But writinges laste, thoughe yt doe what it can, 
And are preseru'd, euen since the worlde began. 

And so they shall, while that thcy saine dothe laste, 
"Which haue declar'd, and shall to future age : 
Vhat thinges before three thousande yeares haue paste, 
"What martiall knightes, haue march'd vppon this stage : 
'Vhose actes, in bookes if writers did hot saue, 
Their faine had ceaste, and gone with them to graue. 


Of SAMSONS strengthe, of worthie IOSVAS might. 
Of DAVIDS actes, of ALEXANDERS force. 
Of CESAR greate ; and SClPIO noble knight, 
Howe shoulde we speake, but bookes thereof discourse : 
Then fauour them, that learne within their youthe : 
But loue them beste, that learne, and write the truthe." 

La 'ic dc [cmoh'c, and Uitc ut vhtas.--" Live that you 
may live,"--emblematically set forth by pen, and book, and 
obelisk, and ruined towers, in Boissard's lmblcms by Messin 
(588, pp. 40, 4), give the saine sentiment, and in the Latin 
by a fev bricf lines, 

" Non o#«nis z,i,it, vild qui sibira! i« i«td : 
S«d ¢ui 2bost frti fitno a OE,iv# adkuc : 
Et ctti fiost«ril«s frm« r¢coitht serval 

Thus having the main idca taken up in the last of 
French stanzas,-- 
" Mais qui de ses vertus la plume a pour garand : 
Celuy contre le temps invincible se rend : 
Car elle vainc du temps & l'effort, & l'injure." 

the four 

In various instances, only with greater strength and beauty, 
Shakespeare gives utterance to the saine sequences of thought. 
When, in Lovc's Laboztr's Lost (act i. sc. I, 1. I, vol. il. p. 97), 
fashioning his court to be,-- 
" A little Academe, 
Still and contemplative in living art," 

Ferdinand, king of Navarre, proclaims,-- 

" Let Faine, that all hunt afler in their lives, 
Lire register'd upon out brazen tombs, 
And then grace us in the disgrace of death ; 
When, spite of cormorant devouring Time, 
The endeavour of this present breath may buy 
That honour which shall bate his scythe's keen edge, 
And make us heirs of ail eternity." 

SECT. VIII.] .]I[OR.,4L .,42V'.D ./ES T.[-ZE TIC. 445 

In lais Sonnets, more especially, Shakespeare celebrates the 
enduring glory of the mind's treasures. Thus, the 55th Sonnet 
( II'or/«s, vol. ix. p. 578) is written almost as Whitney wrote,-- 

"Not marble, nor the gilded lnonuments 
Of princes, shall outlive this powerful rhyme ; 
But you shall shine more bright in these contents, 
Than unswept stonê, besmear'd x'ith sluttish lime. 
V'hen wasteful war shall statues overturn, 
And broils foot out the work of masonry, 
Nor Mars his sword, nor war's quick tire shall burn 
I'he living record of your lnemory. 
'Gainst death and all-oblivious enmity, 
Shall you pace forth ; your praise shall still find room, 
Even in the eyes of ail posterity 
That wear this world out to the ending doom. 
So, till the judgment that yourself arise, 
You lire in this, and dwell in loyers' eyes." 

But the 65th 

Sonnet (p. 583) is still more in accordance with 
ideas,not a transcript of theln, but ai1 appro- 

Since brass, nor stone, nor earth, nor boundless sea, 
But sad mortality o'ersways their power, 
How with this rage shall beauty hold a plea, 
XVhose action is no stronger than a flower ? 
O how shall summer's honey breath hold out 
Against the wreckful siege of battering days, 
XVhen rocks impregnable are not so stout, 
Nor gates of steel so strong, but Time decays ? 
O fearful meditation ! where, alack! 
Shall Time's best jewel from Time's chest lie hid ? 
Or what strong hand can hold his swift foot back ? 
Or who his spoil of beauty can forbid ? 
No one, unless this miracle have might, 
That in black ink my love may still shine bright." 

How closely, too, are these thoughts allied to some in that 
Emblem (p. 197) in which Whitney, following Hadrian Junius, 
so well celebrates "the eternal glory of the pen." 

446 £ASSI.FICTION.. [CIAI. ri. 

Pennoe gloria immortalis. 
t,l Iacobum Blondelium. 

7unilts, z565.  

He has been telling of Sidney's praise, and in a well-turned 
compliment to him and to his other friend, " EDWARDE DIER," 
makes the award,-- 

"This Embleme lo, I did present, vnto this woorthie Knight. 
Who, did the saine refuse, as not his prper due : 
And at the first, lais sentence was, it did belonge to you. 
VVherefore, lo, faine with trompe, that mountes vnto the skye: 
And, farre aboue the highest spire, ri'oto pole, to pole dothe flye, 
Heere houereth at your will, with pen adorn'd with baies : 
Which for you bothe, shee hath prepar'd, vnto your endlesse praise. 
The laurell leafe for you, for him, the goulden pen ; 
The honours that the Muses giue, vnto the rarest men. 
Wherefore, proceede I praye, vnto your lasting faine ; 
For writinges last when wee bec gonne, and doe preserue our naine. 
And whilst wee tarrye heere, no treasure can procure, 
The palme that waites vpon the pen,  hich euer doth inclure. 

 The orinal lines by I/adrian Junius are,- 
" Oculata, pennisfulta, sublimcm 
Calamum aurea inter astra Fama collocat. 
Illu«tre claris «urffit è scritis decus, 
Fetçue 2beres r,ertice alta 

SnCT. VHI.] _/I[ O_R.,4 L .,4 ND . E S Ttrf E T1- C. 447 

Tvo thousand yeares, and more, HOMERVS wrat his booke ; 
And yet, the saine doth still remayne, and keepes his former looke. 
XVheare ZEgypte spires bee gonne, and ROSIE doth ruine fcele, 
Yet, both begonne since he was borne, thus time doth turne the wheele. 
Yea, thoughe some Monarche greate solne worke should take in hand, 
Of marblc, or of Adamant, that manie worldes shoulde stande, 
Yet, should one only man, with labour of the braine, 
Bequeathe the world a nolmment, that longer shoulde remaine, 
And when that marble waules, with force of time should waste ; 
It should indure fromage, to age, and yet no age should taste." 

" EX MALO BONUM,"--Çood o¢lt of «,i[,--contains a senti- 
ment which Shakespeare not unfrequently expresses. An in- 
stance occurs in the 2]lidsmzmo" Night's 1)r«am (act i. sc. I, 
1. 232, vol. il. p. 2o6), 

" Things base and vile, holding no quantity, 
Love can transpose to form and dignity." 

Also more plainly in H«my, Iq (act iv. sc. t, I. 3, vol. iv. 
P" 5 5 5),-- " God Ahnighty ! 
There is some soul of goodness in things evil, 
Would men observingly distil it out. 
For our bad neighbour makes us early stirrers, 
Which is both healthfld and good husbandry : 
Besides they are our outward consciences, 
And preachers to us ail, admonishing 
That we should dress us fairly for our end. 
Thus we may gather honey from the weed, 
And make a moral of the devil himself ! » 

So in Georgette 

Montenay's Ckristian mblcms we find the 

" On lire bien cles eîbincsîboignantes 
Rose tres bonné  iblcine de beauté. 
Des re#rouuer  lett's œeeuur¢s ttescatlle's 
D&u tirç aussi dtt 3œeu par sa bonté, 
Waisant scmtir &ztr fitusse volontd 
 sa gr«nd' gloh'4  salut dcs es&ua, 
Et par iusticç, ab,si qu' a decre&ç 
Dieu fait tout bien 2 que mtl n'en dou[e filus.:' 

448 CLASSIFICATIO_/M. [Cmv. vI. 

As we have mentioned before (pp. 242, 3), Ovid's f«tamor- 
phoscs are the chier source to which, from his rime downwards, 
poets in general have applied for their most imaginative and 
popular mythic illustrations; and to him especially have Emblem 
writers been indebted. For a fact so well known a single 
instance will suffice; it is the description of Chaos and of the 
Creation of the \Vorld (bl« i. fab. I), 

"Ante mare et terras, et quod tegit omnia, cceltln, 
Unus erat toto naturœe vultus in orbe, 
Quem dixëre Chaos : rudis indigestaque moles." 

An early Italian Emblematist, Gabriel Symeoni, in I559, 
presents on this subject the following very simple device in his 
Vila ci J]fc[aiizotfoçl'o d'O7,l'dio (p. I2), accompanied on the next 
page by "The creation and confusion of the world," 

Il Caos. 

" primalil forum confitsa sDte ordi*ie ,noles, 
lStaq, eral facies syd«r«, tcrra,fretum." 

" First was there a confused mass of things without order, 
And one appearance xvas stars, earth, sea." 

But Ovid's lines are applied in a highly figurative sense, to 
shmv the many evils and disorders of injustice. A xxild state 
where wrong triumphs and right is unknown,that is the Chaos 

SCT. VIII.] 12rOIML MIVtD STf[tTIC. 449 

which Anulus sets forth in lais " PICTOE POESIS" (p. 49); 
fVitkoutjusticc, cooEusion. 


SI TERRAE Ccelum femifceat: & mare ccelo. 
8ol Erebo. Tenebris lumina, Terra Polo. 
4.«attuor  Mundi mixtim lrimordia lugnent. 
4rida cum ficcis, algida cure calidis. 
In Chaos antiquum omnia denique confun,tantur : 
i/'t cùm ignotus adhuc mens Deus orbis erat. 
Efl Mundanarum talis confujio rerum. 
.o Regina latet q'empore l«flitia. 
Le. " If with earth heaven should mingle and the sea with heaven, 
The sun with Erebus, light with darkness, the earth with the pole, 
Should the four elements of the world in cornmixture fight, 
Dry things with the moist and cold things with the hot, 
Into ancient chaos at last all things would be confounded 
As when Goal as yet unknown was the soul of the globe. 
Such is the confusion of all rnundane affairs, 
At what time soever Justice the queen lies concealed." 
Whitney (p. i22), borrowing this idea and extending it, 
works it out xvith more than his usual force and skill, and 
dedicates his stanzas to Windham and Flowerdewe, two emi- 
nent judges of Elizabeth's reign,--but lais amplification of the 
thought is to a great degree peculiar to himself. Ovid, indeed, 
is his authority for representing the elements in wild disorder, 
and the peace and the beauty which ensued, 
"When they weare dispos'd, cache one into his roome." 
3 ,'« 

The motto, dedication, and device, are these,-- 

Sine iu.flitia, confufio. 
.4d eofdem ludices. 

Il "hit*tcy, x586. 

" "[t:HEN Fire, and Aire, and Earthe, and Vater, ail veare one : 
VV Before that worke deuine was wroughte, which nowe wee looke 
There was no forme of thinges, but a confused masse :  
A lumpe, which CHAOS men did call : wherein no order was. 
The Coulde, and Heate, did striue : the Heauie thinges, and Lighte. 
The Harde, and Softe. the Wette, and Drye. for none had shape 
But when they weare dispos'd, eache one into his roome : 
The Fire, had Heate : the Aire, had Lighte : the Earthe, with fruites did 
The Sea, had his increase : which thinges, to passe thus broughte : 
Behoulde, of this vnperfecte masse, the goodly worlde was wroughte." 

Whitney then celebrates "The goulden worlde that Poëttes 
praised moste ; " next, " the siluer age ;" and afterwards, " the 
age of brasse." 

" The Iron age was laste, a'fearetull cursed tyme : 
Then, armies came of mischiefes in : and fil'd the vorlde with cryme. 
Then rigor, and reueng% did springe in euell hower : 
And men of mighte, did manadge all, and poore opprest with power. 

S CT. ri I t. ] I[OR.4L 4N . ESTHE TIC. 45 t 

And hee, that mightie was, his worde, did stand for lawe : 
And what the poore did ploughe, and sowe : the ritch away did drawe. 
None mighte their wiues inioye, their daughters, or their goodes, 
No, hOt their liues: such tyraunts broode, did seeke to spill their 
Then vertues weare defac'd, and dim'd with vices vile, 
Then wronge, did maske in cloke of righte : then bad, did good exile. 
Then falshood, shadowed truthe : and hate, laugh'd loue to skorne : 
Then pitie, and compassion died : and bloodshed fowle was borne. 
So that no vertues then, their proper shapes did beare : 
Nor coulde from vices bee decern'd, so straunge they mixed weare. 
That nowe, into the worlde, an other CHAOS came : 
But GOD, that of the former heape : the heauen and earthe did frame. 
And all tbinges plac'd therein, lais glorye to declare : 
Sente IVSTICE downe vnto the earthe : such loue to man hec bare. 
Who, so suruay'd the world, with such an heauenly vewe : 
That quickley verrues shee aduanc'd: and vices did subdue. 
And, of that worlde did make, a paradice, of blisse : 
By which wee doo infcrre : That where this sacred Goddes is. 
That land doth florishe still, and gladnes, their doth growe : 
Bicause that all, to God, and Prince, by ber their dewties knowe. 
And where her presence wantes, there ruine raignes, and wracke : 
And kingdomes can not longe indure, that doe this ladie lacke. 
Then happie England most, where IVSTICE is embrac'd : 
And eeke so many famous men, within her chaire are plac'd." 

With the description thus given ve may with utmost 
appropriateness compare Shakespeare's noble commendation 
of order and good government, into vhich, by way of con- 
trast, he introduces the evils and miseries of lawless power. 
The argument is assigned to Ulysses, in the Troih«s and 
Cressida (act i. sc. 3, 1. 75, vol. ri. p. 44), when the great 
chieftains, /kgamemnon, Nestor, Menelaus, and others are 
discussing the state and prospects of their Grecian con- 
federacy against Troy. With great force of reasolfing, as 
of eloquence, he contends, 

Troy, yet upon his basis, had been down, 
And the great Hector's sword had lack'd a toaster. 
But for these instances. 

45 z CLASSI.F1CA TION. [CrAI,. vI. 

The specialty of rule hath been neglected : 
And, look, how many Grecian tents do stand 
Hollow upon this plain, so many hollow factions. 
,Vhen that the general is not like the hive, 
To whom the foragers shall all repair, 
Vhat honey is expccted ? Degree being vizarded, 
The unworthiest shovs as fairly in the mask. 
The heavens themselves, the planets aad this centre, 
Observe degree, priority and place, 
lnsisture, course, proportion, season, form, 
Office and custom, in ail line of order : 
And therefore is the glorious planet Sol 
In noble emincnce enthroned and sphered 
Amidst the other ; 

but when the planets 
In evil mixture to disorder vandcr, 
.Vhat.plagues and what portents, what mutiny, 
What raging of the sea, shaking of earth, 
Commotion in the winds, frights, changes, horrors, 
Divert and crack, rend and dcracinate 
The unity and married cahn of states 
Quite from their fixure ! O, when degree is shaked, 
Which is the ladder to all high designs, 
Then enterprise is sick ! How could communities, 
Degrees in schools and brotherhoods in cities, 
Peaceful comlnerce from dividable shores, 
The primogenitive and due of birth, 
Prerogative of age, crowns, sceptres, laurels, 
13ut by degree, stand in authentic place ? 
Take but degree away, untune that string, 
And, hark, what discord follows ! each thing meets 
In mere oppugnancy : The bounded waters 
Should lift their bosoms higher than the shorts, 
And make a sop of all this solid globe : 
Strength should be lord of imbecility, 
And the rude son should strike his father dead : 
Force should be right ; or rather, right and wrong, 
]3etween whose endless jar justice resides, 
Should lose their names, and so should justice too. 
Then everything includes itself in power, 
Power into will, will into appetite ; 
And appetite, an universal wolf. 

So doubly seconded with will and power, 
Must make perforce an universal prey, 
And last eat up himself. Grcat Agamenmon, 
This chaos, vhen degree is suffocate, 
Follows the choking. 
And this neglection of degree itis 
That by a pace goes backward, with a purpose 
It hath to climb. The general's disdain'd 
By him one step below ; ho, by the next ; 
That next by him beneath : so every step, 
Exampled by the first pace that is sick 
Of his superior, grmvs to an cnvious foyer 
Of pale and bloodless emulation : 
And 'tis this fever that keeps Troy on foot, 
Not ber own sinews. To end a talc oflcngth, 
Troy in our weakness stands, hOt in hcr strength." 

At a hasty glance the two passages may appear to have 
little more connection than that of similarity of subject, 
leading to several coincidences of expression; but the Ena- 
blem of Chaos, given by XVhitney, represents the winds, 
the waters, the stars of heaven, all in confusion mingling, 
and certainly is very suggestive of the exact xvords which 
the dramatic poet uses,-- 

" "Vhat raging of the sea? shaking of earth ? 
Commotion in the winds ? 

The bounded waters 
Should lift their bosoms higher than the shores, 
And make a sop of all this solid globe." 

Discord as one of the great causes of confusion is also 
spoken of with much force (I Hcnry V_L, act iv. sc. I, 
1. 88, vol. v. p. 68),-- 

" No simple man that sees 
This jarring discord of nobility, 
This should'ring of each other in the court, 
This factious bandying of their favourites, 

454 CL.4SSIFICYl TIO.V. [CAV. \ I. 

But that he doth presage some iii event. 
'Tis much, when sceptres are in children's hands 
But more when envy breeds unkind division 
• n 
There cornes the ruin, there begins confuso 

The Paris edition of Horapollo's t[icrog[yhic«, I55I , sub- 
joins several to which there is no Greek text (pp. 217--223). 
Among thcm (at p. 219) is one that figures, Thc Nrcad of 
lift; a commola poetic idea. 

Horatollo, ed. 55x. 

Qo pao mortem ltl holninls 
Hominis exltum inmlentes fufum pingebant, & fili extremum refec¢'tum, quafi 
à colo diuulfuln, finguntur fiquidem à poetis Parcoe hominis vitam nere : Clotho 
quidem cohlm geflans: Lachefis quœe Sors exponitur, nens: _A_tropos verb 
inconuertibilis tèu inexorabilis Latinè redditur, filum abrumpens. 

The question is asked, " Hoxv do they represent the death or 
end of man ? " Thus answered,--" To intimate the end of man 
they paint a spindle, and the end of the thread cut off, as if 
broken from the distaff: so indeed by the poets the Fates 
are feigned to spin the lire of man: Clotho indeed bearing 
the distaff; Lachesis spinning whatever lot is declared ; but 

• qECT. VIII.] 3[0I./1f. MAri -) -FSTHETIC. 455 

Atropos, breaking the thread, is rendered Ulchangeable and 
This thread of life Prospero nalnes when he speaks to 
Fcrdinand (7"cl,cst, act iv. sc. , 1. I, vol. i. p. 54) about 
his daughter,-- 

'" If I have too austerely punish'd you, 
Your compensation makes amends ; for 1 
Hax e given you hcre a thread « of lnine own lire 
Or that for which I live." 

" Their thread of life is spun," occurs in 2/-/cm3' 1 "I. (act ix'. 
sc. _-, 1. -'7). 
So the " aunchient Pistol," entreating Fluellen to ask a 
pardon for Bardolph (/-f«¢O' I2, act iii. sc. 6, 1. 44, vol. iv. 
P- 544), says,-- 
"The duke will hear thy voice ; 
And let not Bardolph's vital thread be eut 
XVith edge of penny cord and vile reproach. 
Speak, captain, fol" lais life, and I will thee requite.'" 
The full application of the term, however, is given by 
Helena iii the t«ricl«s (act i. sc. z, 1. IO:, vol. ix. p. 3:5), 
when she says to the Prince of Tyre, 

" Antiochus you fear, 
And justly too, I think, you fear the tyrant, 
Who either by public war or private treason 
Vïll take away your life. 
Therefore, my lord, go travel for a while, 
Till that his rage and anger be forgot, 
Or till the Destinies do cut his thread of life." 

The saine appendix to Horapollo's Hi«roElyhics (p. :20) 
assigns a burning lamp as the embleln of life ; thus,-- 

* "A third," in the modern sense of the word, is just nonsense, and therefore we 
leave the reading of the Cambridge edition, and abide by those critics who tell us 
that thread xvas formerly spelt thrid or third. .qee Johnson and Steevens' 
vcl. i. ed. I78_g , p. 9 2. 

456 CLASSIF[CA TIO]ç: [Cmxv. vI. 

IIora2kollo, ed. x55. 

Qo modo vitam. 
Vitam innuentes ardentem lampada pingebant: qubd tantifper dura accenià 
lampas ef, luceat extin&a ver tenebras offundat, ita & anlma corpore foluta & 
afpecqu & luce caremus. 

" To intimate life they paint a burning lalnp ; because so long as the 
lamp is kindled it gives forth light, but being extinguished spreads darkness ; 
so also the soul being freed froln the body we are without seeing and light." 

This Egyptian symbol Cleopatra names just after Jntony's 
death (11«tolcy alcd Clcopatra, act iv. sc. 15, 1.84, vol. ix. p. I32),-- 
"Ah, wolnen, women, look 
Our lamp is spent, it's out." 
Similar the meaning when Antony said (act ix,. sc. I4, 1. 46, 
vol. ix. p. 
" Since the torch is out, 
Lie down and stray no farther." 
Of the Emblems which depict moral qualities and esthetical 
principles, scarcely any are more expressive than that which 
denotes an abiding sense of injury. This we can trace through 
Whitney (p. 183) to the French of Claude Paradin (fol. 6o), and 
to the Italian of Gabriel Symeoni (p. 4)- It is a sculptor, with 
mallet and chisel, cutting a memorial of his wrongs into a block 

of marblc ; thc titlc, O offcndcd PovcrO, ' and thc motto, 
wrongcd hc writcs on marblc." 


" Being 


G io'z,io and S y meoni» z56. 

Scribit in 

Tempri l' ira .veloce ogniun, che .viue, 
Et per effer potente non ha cura, 
Di far' altrui talhor danno o paura, 
Che I' offefo l'ingiuria in marmo I-criue. 

Like the other "Imprese " of the " TETnASTICHI bIORA1A," 
the woodcut is surrounded by a curiously ornanaented border, 
and manifests much artistic skill. The stanza is,-- 

" Each one that lires rnay be swift passion's slave, 
And through a powerful will at times delight 
In causing others harm and terror's fright : 
The injured doth those wrongs on marble grave." 

The " DEVISES HEROIQVES" adds to the device a simple 
prose description of the meaning of the Emblem,-- 

3 N 



[ChAr. VI. 

Scribit in marmore leli:s. 
taradiG 1562. 

Certains fois éuentés s' affeurans trop fus leur credit & richeffes, neJbnt point cas 
,l'iniurier ou gourmander de Jàigl & de paroles vne pauure perfonne, eflimans que à 
faute ,te biens, ,le faueur, de pareus, ou d'amis elle n'aura jamais le moyen dejè 
venger, ou leur rê,tre la pareille, ains qu'elle doiue bien tofl oublier le mal qu'elIe 
a receu. Or combien ces q-irans (c'efl leur propre nom) foyent abufez de leur grande 
JOlie & ignorance, l'occafion & le temps le leur fera à la fin connoiflre apres les 
auoir admoneflez par ceAte DeuiJè d'vn homme a7is, qui graue en vn tableau de 
marbre ce qu'H a en memoire auec ces parolles : Scribit in marmore loesus. Q: 6o.) 

The word here propounded is of very high antiquity. The 
prophet Jeremiah (xvii. I and I3) set forth most forcibly what 
Shakespeare names "men's evil manners living in brass ;" and 
Whitney, "harms graven in marble hard." "The sin of Judah 
is written with a pen of iron, and with the point of a diamond : 
it is graven upon the table of their heart, and upon the horns of 
your altars." And the writing in water, or in the dust, is in the 
very spirit of the declaration, "They that depart from me shall 
be written in the earth,"--i.c., the first wind that blows over them 
shall efface their names,--"because they have forsaken the 
LORD, the fountain of living waters." 
Some of Shakespeare's expressions,--some of the turns of 
thought, when he is speaking of injuries,are so similar to those 
used by the Emblem writers in treating of the same subject, that 
we reasonably conclude "the famous Scenicke Poet, glaster W. 
Shakespeare," was intimate with their works, or with the work of 


some one out of their number ; and, as vill appear in a page 
or two, very probably those expressions and turns of thought 
had their origin in the reading of Whitney's Chvic« tf tTmblcmcs 
rather than in the study of the French and Italian authors. 
Of the saine cast of idea with the lines illustrative of S«rib# 
ht imrmr« lwslts, are thc words of Marc Antony's oration over 
Caesar ():ttlits Cwsa; act iii. sc. 2, 1. 73, vol. vii. p. 37),-- 
" I corne to bury Cœesar, hOt to praise him. 
The evil that men do lires after thcm ; 
The good is oft interred with their bones ; 
So let it be with Coesar." 
A sentiment, ahnost thc converse of this, and of higher moral 
excellence, crops out where certainly we should not cxpcct to 
find it--in the Timou of A thcts (act iii. sc. 5,1.3 I, vol. vii. p. 54),-- 
'" He's truly valiant that can wisely surfer 
The worst that man can breathe, and make lais wrongs 
His outsides, to wear them like lais raiment, carelessly, 
And ne'er prefer lais injuries to his heart, 
To bring it into danger. 
If wrongs be evils and enforce us kill, 
.Vhat folly 'tis to hazard life for ill !" 
In that scene of unparalleled beauty, tenderness, and simpli- 
city, in xvhich there is related to Queen Katharine the death of 
" the great child of honour," as she terres him, Cardinal Wolsey 
(//«ny VIII., act iv. sc. -', 1. :7, vol. vi. p. 87), Griffith describes 
him as,-- "Full of repentante, 
Continual meditations, tears and sorrows, 
He gave his honours to the world again, 
His blessed part to heaven, and slept in peace." 
And just afterwards (1. 44), whcn the Quecn had becn speaking 
with some asperity of the Cardinal's greater faults, Griffith re- 
monstrates, " Noble Madam, 
Men's evil manners lire in brass ; their virtues 
.Ve write in water. May it please youï highness 
To hear me speak lais good now ?" 

460 ŒEASSI!«TCL4 Z7OAç le ,av. Vl. 

lIow vcry like to the sentiment here enunciated is that of 
Whitney (p. I83) ,- 
« | N marble harde our harmes wee alwayes graue, 
Bicause, wee still will beare the saine in minde : 
In duste wee write the benifittes wee haue, 
Where they are soone defaced with the winde. 
So, wronges wee houlde, and neuer will forgiue, 
And soone forger, that still with vs shoulde liue." 
Lavinia's deep wrongs (Ti/ts ttdroictts, act iv. sc. t, I. 85, 
vol. vi. p. 49 ° ) were written by her on the sand, to inform 
Malcus and Titus what they were and who had inflicted theln ; 
and Marcus declares,-- 
"" There is enough written upon this earth 
To stir a mutiny in the mildest thoughts 
And arm the minds of infants to exclailns." 
Marcus is for instant revenge, but Titus knows the power and 
cruel nature of their enemies, and counsels (1. o2),-- 
'" You are a )oung huntsman, llal'cus ; let alone ; 
And, corne, 1 will go get a leaf of brass. 
And with a gad of steel will write these words, 
And lay it by : the angry northern wind 
Will blov these sands, like Sibyl's leaves, abroad, 
And where's your lesson then ?" 
The Italian and French Emblems as pictures to be looked at 
would readily supply Shakespeare with thoughts respecting the 
record of "mcn's evil manners," and of " their virtues," but 
there is a closer correspondence between him and X, Vhitney; 
and allowing for the easy substitution of brass and of water 
for "marble" and "dust," the parallelism of the ideas and words 
is so exact as to be only just short of being complete. 
We must hot, however, conceal what may have been a 
common origin of the sentiment for all the four writers,--for 
the three Ëlnblematists and for the dramatist, namely, a sen- 
tence written by Sir Tholnas More, about the year 5 I6» before 

S c r. V ! ! 1. ] 3IORAL M_/VD _ I£ST_'H,'TIC. 46  

even Alciatus had published his book of Emblelns. Dr. Percy, 
as quoted by Ayscough (p. 695), remarks that, " This reflection 
bears a great resemblance to a passage in Sir Thomas More's 
Histary of Richard III., where, speaking of the ungrateful turns 
which Jane Shore experienced from those whonl she had served 
in lier prosperity, More adds, 'Men use, if they have an evil 
turne, to write it in marble, and whoso doth us a good turne, we 
write it in duste.'" 
But the thought is recorded as passing through the mind of 
Cohnnbus, when, during mutiny, sickness, and cruel tidings from 
hotne, he had, on the coast of l'anama, the vision which Irving 
describes and records. A voice had been reproving him, but 
ended by saying, " Fear not, Columbus, ail these tribulations 
;tre written in lnarble, and are not without cause." 

act v. sc. I, 

" To write in dust," hoxvever, has SOlnetimes a simple literal 
lncauing in Shakespeare ; as whcn King Edward (3 H«my l'l., 
1. 54, vol. v. p. 3 I9), uses thc threat,-- 
This hand, fast wound about thy coal-black hair, 
Shall, while thy head is warm and new cut off, 
\Vrite in the dust this sentence with thy blood,-- 
\Vind-changing ,Varwick noxv can change no morc." 
But in the Titts tmtrodats (act iii. sc. I, 1. 12, vol. vi. p. 472), 
the phrase is of doubtful meaning : it may denote the oblivion 
of injuries or the deepest of sorrows,-- 
" In the dust I write 
My heart's deep languor, and lny soul's sad tears." 
\Vhitncy also has the lines to the praise of Stephen Limbert, 
Mastcr of Norxvich School (p. 73),-- 
" Our writing in the duste, can not indure a blaste ; 
But that which is in marble wroughte, froln age to age, doth laste." 
It is but justice to Shakespeare to testify that at tilnes his 
judgmcnt respecting injuries rises to the fnll height of Christian 

462 CLAXçlFICI TIOW. [CIIAP. ri'. 

morals. The spirit A_riel avows, that, were he human, lais "affec- 
tions wou|d become tender" towards the shipwrecked captives 
on whom lais charms had been working (T«mt«st, act v. sc. I, 
1. 2I, vol. i. p. 64) ; and Prospero enters into lais thought with 
strong conviction,-- 
'" Hast thou, which art but air, a touch, a feeling 
Of their afflictions, and shall not myself, 
One of their kind, that relish all as sharply, 
Passion as thcy, be kindlicr moved than thou art ? 
Though with their high wrongs I ara struck to the quick, 
Yet with my noblcr reason 'gainst my fliry 
I)o I talle part : the rarcr action is 
In virtuc than in vengeance : they being penitent, 
Thc sole drift of my purpose doth extend 
Nota frown furthcr." 
The subject in this conncction finds a fitting conclusion 
ri-oto the xvords of a later xvriter, communicated to roc by thc 
Rev. T. \Valker, M.A., formcrly of Nether Tabley, in which a 
frce forgivencss of injuries is ascribed to the world's great and 
blessed Saviour,-- 
« Some write their vrongs on marble, He more just 
Stoop'd down sercne, and wrote them in the dust, 
Trod under foot, the sport of every wind, 
Swcpt fl'om thc earth, quite banished from his mind, 
Thcre secret in thc grave He bade thcm lic, 
And gl-ieved, they could not 'scape the Ahnighty's cyc." 

llTdtno,. Rcfirint, i866,/,. 43 I." 

CH,P. VII.] .[}[I,..çC.ELLA.A?.EOL,..ç .E,T[DL.E«71,..ç. 483 



IIBLEMS Misccllaneous will include 
SOllle which have been omitted, or which 
remain unclassified from hot bclonging 
to any of the foregoing divisions. They 
are placed here without any attempt to 
bring them into any special order. 
Sevcral words and forms of thought 
cmployed by the Emblem writers, and especially by \Vhitney, 
have counterparts, if not direct imitations, in 8hakespeare's 
dramas ; he often treats of the saine heroes ill the same way. 
Thus, in reference to Paris and Helen, XVhitney utters his 
opinion respecting them (p. ï9),-- 
"Thoughe PARIS, had his I-IELEN at his will, 
Thinke hmve his faite was ILONS foule dcface." 
And Slakespeare sets forth Troilus (Troilus a¢d Crcssid«, act il. 
sc. _-', 1. 8, vol. vi. p. 64) as saying of Helen,-- 
« \Vhy, she is a pearl, 
\Vhose price hath launch'd above a thousand ships 
And turn'd crown'd kings to merchants." 

And then, as adding (1. 9e). - 
' o theft lnost base, 
That we have stol'n what we do fear to kecp ! 

464 J[ISCEZJzINEOUS [cn.p. Vil. 

P, ut thieves unworthy of a thing so stol'n. 
That in their country did them that disgrace, 
V'e fear to warrant in out native place !" 
Whitney inscribes a frontispiece or dedication of lais work 
with the letters, D. O. M.,--Lc., Dv, Opthlzo, d[a.rhzo,--"To God, 
best, greatest,"--and writes,-- 

$ I N C . man is fraile, and ail his thoughtes are./inne, 
,qnd of him fel./è he tan no good inuent, 
q-hen euerie one, belote they oughte beginne, 
8houM call on GoD,from whome all grace is fent : 
8o, I befeeche, that he the fame will fende, 
q-bat, to his praife I maie beginne, and ende. 
Very similar sentiments are enunciated in several of the 
dramas; as in Twclfth _/Vight (act iii. sc. 4, 1. 34o, vol. iii. p. 285),. 
" Taint of vice, whose strong corruption 
Inhabits our frail blood." 
In Hciy VIII. (act v. sc. 3, 1. o, vol. vi. p. o3), the Lord 
Chancellor says to Cranmer,-- 
"But we ail are men, 
In our own nature frail and capable 
Of our flesh ; few are angels." 
Even Banquo (3[acbcth, act ii. sc. , 1. 7, vol. vil. p. 444) can utter 
the prayer,-- 
" Merciful povers, 
Restrain in me the cursed thoughts tlaat nature 
Gives way to in repose!" 
And very graphically does Richard III. (act iv. sc. 2, 1. 65, 
vol. v. p. 583) describe our sinfulness as prompting sin,-- 
" But I ana in 
So far in blood that sin vill pluck on sin." 
Or as Romeo purs the case (Romeo ad )rzzli«t, act v. sc. 3, 1. 6I, 
vol. vil. p. 24), 

CHAr. VI.] £.<)IBL£.)IS. 465 

« I beseech thee, youth, 
Put not another sin upon my head, 
By urging me to fitry." 

Coriolanus thus speaks of man's "unstable lightness" (Coriolalms, 
act iii. sc. , 1. 6o, vol. vi. p. 344), 

" Not having the power to do the good it would, 
For the iii which doth control't." 

Human dependence upon God's blessing is well expressed by 
the conqueror at Agincourt (//-«/uSv l:, act iv. sc. 7, 1. 82, 
vol. iv. p. 582),--" Praised be God, and/lot our strength, for it ;" 
and (act iv. sc. 8, 1. oo),-- 

" 0 God, thy arl'rl was hcre ! 
And not to us, but to thy arm alone 
Ascribe we all." 

tnd simply yet truly does the Bishop of Carlisle point out that 
dependence to Richard II. (act iii. sc. e, 1. -9, vol. iv. p. 

" The means that heaven  ields must be embraced, 
And hOt neglected ; else, if heaven would, 
And we will hOt, heaven's offer we refuse, 
The proffer'd means of succour and redress." 

The closing thought of Whitney's whole passage is embodied 
in Wolsey's earnest charge to Cromwell (HectO' UllL, act iii. 
sc. 2, 1. 446, vol. ri. p. 79),-- 
" Be just, and fear not : 
Let all the ends thou ailn'st at be thy country's, 
Thy God's, and truth's ; then if thou fall'st, 0 Cromwell, 
Thou fall'st a blessed martyr ! " 

The various methods of treating the very saine subject by 
the professed Emblem writers will prove that, even with a full 
knowledge of their works, a later author may )'et allow scarcely 
a hint to escape him, that he was acquainted, in some particular 
instance, with the sentiments and expressions of his predecessors ; 

indeed, that knowledge itself may give birth to thoughts widely 
different in their general character. To establish this position 
we offer a certain proverb which both Sambucus and Whitney 
adopt, the ahnost paradoxical saying, IVc j/ce the t/zings z«hi«h 
a,c fo]lozv, and t/wyagcc us,-- 

O.Eoe lèquimur fugimus, noscue fugiunt. 
.4,1 Phi@. Apianum. 

Sam&wus, 564 . femper querimur dce.ffe nobis ? 
Cur nunqttam fatiat Jàmes lcrennis ? 
Haud res nos fitgiunt, Ioco lemus 
lpJi ce,#re ,t fitgaciore. 
Mors nos arriit antè quàm lucremur 
antum quod cupimus, Deum & precamur, 
Kel fi rem fateare cotcn,tam, 
Res,  nos Ji«gimus fimtd fugaces. 
Ne fint ,tiuiti« tibi dolori : 
Ac eram flatuas beatitatem 
Firmis rebus, in qflperaçue ita. 

CHAP. \ I l. ] .E.|Z'Z.E2'IZS. 467 

In both instances there is exactly the saine pictorial illus- 
tration, indeed the wood-block which was engraved for the 
Eblems of Sambucus, in 1564, with simply a change of border, 
did service for Whitncy's Emblcms in 1586. The device 
contains Time, wingcd and flying and holding forward a scythe ; 
a man aud woman walking bcfore him, the scythe bcing held 
over their hcads thrcatcuingly,--the Ulall as he advances turning 
hall round and pointing to a treasure-box left bchind. Sambu- 
cus thus moralizes,-- 
" \Vhat do we querulous ahvays deem our want ? 
\Vh never to hunger sense of fulness grant ? 
\Vealth flees us not,--but we accustomcd are 
By out own haste its benefits to mat. 
Death takcs us off belote we reach the gain 
Great as our wish ; and vows to God we feign 
For wealth which fleeing at the time we flee, 
Even whcn wcalth around we own to be. 
O let not riches prove thy spirit's bane ! 
Nor shalt thou seek for happiness in vain,-- 
Though rough thy paths of lire on every hand, 
Firm on its base thy truest bliss shall stand." 
Now \Vhitney adopts, in part at least, a much lnore literal 
interpretation ; he follows out what the figure of Time and the 
accessory figures suggest, and so ilnproves his proverb-text as to 
round upon it what appears pretty plainly to have been the 
groundwork of the ancient song,--" The old English gentleman, 
one of the olden time." The type of that truly venerable cha- 
racter was " THOMAS \VILBRAHAM Lsq«ticr, '' an early patron 
of Lord Chancellor Egerton. Whitney's lines are (p. I99),-- 
" "7-EE flee, ri-oto that wee seeke ; & followe, that wee leaue : 
*-- And, whilst wee thinke our webbe to skante, & larger still would 
Lo, Time dothe cut vs of, amid our carke : and care. 
\Vhich warneth ail, that haue enoughe, and not contented are. 
For to inioye their goodes, their howses, and their landes : 
Bicause the Lorde  nto that end, commits them to their handes. 

468 _allSCELLAN£O US [c mxv. ri I. 

Yet, those whose greedie mindes : enoughe, doe thinke too small : 
Whilst that with care they seeke for more, oft times are reu'd of all, 
Wherefore ail such (I wishe) that spare, where is no neede : 
To vse their goodes whilst that they may, for time apace doth speede. 
And since, by proofe I knowe, you hourde not vp your store ; 
Whose gate, is open to your frende : and purce, vnto the pore : 
And spend vnto your praise, what GOD dothe largely lende : 
I chiefly lnade my choice of this, which I to you commende. 
In hope, ail those that see your naine, aboue the head : 
\Vill at your lampe, their owne corne light, vithin your steppes to tread. 
\Vhose daily studie is, your countrie to adorne : 
And for to keepe a worthie house, in place where you weare borne." 
In the spirit of one part of these stanzas is a question in 
t'hilemon t lolland's l»l««t«rc/ (p. 5), "\Vhat meane you, my 
masters, and whither run you headlong, carking and caring all 
that ever you can to gather goods.and rake riches together ?" 
Similar in its meaning to the two Emblems just considered 
is another by \Vhitney (p. 218), [««licr z,mbrct vb'i,--"Woman 
the shadow of man,"-- 
" ['VR shadowe flies, if wee the saine pursue : 
"-" But if wee flie, it followeth at the heele. 
So, he through loue that moste dothe serue, and sue, 
Is furthest off his mistresse harte is steele. 
But if hee flie, and turne awaie his face, 
Shee followeth straight, and grones to him for grace." 
This Emblem is very closely followed in the _Mcrry IVivcs of 
lVi«dsor (act ii. sc. _', 1. I87, vol. i. p. I96), when Ford, in 
disguise as " Master Brook," protests to Falstaff that he had 
followed lIrs. Ford " with a doting observance ;" "briefly," he 
says, " I have pursued her as love hath pursued me ; which hath 
been on the wing of all occasions,"- 
" Love like a shadow flies when substance love pursues ; 
Pursuing that that files, and flying what pursues." 
Death in most of its aspects is described and spoken of by 
the great Dramatist, and possibly we might hunt out some 

Vil.] E3It?I.E«I[S. 469 

expressions of his which coincide with those of the Elnblem 
writers on the saine subject, but generally lais mention of death 
is peculiarly lais own,--as when IIortimer says (r ]J«/t,Sv l'Z, 
act il. sc. 5, 1. 28, vol. x r. p. 40), 
" The arbitrator of despairs, 
Just death, kind ulnpire of men's miseries, 
.Vith sweet enlargement doth dislniss me hence." 
In lais beautiful edition of Holbein's JDatce of JD««th, Noel 
Humphreys (p. 8), in describing the CANOIESS, thus conjec- 
tures,--"Ilay not Shake- 
speare bave had this device 
in lais mirld when pelming 
the passage in which 
Othello" (act v. sc. e, 1. 7, 
vol. viii. p. 574), "deter- 
minilag to kill Desdemona, 
exclaims, ' Put out the 
light--and then--put out 
the light ?'" 
The way, however, in 
which Shakespeare some- 
rimes speaks of Death and 
Sleep induces the supposi- - - 
tion that he was acquaint- Igolbein'sSimulachres, 538. 
ed with those passages iii 
Holbein's Simuhwhr«s arc h k,-t ( Lyons, i 5 38) which treat of 
the saine subjects by the saine method. Thus,-- 
" Cicero disoit biel] : Tri as le somlneil pour imaige de la Mort, & tous 
les Jours tu ten reuestz. Et si doubtes, sil y à nul sentiment a la Mort, 
combien que tu voyes qu' en son silnulachre il n'y à nul sentimêt." Sign. Liij 
«,crso. And again, sign. Iiiij .verso, " La Mort est le veritable refftge, la 
santé parfaicte, le port asseure, la victoire entiere, la chair sans os, le poisson 
sans espine, le grain sans paille .... La Mort est vng eternel sommeil, vne 
dissolution du Corps, vng espouuêtement des riches, vng desir des pouures, 


vng cas ineuitable, vng pelerinaige incertain, vng larroli des hçlnes, vnc 
Mere du dormir, vne vlnbre de vie, vng separemcnt des viual_S, vne com- 
paignic des Mortz." 

Thus the Prince Henry by his fathcr's couch, thinking him dcad, 
says (2/2r«1. Ik:, act iv. sc. 5, 1. 35, vol. iv. p. 453),-- 

" This slecp is sound indecd ; this is a sleep, 
That flore this golden rigol hath divorced 
So many English kings." 

And still lnore pertincntly speaks the Dukc (3I««sztrc for 
3/'««sur¢ act iii. sc. I, 1. 17, vol. i. p. 334),-- 

' Thy best of rest is slcep, 
And that thou off provokest ; yet grossly fcar'st 
Thy death, which is no lnore." 

Again, before Hermione, as a statue (llTz«l«Fs 
1. 8, vol. iii. p. 43),-- 
" prepare 
To see the lire as lively lnock'd as ever 
Still sleep lnock'd death." 

"''«a; act v. sc. 

Or in 2lIacb«th (act ii. sc. 3, 1. 7 I, vol. vii. p. 454), when Macduff 
raises the Marin,-- 
' Malcolm ! awake ! 
Shake off this downy sleep, death's counterfeit, 
And look on death itself ! up, up, and see 
The great dooln's inlage."'v 

Finally, in that noble soliloquy of Ilalflet (act iii. sc. I, lines 60 
--6 9, vol. viii. p. 79),-- 
" To die: to sleep ; 
No more ; and by a sleep to say we end 
The heart-ache, and the thousand natural shocks 
That flesh is heir to ; 'tis a consulnlnation 
Devoutly to be wished. To die, to sleep : 
To sleep : perchance to dl-eam : ay, there's the rub ; 
For in that sleep of death what dreams may colne, 
* Can this be an allusion to Holbein's £«sl )mt;lnt'd and tsctdcheou of Z)ealh 
iii his Simulachrcs ,tel« ]1o% cd. 5387 

,Vhen we have shuffled off this mortal coil, 
Must give ns pause : there's thc respect 
That makes calamity of so long life." 
So the Evil« of Hltmalz L OE« and the tMogy ou l)ca¢h, ascribed 
in Holbein's Si,zalachr«« eh" la ,71oi"t to Alcidamus, sign. Liij 
,er«o,* may have been suggestive of the lines in continuation of 
the above soliIçquy in t[amlcL namely (lines 7o--76), 
'" For who would bear the whips and scorns of time, 
The oppl'essor's wrong, the prond lnan's contnlnely, 
The pangs of despised love, the law's delay, 
The insolence of office, and the spnl'ns 
That paticnt mel-it of the nnworthy takes, 
Vffllen he himself/night his quietus lnake 
With a bare bodkin ? " 

To another of the devices of the 111mgcs of l)«ah (Lyons, 
I547), attributed to Holbein, we may also refer as the source 
of one of the Dramatist's descriptions, in Douce's l)au« of l)cah, 
(London, 833 , and Bolm's, 858); the device in question is 
numbered XLIII. and bears the title of the IDIOT FOOL. Volt- 
mann's Hlbcb aud hic Timc (Leipzig,  868, vol. il. p. 12 I ), 
names the figure ".P_arr l'i or,"--l)«aN's Foo/,--and thus 
discourses respecting it. "Among the supplemental Figures,"-- 
that is to say, in the edition of I $4S, supplemental to theforO,-ozc 
Figures in the edition of z538,--"is found that of the Fool, which 
formerly in the Spectacle-plays of the l)auc« of l),'aNz repre- 
sented by living persons played an important part. Also as 
these were no longer wont to be exhibited, the Episode of the 
contest of Death with the Fool was kept separate, and for the 
diversion of the people became a pantolnimic representation. 

« "Cicero dict que Alcidamus vng Rheteur antique escripuit les louanges de la 
Mort, en les quelles estoient c6tenuz les nombres des maulx des hulnains, & ce pour 
leur faire desirer la Mort. Car si le dernier Jour n'amaine extinction, mais commuta- 
tion de lieu, Quest il plus a desirer? Et s'il estainct & efface tout, Quest il rien 
meilleur, que de s' endormir au milieu des labeurs de ceste vie & ainsi reposer en vng 
sempiternel sommeil. "' 

47 2 AzrlSCEZZANEO US [CtIAr. V1 I. 
From England expressly have we information that this usage 
maintained itself down to the former century. The Fool's efforts 

Holbeiu's Imagines, Cologte, i566. 

and evasions in order to escape from Death, who in the end 
became his master, form the subject of the particular figures. 
On such representations Shakespeare thought in lais verses in 
2[c«sm-c for [casm'c" (act iii. sc. I, lines 6--I 3, vol. i. p. 334)- 
Though \Voltmann gives only three lines, we add the whole 
passage better to bring out the sense, 
" Reason thus with lire : 
If I do lose thee, I do lose a thing 
That none but fools would keep : a breath thou art, 
Servile to all the skyey influences, 
That dost this habitation, where thou keep'st, 
Hourly afflict : merely, thou art death's fool ; 
For him thou labour'st by thy flight to shun, 
And yet runn'st toward him still." 

The action described by Shakespeare is so conformable to 
Itolbein's Figures of Death and the Idiot Fool that, without 


doing violence to the probability, we inay conclude that the txvo 
portraits had been in the Poet's eye as xvell as in his mind. 
"Voltmann's remarks in continuation uphold this idea. He 
says (vol. il. p. 2_),-- 

" Also in the Holbein picture the Fool is foolish enough to think that he 
can slip away from Death. tte springs aside, seeks through his movements 
to delude him, and brandishes the leather-club, in order unseen to plant a 
blow on his adversary ; and this adversary seems in sport to give in, skips 
near him, playing on the bag-pipe, but unobserved bas him fast by the 
garment, in order not again to let him loose." 

Old Time is a character introduced by xvay of Chorus into 
the Ilrbttev"s Tlc (act iv. sc. , I. 7, vol. iii. p. 37), and he takes 
upon himsclf " to use his wings," as hc says, 
" It is in my power 
To o'erthrow law and in one self-born hour 
To plant and o'crwhchn custom. Let lne pass 
The saine I ana, ere ancient'st order was 
Or ,hat is now received : I witness to 
The times that brought them in ; so shall I do 
To the freshest things now reigning, and make stale 
The glistering of this prescnt." 

Something of the saine paradox which appears in the Enble- 
matist's motto, "\Vhat we folloxv we flee," also distinguishes the 
quibbling dialogue about time betxveen Drolnio of Syracuse and 
Adriana (Comdy of Frrors, act iv. sc. --', 1. 5; 3, vol. i. p. 437),-- 
"Dro. S. 'Tis time that I were gone : 
It was two ere I left him, and now the clock strikes one. 
Adr. The hours corne back ! that did I never hear. 
Dro. S. O, yes ; if any hour meet a sergeant» a' turns back for ver)- f«ar. 
Adr. As if Time were in debt ! how fondly dost thou reason ! 
Dro. S. Time is a very bankrupt, and owes more than he's worth to 
Nay, he's a thief too : bave you not heard men say, 
That Time cornes stealing on by night and day ? 
If Time be in debt and theft, and a sergeant in the way, 
Hath ho not reason to turn back an hour in a dav ?" 


4 7 4 A[[SCEZL.4N.EO  "S [Cuar. ri I. 

Ahnost of the saine complexion are some of the other strong 
contrasts of epithets vhich Shakespeare applies. Iachimo, in 
Cymb«liw (act i. sc. 6, 1. 46, vol. ix. p. 185), uses the exprcs- 
« The cloyed will, 
That satiate yet unsatisficd desire, that tub 
Both fill'd and running, ravening first the lamb, 
Longs after for the garbage." 
But " old fond paradoxes, to make fools laugh i' the ale- 
house," are also givcn forth frOlll the storehouse of his conceits. 
Desdcmona and Enilia and Iago play at these follies (Ot/wlla, 
act ii. sc. , 1. e9, vol. viii. p. 477), and thus some of them are 
t, ttered,-- 
" hto. If she be fair and wise, fairness and wit, 
The one's for use, the othcr useth 
])es. XVell praised ! How if she be black and witty ? 
I«o. If she be black, and thereto have a wit, 
She'll find a white that shall her blackness fit. 

Des. But what praise couldst thou bestow on a deserving xvoman indeed ? 
one that, on the authority of ber merit, did justly put on the vouch of very 
malice itself ? 
IaAo. She that vas ever fair» and never proud, 
Had tongue at'xvill, and yet was never loud, 
Never lack'd gold, and yet went never gay, 
Flcd ri'oin her wish, and yet said, now I nay ; 

She was a wight, if ever such wight were,-- 
])es. To do what ? 
]-o. To suckle fools, and chronicle slnall beer." 

\Ve thus return, by a wandering path indeed, to the para- 
doxical saying with which we set out,--concerning " fleeing 
what xve follow ;" for Iago's paragon of a woman,-- 

"" Fled froln hcr wish, and yet said, now I nlay." 

Taken by itself, the coincidence of a fmv words in the dedi- 
cations of works by different authors is of trifling importance ; 

Cu.v. VII.] EM'BZEM-,ç. 475 

but when we notice how bricf are the lines ill which Shakespeare 
commends his "VENUS AND 2tDONIS" to the patronage of the 
Earl of Southampton, it is relnarkable that he has adopted an 
expression almost singular, which Whitney had beforehand 
employed in the long dedication of his Emblems to the Earl of 
Leycester. "Being abashed," says Whitney, "that my habillitie 
can hOt affoorde them such, as are fit tobe offred vp to so honor- 
able a suruaighe" (p. xi) ; and Shakespeare, " I leave it to your 
honourable survey, and your Honour to your heart's content." 
\Vhitney then declares, "yet if it shall like your honour to 
allowe of anie of them, I shall thinke my pen set to the booke 
in happie hour; and it shall incourage mce, to assay somc 
matter of more momente, as soon as leasure will further my 
dcsire in that bchalfe ;" and Shakespcare, adopting the samc 
idea, also affirms, "only if your Honour seem but pleased, I 
account myself highly praised and voxv to take advantage of all 
idle hours, till I have honoured you with some graver labour." 
Comparing these passages together, the inference appears hot 
unwarranted, that Whitney's dedication had been read by Shake- 
speare, and that the tenor of it abided in lais memory, and so 
was made use of by him. 

From the well-known lines of Horacc (Ode il. 
" Soepius ventis agitatur ingens 
Pinus ; et celsoe graviore casu 
Decidunt turres ; feriuntque sumlnos 
Fulgura montes,"-- 
several of the Emblem writers, and Shakespeare after them, tell 
of the huge pine and of its contests with the tempests ; and how 
lofty towers fall with a heavier crash, and how the lightnings 
smite the highest mountains. Sambucus (edition 569, p. :79) 
and Whitney (p. ;9) do this, as a comment for the injunction, 
Nimhtm robots nc fidc sccmdis,--" Be hot too confident in 

476 3[ISCELLA ArE 0 U,ç [C nav. ri l. 

prosperity." In this instance the stanzas 
well to express the verses of Sambucus,-- 

of Whitney serve 

Nimium rebus ne ride fecundis. 

T loffie Pine, that on the mountaine growes, 
-And spreades her armes, with braunches freshe, & greene, 
The raginge windes, on sodaine ouerthrowes, 
And makes her stoope, that longe a farre was seene : 
So they, that truste to touche in fortunes smiles, 
Thughe worlde do laughe, and vealthe doe moste abounde, 
\Vhen leste they thinke, are often snar'de with wyles, 
And from alofte, doo hedlonge fall to grounde : 
Then put no truste, in anie worldlie thinges, 
For frowninge rate, throwes downe the mightie kinges." 

Antonio, in the A'rclmu of I)'nice (act iv. sc. I, I. 75, vol. il. 
P- 345), applies the thought to the fruitlessness of Bassanio's 
endeavour to soften Shylock's stern purpose of revenge,-- 

" You may as well forbid the mountain pines 
To wag their high tops, and to make no noise 
\Vhen they are fretten with the gusts of heaven.'" 

And when " dame Eleanor Cobham, Gloster's wife," is 
banished, and ber nble husband called on tc give up the Lord 

Protector's staff of office (2 /fcm 3, U.., act ii. sc. 3, 1. 45, vol. v. 
p. I45 ), Suffolk makes the comparison, 

" Thus droops this lofty pinc, and hangs his sprays ; 
Thus Elcanor's pride dies in her youngest days." 

So, following ahnost literally thc words of 
exilcd Bclarius, in Cj,mb«liuc (act iv. sc. 2, 1. 
p. 253), declares of the " two princely boys," 
foi" his sons,- 
" Thcy are as gentlc 
As zephyrs blowing below the violct, 
Not wagging lais swcct hcad ; and yet as rough, 
Thcir royal blood cnchafcd, as thc rudcst wind 
That by the top doth takc the mountain pine 
And make him stoop to the raie." 

Horace, the 
7 2, vol. ix. 
that passed 

\Vords, which, though now obsolete, were in currellt use in 
the days of Surrey, Sidney, Spenser, and Shakespeare, cannot 
of thelnsclves be adduced in evidence of any interchange of 
ideas ; but when the form of the sentence and the application 
of solne pecnliar terre agree, we may reasonably presume that 
it has been more than the simple use of the sime common 
tongue which has caused the agleement. \Vhen, indeed, one 
author writes in English, and the others in Latin, or Italian, 
or French, we cannot expect much more than similarity of 
idea in treating of the same subject, and a mutual inter- 
communion of thought ; but, in the case of authors employing 
the saine mother tongue, there are certain correspondencies 
in the use of the saille terres and turns of expression which 
betoken imitation. 
Such correspondencies exist between Whitney and Shake- 
spearc, as may be seen from the following among many other 
instances. I adopt the old spelling of the folio edition of Shake- 
speare, I63, 

478 3[ISCE{LMVEO US [c,cxv. vII. 

Banne . 



Erksolne . 

Whitney, p. 7 
Rom. altd '. i. l. 1. lO2 
2/-/t',t. IU. iv. "2, I4 
Whitncy, p. ri.. 
2 l[ct, lI: iv. 3, Io7 • 
Ix'. Z«m3 iii. 5, 5 
Whitney, p. I8 9 

l[aatl«l, iii. 2, 246 . 
 /gc,z. I Z v. 3, 42 
2 lit'll. I'L ii. 4, e5 
\Vhitney, p. I8 . 
C. ]grrors, iii. I, 28 
 lg, vt. lI: iii. I, t63 • 

\Vhitney, p. 64 • 
AL «V. Dr. v. I, 394 
IC. ohn, iv. , Io6 
/Z«n. I'. ii. 2, 3 I 
Whitncy, p.  I8 
T. of 5"hrew, i. 2, I82. 
IL'n. 17. ii. , 56 

And bluddie broiles at home are set 
Who set this ancient quarrell new 
«bro«clz .e 
Alacke, what Mischeifes might be set 
They set thcm selues a 
Skill in the \Veapon is nothing, with- 
out Sackc (for that scts it a-t,orlce), 
-- a provoking merit sct a-t,orlcc by 
a rcprovable badnesse in himselfe. 
Thc maidc hcr pacience quite forgot 
And in a rage, the brutishe beaste did 
\Vith Hccats brut, thrice blastcd, thrice 
Fell lmtt,thtg Hagge, Inchantresse 
hold thy tongue. 
And bamte thinc Enemics, both minc 
and thine. 
\Vhose backe is fraughte with catcs 
and daintie cheere. 
But though my cales be meane, take 
them in good part. 
I had rather lire 
\Vith Cheesc and Garlike in a Vrind- 
mill far 
Then feed on Calcs, and bave him 
talke to me 
In any Summcr House in Christen- 
Not for out selues alone wee are creatc. 
And the issue there creale 
Eer shall be fortunate. 
The tire is dead with griefe 
13eing c,z'al« for comfort. 
\Vith hearts crcalc of duty and of zeal. 
\Vith erksome noise and eke with 
poison fell. 
I know she is an hkcsomc brawling 
How hkcsomc is this Musicke to mv 
heart ! 

C  t .,,p. v I I. ] CORRESI"OWDEJVT TER31S. 47 9 


\Vhitney, p. 64 . 
7". ofShr«w, i. ",, "66. 
CoriaL v. z, 80 . 
l'rcjudicate Whitney, xiii. 


Al['s ll'«ll, i. e, 7 • 
\Vhitney, p. 23 . 
A'. 'a/Ul, ii. , 472 • 

Vllrest . 

VllStlrc . 


TilllOll, iv. 3, 307 

.IL /étite, v. I, 16. 

And those that are vnto theire frendes 
,Vill not so gracelesse be, to be 
I:zgra/e forgetfulness shall poison 
The enuious, who are alwaies readie 
with a ihrjudicale opinion to con- 
wherein our deerest friend 
l'rcjztdic«l«s the businesse. 
\Vhen autumne rics the frutefull 
fieldes of grane. 
--yon grecne Boy shall haue no 
Sunne to .,'ibe 
The bloome that promiscth a mighty 
It shewes her selfe doth worke ber 
own vllresL 
,Vitnessing Stormes to COlne \Voe 
and Unr«st. 
And so repose sweet Gold for their 
So, litanie men do stoope to sightes 
Exposing what is mortal and ulsure. 
Thoughts speculative their u,lsure 
lmpes relate. 
And wisdolne still, against such 
lhriflcs cries. 
my Rights and Royalties 
Pluckt froln my armes perforce, and 
giuen away 
To upstart Utlhriftes. 
What man didd'st thou euer knowe 
uathrifl« that was belovcd after 
lais meanes ? 
And with an ualhrift love did run 
ri'oto Venice 
As far as Bellnont.  

For many other instances of similarities in the use of old words, see the 
Avp,xDix, I. p. 497. 

480 AI-ISCEZZANZ; 0 US" [c HAP. VI I. 

So close are some of these correspondencies that they can 
scarcely be accounted for except on the theory that Shakespeare 
had been an observant reader of Whitney's Emblems. 

There are also various expressions, or epithets, xvhich the 
Elnblem-books lnay be employed to illustrate, and which 
receive their most natural explanation from this same theory 
that Shakespeare was one of the very numerous host of 
Emblcln students or readers. Perriere's account of a man 
attcmpting to swinl with a load of iron on his back 
(Emb. 7o), is applicd by Whitney with direct refcrence 
to the lines in Horace, "O cursed lust of gold, to what 
dost thou hot compel mortal bosoms ?" He sets off the 
thought by the device of a man swimming with "a fardlc," or 
heavy burden (p. 79),-- 

.4uri facra fames qui,t non ? 
- - ....... 2.'--- . 

ll'ltitney, x586. 

" "[ESIRE to haue, dothe make vs touche indure. 
In trauaile, toile, and labour voide of reste : 
The marchant man is caried with this lure, 
Throughe scorching heate, to regions of the Easte : 
Oh thirste of goulde, what not ? but thou canst do : 
And make mens hartes for to conscnt thereto. 


The trauailer poore, when shippe doth surfer wracke, 
.Vho hopes to swimme vnto the vished lande, 
Dothe venture life, with fardle on his backe, 
That if he scape, the saine in steede maye stande. 
Thus, hope of life, and loue vnto his goods, 
Houldes vp his chinne, vith burthen in the floods." 

In the lVint«r's Tale, the xvord " fardel" occurs several 
rimes; we will, however, take a familiar quotation from Hamlct 
(act iii. sc. I, 1. 76, vol. viii. p. 80),-- 

"Who would fardels bcar, 
To grunt and sveat under a weary lire, 
But that the dread of something after death, 
The undiscover'd country from whose bourn 
No traveller returns, puzzles the will, 
And makes us rather bear those ills we bave 
Than fly to others that we know hOt of ?" 

The Bandogs, which Sir Thomas More and Spenser de- 
scribe, appear to have been different from those of Sambucus 
and "vVhitney, or, rather, they were employed for a different 
purpose. "We must," writes the worthy Chancellor (p. 586), 
" haue bande dogges to dryue them (the swine) out of the corne 
with byting, and leade them out by the ears ;" and Spenser, in 
Virgil's Gnat (1. 539), speaks of-- 

"greedie Scilla, under whom there lay 
Manie great bandogs, which her gird about." 

These dogs were mastiffs, and their banning was barking or 
braying; but the dogs entitled bandogs in XVhitney, though 
also mastiffs, were fastened by a band to a small cart, and 
trained to draw it. _A_ large species of dog may be seen at this 
day in the towns of t3elgium performing the very same service 
to which their ancestors had been accustomed above three 
centuries ago. Sambucus heads his description of the bandog's 


strength and labours xvith the sentence,--" The dog complains 
that he is greatly wronged." 

NON ego furaces nec aros infeeTor & ,vrJos, 
A23laudit nec hero blandula cauda dolo : 
Sub iuga fed m#tor ,validus, traho & effeda collo, 
,F.wç leuant aIios ,viribus ,vfque remor. 
Per ,vicos duqum me aIij Iatratibus vrgent, 
Miratur caries Iibera turba meos. 
,dm jïeram charus domime, fi paruuIus effem, 
Non menfa, ledto nec caruiffe veIim. 
Sic multù ,rb'es, & oes nocuere fuerbe : 
Contentum modico & roJùit effe flatu. 

Seated near the toiling mastiff is a lady vith tvo or three pet 
curs, and the large dog complains,-- 

" XVere I a little xvhelp, to my lady how dear I should be ; 
Of board and of bed I never the want should see."  

* XVere it only for the elegance and neat tnrn of the lines, we insert an epigram on 
a dog, by Joachim du Bellay, given in his Latin Poems, printed at Paris in 569, - 
" Latratu fures excepi ;--mutus amantes ; 
Sic placui domino, sic plaeui dominoe." 
Le. '" With barking the thieves I awaited,in silence the loyers ; 
Su pleased I the master.--so pleased I the mlstress." 

Whitney, using the woodcut which adorns the editions of 
Sambucus both in I564 and I599, prefixes a loftier motto 
(p. I4o),--Feriulzt stmmos fitlmiua motcs,--"Thunderbolts 
strike highest mountains ;" and thus expatiates he,-- 

"THé. bandogge, fitte to matche the bull, or beare, 
- V¢ith burthens greate, is loden euery daye : 
Or drawes the carte, and forc'd the yoke to weare : 
Where littell dogges doe passe their time in playe : 
And ofte, are bould to barke, and eeke to bite, 
When as before, they trembled at his sighte. 

Yet, when in bondes they see his thrauled state, 
Eache bragginge curre, beginnes to square, and brall : 
The freër sorte, doe wonder at his rate, 
And thinke them beste, that are of stature small : 
For they maie sleepe vppon their mistris bedde, 
And on their lappes, with daynties still bee fedde. 

The loftie pine, with axe is ouerthrowne, 
And is prepar'd, to serue the shipmans turne : 
XVhen bushes stande, till stormes bee ouerblmvne, 
And lightninges flashe, the mountaine toppes doth burne. 
All which doe shewe that pompe, and worldlie power, 
Makes monarches, markes : when varrijnge rate doth lower." 

The mastiff is almost the only dog to which Shakespeare 
assigns any epithet of praise. In/-/actif V. (act iii. sc. 7, 1. I3O, 
vol. iv. p. 552), one of the French lords, Rambures, acknowleges 
"that island of England breeds very valiant creatures; their 
mastiffs are of unmatchable courage." It is the same quality in 
Achilles and Ajax on which Ulysses and Nestor count when 
"the old man eloquent," in Troihzs aud Crcssida (act i. sc. 3, 
1. 39 I, vol. vi. p. I55), says of the two warriors,-- 

" Two curs shall tame each other : pride alone 
Must tarre  the mastiffs on, as 'twere their bone." 

* "Tarre," Le. provoke or urge; see Johnson and Steevens' Shaks.pea% vol. ix. 
p. 48, note. 


It is, hovever, only ila a passing allusion that Shakespeare 
introduces any mention of the bandog. He is describing the 
night "when Troy was set on tire " (z I«nry U[.., act i. sc. 4, 
1. 16, vol. v. p. I29) , and thus speaks ofit,-- 
"The rime when scritch-owls cry, and ban-dogs hoM, 
When spirits walk, and ghosts break up their graves." 
l.Ve are all familiar with the expression " motley's the only 
wear," and probably we are disposed simply to refer it to the 
way iii which that important personage was arrayed who 
exercised lais fin and nonsense and shrewd wit in the courts of 
the kings and in the mansions of the nobles of the middle ages. 
The pictorial type exists in the Emblems both of Sambucus and 
of lais copyist Whitney (p. 8I), by whom the sage advice is 
imparted,--" Give trifles in charge to fools." 

Fatuis leuia commitito. 

llTtgtney, ,586. 

qHE ht le chflde, s pleas de wth cockhorse gaie, 
-'- Althoughe he aske a courser of the beste : 
The ideot likes, with bables for to plaie, 
And is disgrac'de, when he is brauelie dreste : 
A motley coate, a cockescombe, or a bell, 
Hee better likes, then Iewelles that excell. 

Czaar. VII.] CO--ESPO_ArDE_ArT TE2«IlS. 485 

So fondelinges vaine, that doe for honor sue, 
And seeke for roomes, that worthie men deserue : 
The prudent Prince, dothe giue hem ofte their due, 
XVhiche is faire vordes, that right their humors serue : 
For infantes bande, the rasor is vnfitte, 
And fooles vmneete, in wisedomes seate to sitte." 

The word "motley" is often made use of in Shakespeare's 
plays. Jaques, in As t'ou Lilcc rt (act il. sc. 7, lines 12 and 42, 
vol. il. pp. 4o5, 4o6), describes the "motley fool" "in a motley 
« I met a fool i' the forest, 
A motley fool ; a miserable vorld ! 
As I do live by food, I met a fool ; 
"Vho laid him down and bask'd him in the sun, 
And raiI'd on Lady Fortune in good terres, 
In good set terms and yet a motley fool. 

O that I xvere a fool ! 
I am ambitious for a motley coat." 

The Prologue to ltculy VIII. (1. 15) alludes to the dress of 
the buffoons that were often introduced into the plays of the 
" a fellov 
In a long motley coat, guarded with yellow." 

The fool in Kbzg Lcar (act i. sc. 4, 1. 93, vol. viii. p. 280) 
seems to have been dressed according to Whitney's pattern, for, 
on giving his cap to Kent, he says, 

"Sirrah, you were best take my coxcomb. 
A'ozL Why, fool ? 
fi'ooL Why, for taking one's part that's out of favour : nay, an thou canst 
hot smile as the wind sits, thou'lt catch cold shortly : there, take my cox- 
comb: why, this fellow bath banished two on's daughters, and done the 
third a blessing against his will ; if thou follow him, thou must needs wear 
my coxcomb." 


Drant's translations* from Horace, published in I567, conve¥ 
to us a prett¥ accurate idea of the fool's attire,- 
",Vell geue him cloth and let the fool 
Goe like a cockescolne still." 
Perchance ,,ve know the lines in the " FAERIE QçEENE " (ri. 
c. 7, 49, 1. 6),-- 
"And other vhiles with bitter mockes and moves 
He vould him scorne, that to his gentle mynd 
"Vas lnuch lnore grievous then the others blowes : 
"Vords sharpely wound, but greatest griefe of scorning groves." 
But probably we are not prepared to trace some of the ex- 
pressions in these lines to an Emblem-book origin. The graphic 
"mockes and mowes," indeed, no Latin nor French can express; 
but our old friend Paradin, in the "DEVISES HEROIQVES" 
(leaf I74 ), names an occasion on which very amusing "mockes 
and mowes" were exhibited; it was, moreover, an example 
" ThiJtffs badlv oblaiJted are badlv scallered." As he narrates the tale,-- 
" One day it happened that a huge ape, nourished in the house of a miser 
who found pleasure only in his crowns, after seeing through a hole his 
toaster playing vith his crowns upon a table, obtained means of entering 
vithin by an open vindmv, while the miser vas at dinner. The ape took a 
stool, as his lnaster did, but soon began to throv the silver out of the 
vindmv into the street. Hov much the passers by kept laughing and the 
miser vas vexed, I shall not attempt to say. I will not mock him anaong 
his neighbours who vere picking up his bright crowns either for a nestegg, 
or for a son or a brother,--for a gamester, a driveller or a drunkard,--for I 
cannot but remember that fine and true saying which affirms, ' Thizffs badly 
ffaited are badly scallered.' " 
This tale, derived by Paradin from Gabriel Symeoni's 
Imprcsc Hcroiche et [orali, is assumed by Whitne¥ as the 
groundwork of his very" livel¥ narrative (p. 69) , 4gabtst 
Usowrs, of which we venture to give the whole. 

* Sec "Horace lais Arte of Poetrie, pistles, and satyres, englished" by Thomas 
Drant, 4to, 567. 

ÇHAP. V[[.] CO.R.R.ESPO_N.D.E2VT T.E.R.IS. 487 

"tN vserer, whose Idol was his goulde, 
- - Within his house, a peeuishe ape retain'd : 
A seruaunt fitte, for suche a miser oulde, 
Of whome both mockes, and apishe mowes, he gain'd. 
Thus, euerie daie he ruade his toaster sporte, 
And to his clogge, was chained in the courte. 
At lengthe it hap'd ? while greedie graundsir din'de ? 
The ape got loose, and founde a windowe ope : 
,Vhere in he leap'de, and all about did finde, 
The Go]), wherein the Miser put his hope ? 
,Vhich soone he broch'd, and forthe vith speede did flinge, 
And did delighte on stones to heare it ringe ? 
The sighte, righte well the passers by did please, 
,Vho did reioyce to finde these goulden crommes : 
That all their lire, their pouertie did ease. 
Of goodes ill got, loe heere the fruicte that commes. 
Looke herevppon, you that haue lx.IIDAS minte, 
And bee posseste with hartes as harde as flinte. 
Shut windowes close, leste apes doe enter in, 
And doe disperse your goulde, you doe adore. 
But woulde you learne to keepe, that you do winne ? 
Then get it well, and hourde it not in store. 
If not : no boultes, nor brasen barres vill serue, 
For GOD will waste your stocke, and make )'ou sterue." 


Poor Caliban, in the Tempest (act ii. sc. 2, 1. 7, vol. i. p. 36), 
complains of Prospero's spirits that,-- 
" For every trifle are they set upon me ; 
Sometimes like apes, that mow and chatter at me, 
And after bite me." 
_And Helena, to her rival Hermia (2t[idsmnmcr IVi, çht's 
Drcam, act iii. sc. 2, 1. 237, vol. ii. p. 24o ), urges a very similar 
"Ay, do, persever, counterfeit sad looks, 
Make mouths upon me when I turn my back ; 
XVink each at other ; hold the sveet jest up." 
There is not, indeed, any imitation of the jocose tale about 
the ape * and the miser's goId, and it is simply il "the mockes 
and apishe mowes" that any similarity exists. These, however, 
enter into the dialogue between Imogen and Iachimo (Cymbdine, 
act i. sc. 6, 1. 30, vol. ix. p. t84) ; she bids him welcome, and he 


"hwh. Thanks, fairest lady. 
What, are men mad ? Hath nature given them eyes 
To see this vaulted arch and the rich crop 
Of sea and land, which can distinguish 'twixt 
The fiery orbs above and the twinn'd stones 
Upon the nulnber'd beach, and can we hot 
Partition make with spectacles so precious 
'Twixt fait and foul? 
Imo. What makes your admiration ? 
Iach. It cannot bei' the eye ; for apes and monkeys, 
'Twixt two such shes, would chatter this way and 
Contemn with mows the other." 

There is a fine thought in Furmer's Usc aztdAbusc of lVcalth, 
first published in Latin in 575, and afterwards, in 585, trans- 
lated into Dutch by Coornhert ; itis respecting the distribution 
of poverty and riches by the Supreme wisdom. The subject (at 

* The character, however, of the animal is aaamed in Iidsn»zmer 2Vight's Z)ream 
(act ii. sc. , 1. $), vhere Titania may look- 
" On meddling monkey, or on busy ape." 


Dominus paupcrcm £ad & 
./«,«m » 7. 

Izt Z)¢us auoeor opum qus'olim Iobtw habebat, 
Sic laupertatu tutu Des au.or erat. 
.Et bo»um trm putat, Dominus quia aont ;trmqueo 
I» animo forti [emer 'trumq«e feret. 


p. 6) is U1td«serz,cd _PovcrO,,--" The Lord maketh poor, and 
enriches." (Sce Plate XVI.) 
"The riches which Job had as God bestows, 
So giver of poverty doth God appear. 
Who thinks each good because from God each flows, 
Shall always each with bravest spirit bear." 
In the dcvicc, thc clouds are opened to bestow fulness upon 
the poor man, and emptiness upon the rich. By brief allusion 
chief]y does Shakespeare express either of these acts ; but in the 
Tccst (act iii. sc. 2, 1. 135, vol. i. p. 48), Caliban, after informing 
Stephano that " thc isle is full of noises," and that " somctilnes 
a thousand twangling ilastrtllnents will lmln about mine ears," 
adds,-- " And thcn, in dreaming, 
The clouds mcthought would open, and show richcs 
Ready to drop upon me ; that when I waked, 
I cried to drealn again." 
A very similar picturc and selatiment to those in Coornhert 
are presented by Gloucester's words in [htg Lcar (act iv. sc. I, 
1. 64, vol. viii. p. 366), _ 
" Here, take this purse, thou wholn the heavens' plagues 
Have humbled to all strokes : that I ara wretched 
Makes thee the happier. Heavens, deal so still ! 
Lct the superflnous and lust-dieted man, 
That slaves your ordinance, that will hot see 
Because he doth not feel, feel your power quickly ; 
So distribution should undo excess, 
And each man have enough." 
Coornhert's title, " IRrrt)t ll)t'tbr|lt't t'liait" /q51i.trttt't 
t2l2rtlr t)abr,"--Thc right ¢zsc a»d mistsc of worhtly w«alth,-- 
and, indeed, lais work, have their purport well carried out by the 
king in 2 H«z7 lU. (act iv. sc. 4, 1. lO3, vol iv. p. 45o),-- 
"Will Fortune never corne with both hands full, 
But write her fait words still in foulest letters ? 
She either gives a stemach and no food ; 
Nuch are the poor, in health ; or else a feast 
And takes away the Stolnach ; such are the rich. 
That have ahundance and cnjoy it not." 

3 R 

49 ° 3[ISCELLANFOUS [CHa,. vit. 

The fine thoughts of Ulysses, too, in Tl-oihts al«d C'-cssi«ht 
(act iii. sc. 3, 1. 196 , vol. vi. p. 2o1), have right and propriety 
hcre to be quoted,-- 

The providence that's in a watchful state 
Knows almost every grain of Plutus' gold, 
Finds bottom in the uncomprehensive deeps, 
Keeps place with thought and almost like the gods 
Does thoughts unveil in their dumb cradles. 
There is a mystery, with whom relation 
l)t, rst never meddle, in the soul of state ; 
Which hath an operation more divine 
Than breath or pen can give expressure to." 

Petruchio's thought, perchance, may be mentioned in this 
connection (Tamb«g of the Sh,'cw, act iv. sc. 3, 1. 65, vol. iii. 
p. 78), when he declares his will to go to Kate's father,-- 

" Even in these honest mean habiliments : 
Our purses shall be proud, our garments poor ; 
For 'tis the mind that makes the body rich : 
And as the sun breaks through the darkest clouds, 
So honour peereth in the meanest habit." 

The Horatian thought, " Time flies irrevocable," so well de- 
picted by Otho Vaenius in his 2mblcmata (edition I612, p. 2o6), 
has only general parallels in Shakespeare ; and yet it is a thought 
with which our various dissertations on Shakespeare and the 
Eblematists may find no unfitting end. The Christian artist far 
excels the Heathen poet. Horace, in his O,t«s (bk. iv. carmen 7), 
" Immortalia ne @ères, mowt annus  almmz 
Que rap# hom dicm : 
Fr@ot'a mit«scuut Zekyz'is : lç'r z'oto'it .stas 
Ittterilm'a, simul 
7¢ma recm7"it ino-s." 

Le. " Not to hope ilnmortal things, the year admonishes, and the hour 
which steals the genial day. By western winds the frosts grow mild; the 
summer soon to perish supplants the swing , then fruitful autumn pours forth 
his stores, and soon sluggish winter colnes again." 

C H.u, V | i. ] COR'SI»OVDEVT T'[S. 491 

These, however, the artist makes (.r2r«lzU, I., act iv. sc. I, 1. 9, 
vol. v. p. 555),-- 
"Preachers to us ail, admonishing 
That we should dress us fairly for our end." 
Youtlfful Time (see Plate XVII.) is leading on the seasons,-- 
a childlike swing , a matured summer xvreathed xvith corn, an 
autumn crowned with vines, and a decrepid winter,--and yet the 
emblem of immortality lies at their feet; and the lesson is 
taught, as out Dramatist expresses it (Ia»dct, act i. sc. _, I. 
vol. viii. p. I4),-- 
'-Ail that lives must die 
Passing through nature to eternity." 
The irrevocable rime flies on, and surely it has its comment in 
,llac&t/ (act v. sc. 5, 1. 19, vol. vil. p. 5Ie),-- 
" To-morrow, and to-morrow, and to-morrow, 
Creeps in this petty pace ri-oin day to day 
To the last syllable of recorded time ; 
And all our yesterdays have lighted fools 
The way to dusty dcath." 
Or, in Hotspur's words (I /2rock:/' !K., act v. sc. _-', 1. 8:, vol. iv. 
"0 gentlemen, the time of lire is short ! 
To spend that shortness basely were too long, 
If lire did ride upon a dial's point, 
Still ending at the arrival of an hour." 
And for eternity's Emblem,* the Egyptians, we are told 
(Horapollo, i. I), ruade golden figures of the 13asilisk, with its 
tail covered by the test of its body ; so Otho Voenius presents 
the device to us. But Shakespeare, without symbol, names the 
desire, the feeling, the fact itself; he makes Cleopatra exclaim 
(Ai«lo«y a«d Clcopatra, act v. sc. e, 1. "-77, vol. ix. p. 15o ), " I 
have immortal longings in me," " I ana tire and air; my other 
elements I give to baser lire." 
When Romeo asks (Romco a«d )ealict, act v. sc. I, 1. 15, 
vol. vii. p. II7),-- 
«- See woodcut in this volmne, p. 37- 

49 a _RE CAPITULA TIO,OE [C llAl'. ,'I [, 

Therefore, in 
irrevocable, and 

" How fares my Juliet ? that I ask again ; 
For nothing can be ill, if she be well ;" 
with the force of entire faith the answer is conccived which 
13althasar returns,-- 
" Then she is well, and nothing can be ill : 
lier body sleeps in Capel's monulnent, 
And her immortal part with angels lires." 
We thus knmv in what sense to understand the words from 
[acbct/ (act iii. sc. 2, 1. 22, vol. vii. p. 467),-- 
" Duncan is in lais grave ; 
After life's fitflfl lever he sleeps wdl ; 
Treason has done his worst : nor stcd, nor poison, 
Malice domestic, foreign levy, nothing, 
Can touch him fllrther." 
spite of quickly fading years, in spite of age 
(Lovc's Lalaour's Lost, act i. sc. I, I. 4, vol. il. 

«' In spite of connorant devouring Time, 
The endeavour of this present breath may buy 
That honour which shall bate his scythe's keen edge, 
And make us hcirs of ail eternity." 
A brief r«sum, or recapitulation, will now place the nature of 
our argument more clearly in review. 
Whcn xvriting and its kindred arts of designing and colouring 
werc the only means in use for the making and illustrating of 
books, drawings of an cmblematical charactcr were frequently 
executed both for the ornamenting and for the fuller explanation 
of various works. 
From the origin of printing, books of an emblematical 
character, as the 2?ialcs of t/tc dvoor and othcr block-books, were 
generally known in the civilised portions of Europe ; they con- 
stituted, to a considerable degree, thc illustrated literature of 
their age, and enjoyed wide faine and popularity. 
Not many years after printing xvith moveable types had been 
invented, Emblem works as a distinct species of literature 

Cmxp. VII. ] JCA_P!7'UZA 770A z. 493 

appeared ; and of these some of the earliest were soon translated 
into English. 
It is on undoubted record that the use of Emblems, derived 
fi'om German, Latin, French, and Italian sources, prevailed in 
England for purposes of ornamentation of various kinds; that 
the vorks of Brandt, Giovio, Symeoni, and Paradin were trans- 
lated into English ; and that therc were several English writers 
or collectors of Emblems within Shakespeare's lifetime,--as 
Daniell, Whitney, \Villet, Combe, and Peacham. 
Shakespeare possessed great artistic poxvers, so as to appre- 
ciate and graphically describe the bcauties and qualities of 
excellence in painting, sculpture, and music. Itis attainments, 
too, in the languages enabled him to make use of the Emblem- 
books that had been published in Latin, Italian, and French, and 
possibly in Spanish. 
In everything, except in the actual pictorial device, Shake- 
speare exhibited himself as a skilled designer,--indeed, a writer 
of Emblens; he followed the very methods on which this 
species of literary composition was conducted, and needed only 
the engraver's aid to make perfect designs. 
Freest among mortals were the Emblem writers in borrow- 
ing onc from the other, and from any source which might serve 
the construction of their ingenious devices ; and they generally 
did this without acknmvledgment. An Emblem once launched 
into the world of letters was treated as a fable or a proverb,--it 
became for the tilne and the occasion the property of whoever 
chose to take it. In using Emblems, therefore, Shakespeare is 
no more to be regarded as a copyist than his contemporaries are, 
but simply as one who exercised a recognised right to appro- 
priate what he needed of the general stock of Emblem notions. 
There are several direct References in Shakespeare, at 
least six, in which, by the closest description and by express 
quotation, he identifies himself with the Emblem writers who 
preceded him. 

494 CO.VCZ USIO] r. [Cnhp. vII. 

But besides these direct References, there are several colla- 
teral ones, in which ideas and expressions are cmployed similar 
to those of Elnblelnatists, and which indicate a knowledge of 
Emblem art. 
And, finally, the parallelisms and correspondencies are vel-y 
numerous between deviccs and turns of thought, and even be- 
tween the words of the Emblem writers and passages in Shake- 
speare's Sonnets and Dralnas; and these receive their most 
appropriate ratio1alc on the supposition that they were sug- 
gested to lais mind through reading the Emblem-books, or 
through falniliarity with the Emblem literature. 

Now, such References and Coincidences are hot to be re- 
garded as purely accidental, neither can all of them be urged 
with entire confidence. Some persons even may be disposed to 
class them among the similarities which of necessity arise when 
writcrs of genius and learning take up the same themes, and 
call to their aid all the resources of their memory and research. 
I presume not, hoxvever, to say that my arguments and 
statements are absolute proofs, except in a few instances. XVhat 
I maintain is this : that the Emblem writers, and our own Whit- 
ney especially, do supply many curious and highly interesting 
illustrations of the Shakespearean dramas, and that several of 
theln, probably, were in the lnind of the Dramatist as he wrote. 
To show that the theory carried out iii these pages is neither 
singular nor unsupported by high authorities, it should not be 
folgotten that the very celebrated critic, Francis Douce, in lais 
Illustratio¢s of Sh«t«cs2«arc (pp. 302, 392), lnaintains that Paradin 
was the source of the torch-emblem in the t)cricl«s (act il. sc. e, 
1. 32)" the " wreath of victory," and " gold on the touchstone," 
have also the same source. To Holbein's Simzlachrcs Noel 
Humphreys assigns the origin of the expression in Othdlo, "l'ut 
out the light--and then, put out the light ;" and in the saine 
work, Dr. Alfred Woltlnann, in Igolbci¢¢ a¢d his Timcs (vol. il. 

ch^v. vI I.| CO2VCZ US[01 . 495 

p. I2I), finds the origin of Death's fool in 3[«as««rcfor _/[eastr« : 
and Shakespeare's comparisons of "Death and Sleep" may be 
traced to Jean de Vauzelle, who vrote the Dissertations for Zes 
Siml«lachr«s. Charles Knight, also, in his Piclorial Shaksjcr« 
(vol. i. p. 54), to illustrate the lines in Ha»dct (act iv. sc. 5, 1. 
respecting "the kind life-rendering pclican," quotes Whitney's 
stanza, and copies his woodcut, as stated aztc, p. 396, note. 
Though hot a learned man, as Erasmus or Beza was, Shake- 
speare, as every page of lais vonderful writings shows, must bave 
been a reading man, and vell acquainted with the current 
literature of his age and country. \Vhitney's Enzbh'mes vere 
well known ila 612 to the author of "I,[INERVA BRITANNAI" 
and boasted of in 598 by Thomas gIeres, in his lVit's Com- 
mow«a#h, as fit to be compared with any of the most eminent 
Latin writers of Emblems, and dedicated to many of the dis- 
tinguished men of Elizabeth's reign; and they could scarcely 
have been unknown to Shakespeare even had there been no 
similarities of thought and expression established between the 
two vriters. 
Nor after the testimonies which have been adduced, and 
comparing the picture-emblems submitted for consideration vith 
the passages fl-om Shakespeare which are their parallels, as far 
as words can be to d'avings, are we required to treat it as 
nothing but a conjecture that Shakespeare, like others of lais 
countrymen, possessed at least a general acquaintance with the 
popnlar Emblem-books of his own generation and of that which 
went before. 
The study of the old Embleln-books certainly possesses little 
of the charm which the unsurpassed natural power of Shake- 
speare has infused into his dramas, and which rime does not 
diminish ; yet that study is no barren pursuit for such as will 
seek for " virtue's fair form and graces excellent," or who desire 
to note how the learning of the age disported itself at its hours 
of recreation, and laow, with fev exceptions, it held firm its 

496 CO.IVCL USIOIV. [ctt,P. VII. 

allegiance to pnrity of thought, and reverenced the spirit of 
religion. Should there be any whom these pages incite to gain 
a fuller knowledge of the Emblem literature, I xvould say in the 
words of Arthur Bourchicr, Whitney's steady friend, 
" Gocfo wardc lhcz hz haic lime, azd thou shalt su'clyfldc, 
Il "it]t coste, and labour w[[ sel out, .a bançucl for thy t»de, 
t starehouse for thy wise conceifites, a wbctstone fir thy «ittc : 
ll'lc% eacle »zau »zajw wit da[ttie cho[ce his fatciesclf ttc." 
So much for the early cultivators of Emblematical mottoes, 
devices, and poesies, and for him whom Hugh Holland, and 
Ben Jonson, and "The friendly Admirer of Iris Endowments," 
salutc as "The Famous Scenicke l'oct," "The Sweet Swan of 
Avon," "The Starre of Poets," 
" Sou& ofthe Affe / 
The applause ! delight  the wonder of our stage  " 
tr. qilliam t)arçrarr: azd what hc bas lfl zts; "-- 
such the dedication when Jonson declared,-- 
'" T]tou a7EE a AIou[ctt wit]tout a totbe. 

Aptd art alhtc still, wh[l« thy Boobe dot]z liste 
And we haue wits to read, and praise to giue." 

(;;or,i», «ct. 55 o, 


N.B. After the words the Referenees are to the pages and lines of Whitney's Emblems ; in the Dramas 
to the act, seene, and line, aeeording fo the Camhridge Edltion, 8vo, in 9 vols. 7866. 

Accidentes . p. ri. line 2 

p. vil. I. 2 

Twtpesl, v. , 305 
 l'm !Il i. 2, 99. 
II: TaA; iv. 4, 527 - 

yet they set them selues a worke in handllnge suche 
accidentes, as haue Mn done in rimes paste. 
this present rime behouldeth the accidentes of 
former rimes. 
And the particular accidents gone by. 
And nothing pleaseth but rare accidents. 
As the mthought-on accident is guilty. 

affectioncd . 

p. ri. I. 5 
Taell A . ii. 3, 3 ° 
l.. L Zost, i. ,  58. 

one too ranch affectioned, can scarce finde an 
ende of the praises of Ilector. 
An affectioned ass. 
I do affect the very ground. 

aie, or aye 

p. 2,1. 7 • 
p. III, |. 12 . 
_aL Af. Dr. i. , 7 - 
]ericl«'s, v. 3, 95 • 
75". atdC: iii. 2, 5 2 

With theise hee liues, md doth reioice for aie. 
Thy faine doth liue, and eeke, for aye shall lastc. 
For aye to be in shady cloister mew'd. 
The worth that learned charity aye wears. 
To feed for aye her lamp and flames of love. 

aldcr, orcldcr 

p. I2O, I. 5 
e IIcn. I¥. i. , eS . 
75". a*td Ct. ii. 2, o 4 
Rich. [[. ii. 3, 43 

And why ? theise two did aider time decree. 
With you my aider, liefest sovereign. 
Virgins and boys, mid-age and wrinkled eld. 
-- which elder davs shall ripen. 

498 COINCII)£NCtï, S. [AWEDlX I. 

x, VORD. 

itlnloyes . 

assaic. . 

a Vol'ke . . 

Baie, or baye 

bane or bayne 


p. 2I, 1. 6 . 
llamlet, iv. 5, 
Sonnet cli. 3 
Somtct xxxv. 7 

p. 219, 1. 9 
R«h. III. v. 3, I56 • 
T/L M,. iv. I, 50 
3 Ilat. 1:I. v. 7, 45. 

P- 34, 1. 3 
p. 4 o, 1. 3 • 
I .[]Cil. ]I'. v. 4, 34- 
Ilamld, il. 2, 7 - 

p. vi. 1. 2 
2 tien. II: iv. 3, oS 
Ai Zcar, iii. 5, 6 

p. 213, 1. 3 
p. 191 , 1. 4 
CA,mb. v. 5, 222 . 
. C, es. iv. 3, 27 • 
72. of S/rew, v. 2, 56 
2 I-[cit. lU. i. 3, 8o . 

p. 180, 1. 7 

p. 219, 1. 16 
I fTrgll. ]"L V. 4, I22 
Cortb/. i. 4, 155 - 

p. 141 , 1. 7 
p. 211, 1. 14 . 

TiL Air. v. 3, 73- 
AL for A[. i. 2, 12.] . 
Alacbeth, v. 3, 59- 

p. I9, 1. IO 
/lamier, iii. 2, 246 
I 111. l'L v. 4, 42 • 
2 liez. IZ iii. 2, 319 

That all too late shee moul'n'd, fOl" lier amisse. 
Each toy seems prologue to solne great amiss. 
Then gentle cheater urge hot lny amiss. 
Myself corrupting, salvillg thy anfiss. 

l Ils pleastlres sbalbee mated with annoyes. 
Guard thee ri'oto the boar's annoy ! 
 root of thine annoy. 
 farewell, sour annoy ! 

But when the froste, and coulde, shall thee assaie. 
SVith reasons firste, did vertue him assaie. 
I will assay thee ; so defend thyself. 
Never lnore to give the assay of anns against 
your majesty. 

They set them selues a vorke in handlinge. 
for that sets it a-vork. 
set a-work by a reproveable badness. 

Wherefore, in vaine aloude he barkes and baies. 
_A_ lld curteous speeche, dothe keepe thel-n at the baye. 
-- set the dogs o' the street to bay me. 
I had rather be a dog, and bay the moon. 
Your deer does hold you at a bay. 
 baying him at the heels. 

A worde once spoke, it can retourne no more, 
But flies avaie, and ofte thy bale doth breede. 
Lo this their hale, which was her blisse you heare. 
By sight of these our baleful enenfies. 
Rolne and ber rats are at the point of battle ; 
The one side must have hale. 

Euen so it happes, vee ofte our bayne doe brue. 
Did breede her bane, xvho mighte haue bath'de in 
Lest Rolne herself be bane unto herself. 
Like rats that ravin down their proper bane. 
I will not be ail-nid of death and bane. 

And in a rage, the brutishe beaste did banne. 
With Hecate's ban thrice blasted. 
Fell, banning llag, enchantress, hold thy tongue 
Eery joint should seem to curse and ball. 

Aepl»x 1.1 SZ-]-./tIt'ES_PE.4]E .dArD IYH-[_T2VE Y. 499 



bewraye . 



broache . 


Carie . 

P. 9, 1. 2 
3/i/cm I'Z iv. 6, 88. 
T. G. l C. iv. S, 40. 

Woulde vnderstande what weather shoulde betide. 
A salve for any sore that may betide. 
Recking as little what betideth me. 

p. 50, 1. I . 

IhTmlet, iv. 5, 47- 
lA'n. IŒE iii. 3, 285 

Betime when sleepe is sxveete, the chattringe 
swallowe cries. 
Ail in the morning betime. 
And stop the rage betime. 

p. v. 1. 3o . 

p. I24, 1. 5 

troJ. I'L iv. I, lO 7 
A'. Zcar, il. I, IO7 
lien. I7]. i. I, 211. 

bexvrayeth it selfe as the smoke bewrayetll the 
Theire foxes coate, theire fained barre bewraies. 
Bevray'd the faintness of lny lnaster's heart. 
bewray lais practice. 
hose looks bewray her anger. 

p. 94,1. 7 • 

T. of S/l-tïu, v. I, io 3 
AL ICic,; iii. 2, 58. 

What meanes her eies ? so blem'ed, sore, and 

While connterfeit supposes blear'd thine eyne. 
Dardanian wives with blear'd visages. 


Cymb. i. I, I . 

Can not be free, from guilte of clfildrens 

Our bloods no lnore obey the heavens than our 

P" 7, 1. 2 
_om. and .. i. I, 102 
2 J[vt. II'. iv. 2, 14 . 

And bluddie broiles, at home are set a broache. 
Who set this ancient quarrel new abroach ? 
Alack what lnischiefs might he set a broach. 

p. 209 ]. IO . 

II: Talc, iv. 3, 18 

The quicke Phisition did commannde that tables 
should be set 
Abont the nfisers bed, and budgettes forth to 
If tinkers may llave leave to live, 
And bear the sow-skln budget. 

p. 209, 1. 5 

Cymb. v. 2, 4. 
As Zike il, iii. 5, lO6 

At lengthe, this greedie carie the Lythergie 
-- this carl, a very drudge of nature's. 
And he hath bought the cottage and the bounds 
That the old carlot once was lnaster of. 

5oo COIA CIDi2 Ci,ç. [.\m,,ox I. 


catch'de . 

p. 5o, 1. 3 . 

A'. ZcaG i. 4, t94 

I lien. 17. iv. I, 90. 

• p. 77, 1. 6 • 

Nom. an,t . iv. 5, 47 

cates . 

• p. 18,1.9 . 
p. 202, 1. I2 
7". ofShrew, ii. t, tS7 
I lltvt. I'Z ii. 3, 78. 
C: Ervrs, iii. , 2S. 

ca)tifl) . p. 95,1. 19 

]011. alld . v. I, 52 
Rich. IL i. 2, 53. 

clogges . p. 82, 1. 9 - 

3Azcbeth, iii. 6, 42 
ldicl. I1. i. 3, 200 

cockescolnbe p. $I, 1. 5 . 

AL IUives, v. 5, I33. 
A' Zazr, ii. 4, 119 

consumlna- p. xi. l. 23 . 

Cymb. iv. 2, 28 . 
IA, ml«t, iii. I, 63 . 

corruptc . p. xiv. 1. 19 

I [ïrCll. ,'/. V. 4, 45" 
ll,'n, l'III, i. 2. 116 

Which calpes thc pratinge crewc, who like of 
bal)linge beste. 
 your insolent retinue do hourly cal'p and 
This fellow here, with envious carping tongue. 

Yet, xvith figge leaues at lengthe was catch'de, & 
marie the fisshers praie. 
But one thing to rejoice and solace in, 
And cruel death hath catch'd it ffOln my sight ! 

XVhose backe is ffaighte with cates and daintie 
And for to liue with CODRVS cates : a roote and 
barly bonne. 
My super-dainty Kate, for dainties are all Kates. 
That we lllay taste of your wine, and sec what 
cates you have. 
But though nly cates be mean, take thenl in good 

bec heare how vile, theise caytiffes doe appeal'e. 
Here lives a caitiff wretch. 
A caitiff recreant to my cousin Hereford. 

Then, loue the onelie crosse, that clogges thc 
worlde with care. 

You'll rue the time that clogs me with this answer. 
]3ear not along the clogging burden ofa guilty soul. 

A motley coate, a cockescombe, or a bell. 
Shall I have a coxcolnb of frize ? 
She knapped 'em o' the coxcolnbs with a stick. 

wee lnaie behonlde the consulnmati6 of happie 
ould age. 
Quiet consulmnation have. 
'Tis a consumlnation devoutly to be wish'd. 

too much corrupte with curiousnes and new- 
Corrupt and tainted with a thousand vices. 
the mind gro ing once corlupt, 
Thcy tUnl to vicious forms. 

,\l.L.llX I.] SI.4A'tSPI,7IlgE ,4AZ) Il "112/'Vt Y. 5 ° t 

.vo Rb. R EFERENCE. 
corse . p. lO9, 1. 3 ° 
Il . TaIL; iv. 4, 13o - 
l?om. and . v. 2, 3 ° 
crcatc, p. 64, 1. 1 , 
tA't«. /: ii. 2, 3 t . 
A-. ,,h», iv. I, IO7 . 
Dcceaste p. 87, 1. 13 
),mb. i. , 38 
dclight . p. xiii. 1. 37 
11a,,Mcl, il. 2, 3oo 
.lIttch Ado, ii. 1, 1"2 
dcrncll p. 68, 1. _2 . 
1 IAvt. I'I. iii. 2, 44- 
Aç Zalr, iv. 4, 4- 



doolnbc . 

doubt . 

p. x. 1. 9 
CorioL iii. 3, 43 • 
Çoriol. '. 3, 119 . 

p. lO2, 1. 17 

p. 3 o, 1. 4 • 

.4s Like it, i. 3, 79 
ldom. and . iii. 2, 67 

• p. 148 , 1. 3 

Idich. IZ iii. 4, 69 
6rh,1. iii. 1. I5Z. 

But fortie titre before, did carue hi» corse. 
Like a bank, for love to lie and play on ; hot 
like a corse. 
l'oor living corse, clos'd in a dead inan's tonlb. 

Not for our selues alone wee are crcate. 
With hearts create of duty and of zeal. 
Being create for comfort. 

Throughe A»chalon, the place where he deceastc. 
His gentle lady--deceas'd as lle was born. 

Lastlie, if maie deuise herein shall delight thee. 
Man delights hot lne. 
None but libertines delight him. 

The hurtfull tares, and dernell ofte doe growc. 
'Twas full of darnel ; do you like the taste .9 
Danel, and ail the idle weeds that grow. 

healthe and wealthe--detertnine with the bodie. 
Must ail determine here .9 
I purpose hot to wait,--till these wars dctermine. 

Which when hee sawe, as one distracte ith 

Better I were distinct : so should my thoughts be 
severed from my griefs. 
My lmir be fix'd on end as one distract. 

Wronge sentence paste by AGAMEMNONS 

Firnt and irrevocable is my doom, which I lmve 
ps'd upon het-. 
Theu, dreadfid trumpet, sound the general 

The boye no harme did doubt, vntill he felt thc 
'Tis doubt he will be. 
More than ),ou doubt the change on't. 




Eckc, or eke. 

englished . 

ercksome . 
eternised. . 


extincte . . 

p. I28, I. I I 

As Like it, v. 4, 61 . 

Twdflh A: ii. 3, 55 • 

p. lO3, 1. 12 
lA'n. I: ii. 4, 6. 
Sonne/ciii. 1. 8 

A/:. iV.. /)r. iii. I, 8 5 . 
All's II'11, ii. 5, 73- 
IZ.. ll'iz'cs, ii. 3, 67 • 

Title, 1. 5 
3L IUtes, i. 3, 44 • 

p. I8, 1. 4 
iv. of Shrea,, i. 2, 
2lfen. l'L il. I, 56. 
P- 94, I. 2o 
As Lil'e it, iii. 5, 94 - 
2/feu. l'Z ii. 4, 13 - 
p. vil 1. I9 
.].. [Viues, ¥. 5, 225" 
p. ii. I. 
z la,,,, ir'I. v. 3, 3o. 

p. I3I , 1. 6 
A: Lem; iv. 7, 8o 
thzmlct, v. 1, 27 . 
p. iv. 1. 32 . 
Olhdlo, il. 1, 81 . 
]dich. IZ i. 3- 222 

And biddes them feare, their sweet and dulcet 
According to the fooFs bolt, Sir, and such dnlcet 
To hear by the nose is a dulcet in contagion. 

For ouermuch, dothe dull the finest wittes 
For peace itself should hot so dull a kingdom. 
Dulling my lines and doing me disgrace. 

]3efore whose face, and eeke on enerye side. 
And eke this verse vas granen on the brasse. 
Most brisky juvenal, and eke most lovely Jew. 
With true observance seek to eeke out that. 
And eke Cavaleiro Slender. 

Englished and Moralized. 
-- to be English'd rightly, is, I ana Sir John 

With ercksome noise, and eke with poison fell. 
I knmv she is an irksome brawling scold. 
Irksorne is this music to my heart. 

As with his voice hee erste did daunte his foes. 
Thy company, vhich erst was irksome to me. 
That erst did follow thy proud chariot wheels. 

examples--eyther to bee imitated, or eschewed. 
What cannot be eschexCd, must be embraced. 

-- learned men haue etemised to all posterities. 
Saint Alban's battle won by famous York 
Shall be etemiz'd in all age to corne. 

If.z*EGYT spires, be euened with the soile. 
To rnake him even o'er the time he has lost. 
Their even Cllrisfian. 

deathe--coulde llOt extincte nor bnrie 
Give renew'd tire to out extincted spirits. 
-- be extinct with age. 


AePltx 1.1 SHAN"ES_PEA IdE AxVZ) IVHITNE Iç 503 

Facte. • P- 79, 1. 
AL _/br 3/. v. 1, 43z. 
2 IZeu. /'/. i. 3,  7 I. 

Thinke howe his facte, was ILtOS foule deface. 
Should she l«eel down in mercy of this fact. 
A fouler fact did never traitor in the land commit. 


• p. 179 , 1. 9 
IZamlet, iii. I, 76 . 
IK Tale, v. z, z . 

Dothe venture lire, with fardle on his backe. 

Who wonld fardels bear, to groan and sweat 
nnder a weary life .9 
I  as by at the opening of the fardel. 


Euen so, it falles, while carelesse times wee spende. 
I know hot what may fall ; I like it hot. 


. p. 1"7, 1. Il 

AtL atd (2. ii. 6, 
for 3[.. ii. I, 2 

Who while they lin'de did fcare you with theire 

Thou canst not fear us, Polnpey, with thy sails. 
Setting it np to fear the birds of prey. 


• P- 3,1- z2 . 
AL A r. Dr. v. 1. 
2 Heu. I'L iii. . 35 

Hath Nature lente vnto this Serpent fell. 
A lion-fell, nor else no lion's data. 
This fell tempest shall not cease to rage. 


• p. 3o, 1. 5 - 

,]lacb«th, iii. 1, 63 

Bnt howe ? declare, Vlysses filed tonge 
Allur'de the Iudge, to ue a Iudgement wronge. 

If't be so, for Banquo's issue have I fil'd my 

fittes . 

p. lO3, 1.  i Sometinae the Lute, the Chesse, or Bowe by fittes. 
Tf. and Cr. iii. I, 54 \Vell, you say so in fits. 


P- 7, 1. IO . 

Ces. iv. 3, zzo 
A[acbetk, iv. z, 21 

This, robbes the good, and setts the theenes a 

On such a fnll sea are we no'iv afloat. 
But float upon a wild and violent sea. 


p. 4, 1. io . 
Temest, iii. , 45 

And breake her bandes, and bring her foes to foile. 
Did quarrel with the noblest grace she ow'd, 
And pnt it to the foil. 

• p. "z3, 1. 7 
AAfor AL v. t, o 5 . 
AL 2V. Dr. iii. z, 37 

Oh worldlinges fonde, that ioyne these two so iii. 
Fond wretch, thou know'st hot what thott speak'st. 
llow simple and how fond I alll. 


.VOR D. 
foyles . 
fl'aies . 
fustie . 




p. 5,1. 7 
Othello, ii. 3, t78 
Rich. IL ii. 3, 37 
• p. xvii. !. 1S 
1 lA'n. Il, iv. 2, 207 
p. SL].6. 
1 Zrrn. II: i. e, 74 - 
3L IDtice, iii. 4, 6S. 
p. I72, ]. I I 
M«c&tk, iv. 3, lO 
tI«m l'I1], i. e, 4 o. 
p. 92, 1. I . 
72. of Shrew, il. 1, I4S 
p. 8o, 1. 6 . 
Tf. a,,,d O'. i. 3, I6I 

p. 156 , 1. 3 

31"acbdh, i. 2, 54 • 
CorioL ii. 2,  12 . 

 IA'n. I'Z i. 1, 67 l 
Rick. IIL i. 4, 36 

P- 97, 1. 3 - 

Twel.f/h A . ii. 5, 77- 
2 ]ar«n. I7. iii. I . 

p. 98, 1. I0 

3/«n. I 7. iv. 6, 93- 
Tir..4,. i. _'2. 66 

Yct time and tune, and neighbourhood forgotte. 
t Iow cornes it, Michael, you are thus forgot ? 
That is hot forgot which ne'er I did rememl)er. 
PERFECTION needes no other foyles, suche helpes 
comme out of place. 
That which hath no foll to set it off. 
Unto the good, a shiehle in ghostlie fraies. 
To the ]attcr end of a fi'ay, and tbe beginning of 
a feast. 
And peak of fi.-ays, like a fine bragging youth. 
As bothe your Towne, and countrie, you nmye 
As I shall find the time to friend. 
Not friended by Iris wish. 
The Lute...lack'de bothe stringes, and frettes. 
.qhe mistook ber ri-ets. 
Or fill the sacke wilh fltstie mixed meale. 
at this fusty stuff, 
The large Achilles...laughs out a loud applause. 
At ]engthe when ail wa gone, the pacient gan 
to see. 
The thane of Cawdor began a dismal conflict. 
-- the clin of war gan pierce his ready sense. 
Eeinge ask'd the cause, belote he yeelded ghoste. 
-- cause him once more yield the ghost. 
-- often did I trive to yield the ghost. 
For to escape the fishers ginnes and trickes. 
Nmv is the woodcock near lle gin. 
P,e it hy gins, by snares. 
And CODRVS had snmll cates, lais harte to gladde. 
-- did glad my heart with hope. 
The cordial of mine age to glad my heart ! 



. p- 3,1.6 
Twdflk/V.. iii. 4, 363 
C Errors, v. , 4t 6. 
y. C«es. i. 2, 68 . 
Rie/t. IZ. i. 3, 208 

An acte nmste rare, and glasse of true renoume. 
I my brother know yet liuing in my glasse. 
Methinks you are my glass, and not my brother. 
So well as by reflection, I, your glass. 
Even in the glasses of thiue eyes I see thy grieved 


p. 219, I. 17 
iL. . Zosl, ii. , 47 • 
lien. ITIZ v. 3, 7. 

O loue, a plague, thoughe grac'd with gallant 
The only soil of his fait virtue's gloss. 
Your painted gloss discovers,--words and weak- 


p. 75,1. 2 . 
p. I99 , 1. I, 2. 

O'mb. i. 6, o 5 

lIvt. I'IlZ v. 3, mo 

Whose liuer still, a greedie gripe dothe rente. 
If then, content tire chiefest riches bee, 
Aud greedie glipes, that doe abomlde be pore. 
Join gripes with hands ruade liard with hoully 
Out of the gripes of cruel men. 

guerdon . 

P- 5, I. o 
2luch Ad,,, v. 3, 5 
 Hcn. l'Z iii. , 7o 

.Aud shall at lenghte Actœeons guerdon haut. 
Dcath in gnerdou of hcr wrongs. 
-- iu reguerdou of that duty done. 

guide . 

P- 33, 1. 5 • 
Timot,, i. 1, 244. 
Othello, il. 3, 95. 

And lefte her younge, vnto this tirauntes guide. 
Pray entertain theln ; give them guide to u. 
My blood begins lny saler guides to rtde. 

guise . 

P- 59, I. 9 
Alacbeth, v. I, I6. 
C.)'lnb. v. I, 32 

hlquired what in solnlner was lier guise. 
This is her veryguise ; and, npon nly lire, fast asleep. 
To shame the guise o' the world. 

Hale, halde p. 7,I- 2 . 
P- 37, 1. o 

I lien. I'Z. v. 4, 64. 
Tir. An. v. 3, I43 
I /t/elt. l'I. ii. 5, 3 

In hope at lengthe, an happie hale to haue. 
And Aj.tx gifte, llal'de IIEc'roR throughe the 

Although ye hale me to a violent death. 
IIither hale that misbelieving Iool-. 
Even like a lnan uew haled from the rack. 


72. of Shrai,, iv. 4, xo2 
A'om. anda% ii. 2, 9 o 

So ofte it happes, when wee our fancies feede. 
Wherefore, when happe, SOlne goulden honie 
bl'inges ? 
Hap what hap may, l'll roundly go abont her. 
His help to crave, alld ruy dear hap to tell. 

506 CO[NCIDIZrCES. [Al,VEtnx I. 




hauocke . 

heste . . 

hidde . . 

Impe . . 



io} c 

p. 183, 1. 7 
I tien. 17. iv. 7, 3 °. 
Ri«h. 111. ii. 2, lO 3 . 

p. I80, l. 9 
A )ohn, i. *, ,71 
/C Zear, iii. 6, 71 

P- 53, 1. 7 - 
i tir.,1, l']. iv. i, 35- 

p. 6, 1. 6 
. Cccs. iii. I, 274 
A: ohu, ii. I, 220 . 

p. 87, 1. IO 
Temcst, i. 2, 274 
Tem_pest, iii. I, 37 
P- 43, L I . 
J]Iuc]t Ado, v. I, 172 
iii. kênic G i. I, I 15 • 
p. I86, 1. 14 
p. 19, 1. 9 • 
2 lien. IV. v. 5, 43 - 
L. L. Lost» v. 2, 581 

p. xiv. 1. 29 

A; ohn, ii. I, 579 • 
2 tien. IV. iv. 3, 20. 

p. 64, 1. 3 .... 
T. ofSkrcw, i. 2, 266 
I I«n. I1: i. 3, I37- 

p. 5, 1. 5 
72. OEShrezo, Ind. 2, 76 
2 lA'n. 1 7. iii. 2, 364 

In marble harde out hamles wee always graue. 
My spirit can no longer bear these harms. 
None can cure their harms by wailing. 

A wise man then, settes hatche before the dol'e. 
hl at the window, or else o'er the hatch. 
Dogs leap the hatch and ail are fie& 

In craggie rockes, and haughtie mountaines toi»pe. 
Valiant and virtuous, fttll of haughty courage. 

Till ail they breake, and vnto hauocke bringe. 
Cry " Havock," and let slip the dogs of war. 
Wide havock anade for bloody power. 

And life resigne, to tylne, and natures heste. 
Refusing ber grand hests. 
I bave broke your hest to say so. 

13y vertue lfidde, behoulde, the Iron harde. 
Adam, wheu he was hid in the garden. 
Two grains of wheat hid in two bushels of chaff. 

Yott neede not THRACIA seeke, to heare some 
inpe of OPHEVS playe. 
But wicked hnpes, that lewdlie runne their race. 
The heavens thee mmrd and keep, most royal 
imp of faine. 
Great Hercules is presented by this imp. 

those that are of good iudgelnente, with indif- 
ferencie will reade. 

Makcs it take head from ail indifferency. 
An I had but a belly of any indifferency. 

And those, that are vnto theire frendes ingrate. 
-- will hot so graceless be, to be ingrate. 
As this ingrate and canker'd Bolinbroke. 

And bothe, did ioye theire iarringe notes to sounde. 
Oh, how we joy to see your wit restored. 
Lire thon to joy thy life. 


Kinde. P- 49, 1. 6 
p- 78, 1. 8 




leaue . 

let • 


linke, linckt. 

Attt. attct C. v. 2, "2_59 
. Cccs. i. 3, 64 • 
As Lil,'e il, iii. 2, 93 • 

p. 76, 1. 2 . 
3I. iV:. Dr. iv. , 78 
«[acbeth, ii. 2, 37- 

p. 142 , 1. IO 
C3,mb. il. 3, 116 . 
A[. ll'ives, iii. 2, 64 . 

Rich. III. iv. 4, 224- 
Attt. and C. v. , 36. 

• p. 80, 1. 5 " 

T'. attd Ct. iii. 3, 32 
• p. 89, 1. 8 . 
p. zo9, 1. 9 

t[«mlet, i. 4, 85 • 
T. G. /-ér. iii. I, I I 3 

Aç Lcar, ii. 2, 85 
T. G. Iv'. iv. 2, 54. 

p. "2_26, 1. 8 

P- 33, 1. 4 

I I/en. lï. v. 5, 76. 
l]a»,lel, i. 5, 55 - 

And speud theire goodes, in hope to alter kinde. 
And where as malice is by kinde, no absence 
helpes at ail 
Look you, that the .voiTll will do his kiud. 
\Vhy birds and beasts, from quality and kind. 
If the car will after kind, 
So, be sure, will Rosalind. 

And knittes theire subiectes hartes in one. 
These couples shall eternally be knit. 
Sleep that kuits np the ravell'd sleave of care. 

Yet, if this knotte of frendship be to knitte. 
To knit their self-figur'd knot. 
1 [e sllall hot knit a knot in his fortune. 

Which being launch'de and prick'd with inward 

Whose hand soever lanced fleir tender hearts. 
We do lance diseases in our bodies. 

For noe complaintes, coulde make hin leaue to 

What some men do, while some men leave to do ! 

But Riuers swifte, their passage still do let. 
But, when that nothiuge coulde OP]vs sleep- 
inge let. 

By heaven, l'll make a ghost of him that lets me. 
What lets, but one lnay enter at her window. 

if it shall like your honour to allowe of anie of 

Itis countenance likes me not. 
The masic likes you not. 

Take heede betime: and linke thee hOt with 
And heades ail balde, weare newe in wedlocke 

Margaret, he be link'd in love. 
though to a radiant angel linked. 

5o8 CO[ArCIDti.AzCES. [AvVEN»X I. 

liste • p. 63,1.3 • 
T. of Shrew, iii. 2, 159 
lobbe . p. 145 , l. 6 
21Z A r. Dr. il. , 16 . 
lotterie p. 6i 
AI. l'eMce, i. z, z 5 
All's ll'cll, i. 3, 83 
lustie . P- 9, 1. 1 
As Zik« it, il. 3, 52 • 
7'. G. /4"r. iv. -% z 5 . 
Meane . p. 23, 1. z 
I. l'chier, i. 2, 6 

misliked . 

lnd p. 16o, 1. 1 
lU/ch. IIL v. 3, 77 
p. xiv. 1. 22 
2 ]-/ên. I'L i. I, 135. 
3 Ien. VL iv. I, 24. 
misse . p. 149, 1. 15 
i tIcn. IIç v. 4, IO 
mockes and p. 169, l. 4 
lllOXl es. 
Othello, v. 2, 154. 
Qvmb. i. 7, 4 TM 
motley p. 8, 1. 5 • 
I-r«n. I'IIL ProI. 15. 
.4s ike it, ii. 7, 43 - 

And with one hande, he guydes them whcre he 
Now take them up, quoth he, if any list. 

Let Grimme haue coales : and lobbe his whippe 
to lashe. 

Farewell, thou lob of spirits ; Fil be gone. 

I Ier Maiesties poesie, at the great Lotterie in 
The lottery--in these three chests of gold, silver 
and lead. 
-- 'twonld inend the lottery well. 

A YOUTHEFVLL Prince, in prime of lustie yeares. 
Therefore my age is as a lusty winter. 
Let's tune, and toit lustily a while. 

The meane preferre, before ilnmodemte gaine. 
It is no mean happiness, therefore, to be seated 
in the mean. 

A Satyre, and lais hoste, in raid of winter's rage. 
Abont the raid of night corne to my tent. 

Some gallant coulours are misliked. 
'Tis hot my speeches that you do mislike. 
Setting your scorns and your mislike aside. 

Or can we see so soone an others misse. 
O, I shonld bave a heavy miss of thee. 

Of whome both mockes, and apishe mowes he 

O,mistress, villainy hath marie mocks of love ! 
-- contenm with mows. 

A motley coate, a cockes combe, or a bell. 

A fellow in a long motley coat, al'ded with 
I mn ambitious for a motley coat. 

APPEox 1.1 SZ-L4KESPEAIdE /IWD ll'ItlTArE I: 509 

lnuskecattcs, p. 79, 1. i, 2 . 

All's lt'dl, v. 2, 18 . 

IIeare LAIS fine, doth braue it Oll the stage, 
Vith mnskecattes sweete, and all shee coulde 
- fortune's cat,--bnt nota musk-cat. 


Where, thowghe they toile, }'et are they hot the 
Better far off, than--near, be ne'er the near. 

newfanglencs p. xiv. 1. 19 
L. L. Lost, i. I, IO6. 
As Zike it, iv. I, 135 

too much corrupte with cnriousnes and new- 
Tlmn wish a snoxv in May's new fangled shows. 
 more new-fangled than an ape. 

11011(25 . 

p. lO3, l. IO 
ltmlet, iv. 7, 159 
I IA'n. Il: i. 2, 172. 

And stndentes moste haue pastinles for the nones. 
l'll bave prepared him a chalice for the nonce• 
I have cases of buckram for the nonce. 


p. I8I, 1. I 
IX: ytoh, iv. 2, 125 . 
2 lien. 1I'. iv. I, 7- 

Wlmt creature thon ? Occasiou I doe showe. 

Withhold thy speed, dreadful occasion. 
And are enforced from out most quiet there, 
By the rough torrent of occasion. 


P- 7 I, 1. 9 .... Let Christians then, the eies of faithe houlde ope. 
C. E'rors, iii. I, 73 • Fil break ope the gate. 
 Zlet. I'L iv. 9, I3. Then, heaven, set ope thy evel'lasting gates. 


p. 42, 1. 9 • 
C. t?rrors, iii. 2, 15t 
7: ofShrav, ii. I, I76 

Driue VENVS hence, let BACCHVS further packe. 
'Tis time, I think, to trudge, pack and be gone. 
If she do bid me pack, I'll give her thanks. 

pairie . 

• p. 85,1.8. 
J/L Jbr A/. il. 4, 86 . 
ich. IL i. 3, I53 

The Florentines made banishement theire paine. 
Accountant to the laxv upon tlmt pain. 
-- against thee upon pain of lire. 

pelle . 

• p. 198 , l. 8 
Timon:, i. 2 

No choice of place, nor store of pelfe he Imd. 
hnmortal gods, I crave no pelf, 
I pray for no man but myself. 


• p. 187,1.8 
Tw,'lflk A . i. 5, 146. 
AI. A r. Z)r. iii. 2, 292 

And dothe describe theire personage, mld theire 
Of xvhat peonage and years is he ? 
And with ber personage, her tall personage. 


pikcs . 



prciudicate . 


purge . 



p. 15o , 1. 4 
I .[l-gll. Il; iii. 2, 24. 
p. 4 I, l. 17 
.fl/trk .«4t[a, V. 2, I S . 
3 I/ch. l'Z i. I, 244. 
p. 151 , l. 4 
7ïmon, iv. I, Il . 

p. x. 1. 3I 
T. of Shrcw, iii. I, 65 

P. 39, 1- 7. 
Tf. a«d Ct. i. 3, 93- 

p. xiii. 1. 44 
All's IV, Il, i. 2, 7 

p. iv. 1. 7 
]//r..J'l-.'L v. I, IIO. 

p. 68, 1. 5 . 
. fr. iii. I, I46 
and . v. 3, 225 

13. III, l. 5 
A nL and C. v. 2, 85 . 
3 I[rn. I'I. ii. 3, 54- 

p. 213, 1. 5 
AI. forAI, iv. I, 60 . 
C. twors, i. I, I30 . 

p. 25, I. 3 • 
All's lléll, v. 3, 86 . 
2 [[,vt. I'1. v. 1, I$ 7. 

With pickthankes, blabbes, and subtill Sinons 
By smiling pick-thanks, and base news mongers. 

And thoughe long tilne, they doe escape the pikes. 
You must put in the pikes with a vice. 
The soldicrs should have toss'd me on their pikes. 

I Iis subiectes poore, to shaue, to pill, and poli. 
Large handed robbers your grave masters are 
And pill by law. 

a worke both pleasaunte and pithie. 
To teach you gmnut in a briefer sort, 
More pleasant, pithy, and effectual. 

And lac that poastes, to make avaie lais landes. 
And posts, like the commandment of a king. 

vith a preiudicate opinion to condempne. 
Wherein onr dearest friend prejudicates the 

that which hee desired to haue proper to him selfe. 
Fmdts proper to himself : if he had so offended. 

When graine is ripe, with siue to purge the seede. 
I will purge thy lnortal grossness so. 
And here I stand, both to ilnpeach and purge 
Myself condemned and myself excused. 

No paine, had power his courage bigbe to quaile. 
13ut when he meant to quail and shake the orb. 
This may plant courage in flaeir quailing breasts. 

But yet the Moone, vho did hot heare his queste. 
Run with these false and most contrarious quests. 
Might bear him company in the quest of him. 

Or straunge conceiptes, doe reaue thee of thie rest. 
To reave her of what should stead her most. 
To reave the orphan of lais patrimony. 

rente . p. 3 o,1.3 • 
77,'. Mu. iii. , 261 . 
2 t'n. IZ i, I, 121. 
ripcs • P- 3,1- I . 
. ts ZiZ'e it, ii. 7, 26 . 
2 IL'n. Ill iv. I, 13. 
roomes p. I86, 1. I2 
3 t'n. l'Z iii. z, 131 
o#z. and . i. 5, 24. 
ruthc . • P. 4,1- I 
ick. IL iii. 4, IO6 . 
Coriol. i. I, 19o . 
ruthefidl . p. 13, 1. I . 
3 Nn. l'Z ii. 5, 95- 
Tf. and Ct. v. 3, 48 
Sauccd . p. 147 , 1.4 
Tç and Ct. i. z, 23 . 
Co:iol. i. 9, 5 z 
scanne P- 95, 1. 6 . 
Othello, iii. 3, 248 
mld, iii. 3, 75. 
scape . p. z4, 1. 4 • 
Aç L«ar, ii. I, 8o 
sillye . p. 194 , 1. 7 
3 -t. IŒE ii. 5, 43 - 
Cymb. v. 3, 86 
sth P. lO9, 1- 3 
3 lA'n. l'l. i. I, IiO. 
Othdlo, iii. 3, 415 

,4 zVD I I "HI TArE Y. 51 r 

What is thc cause, shcc rentes her gouldcn haire ? 
Rcnt off thy silver hair (note). 
torn and rcnt my vcry hcart. 

When autumne ripes, the frutefull fieldes of graine. 
We ripe and ripe and then. 
IIe is retired, to ripe his growing fortunes. 

the trees, and rockes, that lefte their roomes, his 
musicke for to heare. 

the unlook'd for issue--take their rooms, ere I 
can place myself. 
-- give roolu ! and foot it, girls. 

Three furies fell xvhich turne the worlde to ruthe. 
Rue even for ruth. 
Woald the nobility lay aside their ruth. 

Of NIOBE, behoulde the ruthefull plighte. 
O, that my death would stay these ruthfid deeds. 
Spur them to ruthful vork, rein them from ruth ! 

He founde that sxveete, xvas sauced with the soxver. 
His folly sauced with discretion. 
-- dieted in praises sauced with lies. 

Theise weare the two, tlmt of this case did scanne. 
I might entrent your honour to scan this thing no 
That would be scann'd ; a villain kills my father. 

And fewe there be can scape theise vipers vile. 
the villain shall not scape. 

For, as the wolfe, the sillye sheep did feare. 
-- looking on their silly sheep. 
there was a fourth man in a silly habit. 

And sithe, theworlde might not theirmatches finde. 
Talk hot of France, sith thou hast lost it ail. 
But, sith I ana enter'd in this cause so fat'. 

5  z COLVCIDE2VCES. [Arrr)Ix I. 

sithe . 

p. 225, 1. 6 
L. L Zost, i. 1, 6 
AnL amgC. iii. I3, 193 


• p. 199,1.8 
«'IlIL aile[ C. iv. 2, 21 
IC L«ar, iii. 2, 66 

skap'd p. I53 , 1. I 

3 lA'zt. I'Z ii. , I 
lhlmlct, i. 3, 3 S • 

soucraignc . P- 161, 1. S 
CorioL ii. I, 1o 7 . 

spare . 




p. 60, 1. 5 • 
Ms Like il, iii. 2, 18 . 
2 tlcn. II: iii. 2, 255 

• 19. I40 , 1. 8 

.4uL  C. iii. 13, 41 
Tir. Au. ii. I, 99- 

• p. 38, 1. 1o 
A1/'s Ilbll, i. 3, 116. 
A'ich. llZ i. 3, 206 . 

p. ix.l. 3I. 

stithe . 

I lieu. IIZ v. 3, 40 • 
lt'at/t, amt. iv. I, 103 

• p. 192 , 1. 5 

For, time attendes with shredding sithe for ail. 
That honour which shall bate his scythe's keen 
Fil make dcath love me, for I vill contend 
Even with his pestilent scythe. 

And, wlfilst wee thinke our webbe to skante. 
Scant hot my cups. 
Retum, and force their scanted courtesy. 

The stagge, that hardly skap'd the hunters iii the 

I wonder hoxv our pl-incely father scap'd. 
Virtue itsclf'scapes hOt calumnious strokes. 

But that your tonge is soueraignc, as I heare. 
The most sovereign prescription in Galen is but 

VLYSSES vordes weal-e spare, but rightlie plac'd. 
As it is a spare life look you. 
0 give nie the spare men, and spare nie. 

Each bragginge curre, beginues to square, and 

Mine honesty and I begin to square. 
And are )'ou such fools to square for this ? 

And to be stall'd, on sacred iustice cheare. 
Leave me ; stall this in your bosom. 
Deck'd in thy rights, as thou art stall'd in mine. 

whose ffendship is ffozen, and starke towarde 

Many a nobleman lies stark and stiff. 
Shall stiff, and stark and cold, appear like death. 

For there with stlengthe he strikes vppon the 

And my imaginations are as foui as " ulcan's 
By the forge that stithied Mars lais helm. 


swashe P- 45, l. 5 

]dont. and . i. I, 60. 
As Like if, i. 3,  6 . 

Teene . p. 38,1. 4 • 

L. L. Zost, iv. 3, 6o 
IVom. and . i. 3, 4. 

threate p. 85, 1.  

Rich. IIZ i. 3,   3 . 
Tir. An. il. , 39- 

Vndergoc p. 223, 1. 3 

A[uch Ado, v. 2, 5 ° . 
Cymb. iii. 5, I o. 

wuneete . . p. 8,1. i2 

AL .fir Al:. iv. 3, 63 • 
Al'uch Ado, iv. 

vnneth p. 209, 1. 5, 6. 




Olhello, il. 3, 2S4. 
• p. 94, 1. 2 
R-h. Z/'/. iv. 4, 29 • 
A'ich. /'Z ii. 4, 22 
• p. 9L l. 3 
A[acbeth, v. 4, I9. 
I[amlet, iv. 4, 5 I. 

Giue IAN, the pipe; giue bilbove blade, to 
Gregory, remember thy svashing blow. 
We'll have a swashing and a martial outside. 

Not vertue hurtes, but turnes her foes to teene. 
Of sighs, of groans, of sorrow, and of teene. 
To my teen be it spoken. 

And eke Sainct Paule, the slothful thus doth 

Vhat threat you me with telling of the king ? 
Are you so desperate grown to threat your 
friends ? 

First, wadergoes the worlde with might, and 

Claudio undergoes my challenge. 
 undergo those employments. 

And fooles vnmeete, in wisedomes seate to sitte. 

A creature unprepar'd, unmeet for death. 
Prove you that any man convers'd with me at 
hours unmeet. 

At lengthe, this greedie carie the Lethergie 
posseste : 
That vnneth hec could stere a foote. 

Uneath may she endure the flinty streets. 

Behouhle, of this vnperfecte masse, the goodly 
worlde was wroughte. 

One unperfectness shews me another. 

It shewes her selfe, doth vorke her owne warest. 
Rest thy unrest on England's lawfid earth. 
Witnessing stornts to corne, woe and unrest. 

So, manie men do stoope to sightes vnsure. 
Thoughts speculative their unsure hopes relate. 
Exposing what is mortal and unsure. 
3 v 

5 I 4 CO.I.' C.I.IEJ'VCIç [A.PPENDIX l. 

vnthriftes • p. 17, I. 18 
ldi,-h. IZ il. 3, eo . 
AL 12"nic6 v. I, 16 . 
Vaggc p. 4 S, l. 14 
L. Z. Zost, v. --, oS 
Il: Talc; i. 2, 6 5. 
weakelinges, p. 6, 1. o 
3 [Ielt. I'L v. , 37 . 
wightc p. e4, 1. 7 - 
l[. llïv«s, i. 3, 35 
Othdlo, ii. I, 157. 
Verke. p. 6, 1. 5 
]L-tt. I iv. 7, 74 
O[hcllo, i. e, 5. 

.ounglinge . p. I3% 1. 2o 
22. of Skro, il. I, 329 
Tit. AI. iv. -", 93 

And wisedome still, againste such vnthriftes cries. 
My rights and royalties--given away to upstart 
And with an unthrift love did run from Venice. 

The wanton vagge with poysoned stinge assay'd. 
Making the bold wag by their praises bolder. 
Was not my lord the verier wag of the two. 

Wee weakellnges prooue, and fainte before the ende. 
And, weakling, VCal-wick takes his gift again. 

The/:aith full wighte, dothe neede no collotn's bt,'aue. 
I ken the wight : he is of substance good. 
She was a wight, if ever such wight were. 

They praunce, and yerke, and out of order flinge. 

With wild rage, yerk out their armed heels. 
I had thought to have yerked him here under the 

Before he shotte : a younglinge thus did crye. 
Vomagling.! thon canst hot love so dear as 1. 
I tell yon, yonnglings, hot Enceladus. 

.5"ami, nous, 564,/% 5. 




The " denotes there is no device glve» in our volume. 

.\ct:t:on and I Ioullds . 275 In recc/a/ores sit'ariorlittt 

276 tx domitto serz,us 

277 l'oh@tas vr, mnosa 
278 ,, ,, 

.\dan1 hiding iii the 416 

Domimts vittil ' videl 
Vbi es? 
Ubi es ? 

Adam's Apple. Pl. X. 
Adamant on the Anvil 

I3Z l'tjl Adants A22el 
.Ellende Zonde en l)oodL 
347 Qvem nvlle 2ericvla terrenl. 

.Eneas bearing AI1- 

191 Pietas filiorttm in 2barenles 
I9I . ,, 

Alciat's Device . 
*Anntmciation of tlle 
Virgin Mary. 
Ants and Grasshopper 

Ape and Miser's Gold, 

21 I Vir/ttli for[tttta contes. 
I24 Fortitucto ejus 2Vhocttttz tctuit 

149 Cotztraria imhtsh'he ac 
sidi6e 2brcêmia. 
148 Z)ztm 6elalis ver aff[htr : con- 
sule 3Ttmw. 
28, AIal; a'la #talè di[abtttOo" 
486 ., ,, 

Alciat, E»tb. 52, Ed. 551, 
p. 60. 
Aneau's t'Jeta P,esis, Ed. 
1552, f. 41. 
Sambucus, E. 1564, p. 1"8. 
hitney's .Emb. Ed. 1586 , 
13. 15. 
Whitney's £m£ Ed. I586 , 
p. 2-9. 
Montenay's 'mb. Ed. 1584. 
Slamm uch, Emb. 65, Ed. 
619, p. -9o. 
Vander Veen's Zitne-beelctet, 
Ed. 1642. 
Le Bey de Batilly's 2?mb. 29, 
Ed. 1596. 
Alciat, mb. 194 , E. I58. 

Whitney's .Emb. Ed. 1586 , 
p. 163. 
Giovio, D«z. oec. Ed. 1561. 
Drummond's Scotlamt, Ed. 
1665 . 
Freta s 3l),llz. th. Ed. 
1579, P- 29- 
Whitney's ntb. Ed. 1586 , 
p. I59. 
Whitney's £'mt',. Ed. I586 , 
p. I69. 
Paradin's /')œe,. t[,'r. Edo 
I562, f. 174. 

5 16 5"UJTJIï'CTS Of 7 l)J I "ICI.'S, [AvI'ENOlX I I. 

Ape and Miser's Gold I28 

Apollo receiving the 379 
Christian Muse. 
*Apple - tree on a 1_" 3 
Arionand the Dolphin 28o 

280) 281 

*Arrow through three 123 
Arrow vreathed on a 183 
Ass and Wolf 53 


Astronomer, Magnet, "335 
and Pole-star. 

Athenian Coin . 


Dederit ne z'iam Casusve 
Sola z,iuit in illo 

Scdes[i Itominis imago, 
l][cns immo[a martel . 

8 AOE . 
245 Sttslilel nec fatiscit 

Cullum's tawsted, Ed. 1813, 
t 9 • 159. 
Symeoni's Imp'ese, c. 
Le Bey de Batilly's 'mb. 51, 
Ed. 1596. 
Drummolld's Scotland, Ed. 
1665 . 
Alciat, ,'mb. 89, Ed. 1581 , 
p. 323 • 

Whitney's Emb. Ed. 1586, 
p. 144. 
Drulnmond's Scoland, Ed. 
Pamdin's D«w. Her. E. 
1562, f- 30- 
Gent. z]Iag. 1Nov. 181 I, p. 41o. 
Z)yalogus Creaturarton, Ed. 
A2#ologi Creat. Ed. 1584, f. 
Sambucus' »tb. E. 1584, 
p. 84. 
Whitney's .mb. Ed. 1586 , 
P- 43. 
Eschenburg's AAzn. Ed. 
1844, p. 351. 
Giovio's l)ialoffue, lïd. 1561 , 
t 9 . 129 . 

Bacchus 247 
247, 248 
Bm-dog . 482 
Barrel full of Holes 332 
Bear and Ragged Staff 236 
Bear, Cub, and Cupid 348 

l'brielas 13oissard's TheaL  tZ Ed. 
1596, p. 213. 
Le Alicrocosme, Ed. 1562. 
In statuam acchi Alciat, Emb. Ed. 1581 , p. 113. 
,, ,, Whitney's mb. Ed. 1586 , 
p. I87. 
Canis queritur nimium no. Sambucus' mb. ]ïd. 1599, 
ocre. p, 172. 
'eriunt sttmmos fitlmbm Whitney's 'mb. Ed. 1586 , 
lllOllleS, p. 140. 
tac illac 2o3quo Paradin's De'v. ter. Ed. 
1562, f. 88. 
Fruslrà \Vhitney's mb. Ed. 1586 , 
p. 2. 
Whitney's mb. Ed. 1586 , 
.tgerolel incullum ibaulalim Tronus Ctid. ]ïd. about 
lembus amorem. 1598, f. 2. 


Bear, Cub, and Cupid 349 
Bees types of a well- 358 
governed People. 

Bees types of Love for 361 
our Native Land. 
Bellerophon and Chi- 299 

Bible of the l'oor. 46 
Pl. VI. 
Bird caught by an 3 o 
Oyster (sep Mouse). 
Bird in Cage and 24 
t Iawk. 
Block Book, specimeus. 46 
Pl. VI. 
Pl. V I l. 49 

Pl. \ III. 49 

Block Print. Pl. XV. 4o7 

Brasidas and his Shield 

Brutus, Death of 

Butterfly and Candle. 




l'rinciis clemcttia 

Patria cuique chara 

Consilio et virtttte Ckimoeram 
sui&ware , icl est, fortiores 
et decetores. 
Ecce vbh«o concilier et parier 
filitot, &C. 
Speraz4 ct ,v-ii . 

Il mal me treme et »te siba- 
venta a PG%«io. 
Ecce vi'o con@let ci pari,'t 
filium, c. 
Conz, o'si ab Molis, c. 
Dt Stttt mttliebri htoe 
S,w,'n ages OE man 
Wefidzs fi, miliaris 
Forlttta virttttent steraus . 
Cosi viuo piaco" coudttce à 
Za g'«ov'e dou&e attx htex- 
',is et datttosa vohtas . 
reue Kioia 
 alllOf XOUt'I'(IO 

Boissard's Emb. 43, Ed. 596. 
IIorapollo, Ed. 55, p. 87. 

Alciat, Emb. 148 , Ed. 55 , 
p. 6L 
Whitney's Fmb. Ed. 586, 
Alciat, Emb. 4. Ed. 58L 

Humphrey's Fac-simile from 
Pl. 2, tlock-book, i4io-2o. 
Culhmt's tfaosted, Ed. 18 3. 

Drummond's Scotlau,1, Ed. 
1665 . 
Iulnphrey's Fac-simile frol-ll 
Pl. z, llock-book, 141o-2o. 
Tl'acilagS photo-lithed from 
tfist. S. ,an. Euang'. 
About 43o- 
Traciugs photo-lithed from 
ltlist. S. oan. Emltg'. 
About 43 o. 
Arckceolog'ia, vol. xxxv., 
1853 , p. 67, a print frolll 
orinal in lb'rit. [ItSelIIll. 
Aneau's Picta Poesis, Ed. 
1552 , p. 18. 
Whitney's tmb. Ed. 586, 
p. 4L 
Alciat, t'mb. 119, Ed. 551, 
p. 43 o. 
Whitney's Emb. Ed. :586, 
p. 7o. 
Paradin's Z)eï,. /fo: Ed. 
Çorrozet's tfecatomK. Ed. 
Camerarius, Ed. 596. 
Voeuius' EIIttS. of/o7Y¢, Ed. 
6o8, p. I02. 
Voenius' Jmb. of Iove, Ed. 
6o8, p. lOZ. 
Symeoni'sI»qbrese, Ed. 56L 

*Camel and his Driver. 2S 3 tfomo homhti JDeus 

Cousteau's Pegma, Ed. 555, 
p. 323 • 

5 8 SU]ECZS OZ; .D'I7CA'S, [.,pvErmx 

«Camomile troddcn 124 
Cannon burstiug 344 
Canoness (see Nun) 469 
Cebes, Tablet of I2 

l'l. I. 
l'l. I.b. 
Chess an Emblem of 

Child and tnotley Fool 

[;ructus calca[a dal am2Nos . 

t¥c¢ure of thtmt Lire 
I3 ,, ,, 
448 Il C«os 
449 Siue ivs[i[ia co,sio . 
450 ,, ,. 
3zo £a fiu uous ftict tous tgattlx 
32I  , 
484 ]tlais lettia cottltililo. 

Chivalry, Wreath of 169 
(sec Wreath). 
Christian Love pre- 32 
senting the Soul to 
Christ. Pl. II. 
Circe transforming 25o 
Ulysses' men. 

Cleopatra applying 13I 
the Asps. 
»Conscience, Pover of 420 

CountrymanandViper 197 

Crab and Butterfly t 5 

Creation and Con-. 
fnsion. Pl. III. 
Crescent Moon . 

(]1tleltdttllt à lltt'l-elricikltS 

ItoEroba Siren desidia 

I)rmnmond's Scollauci, Ed. 
I3eza's /;2#t/. 8; Ed. 155o. 

Ed. " Francphordio," anno 
Ed. Berkeli, 167o , De Hooghe. 
Old Woodcut. 
Symeoni's Ovicl, Ed. 1559, 
p. 2. 
Aneau's 19cla loesis, Ed. 
155, P- 49. 
Whitney's £#lb. Ed. 5S6, 
p. I22. 
l'erriere's Tll. lots lngins, 
27; Ed. 1539 . 
Corrozet'slL'ca[omg.E. 154 ° 
Whitney's l)lb. Ed. I5;6 , 
p. SI. 

Vœenius' Alloris Z)iv. tmb. 
Ed. 16I 5. 

Alciat, /mb. 76, Ed. 158, 
p. 184. 
V'hitney's .Emb. Ed. 1586, 
p. 82. 
Reusner's /znb. Ed. 1581 , 
p. 634. 
Ckizle3iece , Lower Tabley 
tmb. of ZZorace, Ed. I61Z, 
pp. 58 and 7 ° . 
Freitag's l[.t'llz. tlh. Ed. 
Reusner's t»tb. Ed. ISSt, 
p. SI. 
Whitney's Emb. Ed. I5S6 , 
p. 189. 
Symeoni's Z). Ed. 156I , 
p. 218. 
Symeoni's Ovici, Ed. 559, 
p. 13. 
Iovio's lAial, des Der. Ed. 
156I, p. 25. 
Drummond's Scollald, Ed. 


*Crossbow at full 6 
Crowns of Victory (see 221 
Wreaths, Four). 
*Crowns, Three, one I24 
on the Sea. 
*Crucifix and kneeling I23 
Cupid and Bear (see 34 S 
Bear, Cub, and 
Cupid and Death 4Ol 

Itgemo stterat z,b'es . 

Utt ariq tte 

4 O1 ,, ,, 
4o3 « JIorte et C'/dit«. 

Cupid blinded, hold- 329 
iug a Sieve. 
*Cupid felling a Ti-ee. 324 

"ly cottimtaltce" 

Gon'. 21/'ag'. Nov. $1 p. 

Drummond's Scotlanff, Ed. 
Drumnaond's Scotlanff» Ed. 

lVhitney's 'mb. Ed. I5,q6, 
p. 132. 
Alciat, Emb. Ed. 1581. 
l'eachmn's J[bt. Ed. I612, 
p.  72. 
l'erriere's Th. ons t?ttgbzs, 
1539, P- 77- 
Voenius, Ed. 16o8, p. 2IO. 

Daphne changed to a 296 
Dedication page v 
l)iana 3 
Diligence and Idleness 45 
Dog haying at the ,7 o 
Dolphin and Auchor . 16 
D. O. M.. 464 
*Dores and winged 245 
Drake's Ship 413 

Qz,odcz,z¢z,e i&,tit, consefz,il,r 

O[iosi Semla" egen[«s 

Inanis ineibtis 
Desjbicil alta Canis 
troera farde 

Domhw OtWmo h rimo 

Att.rilio ditthto . 

Aneau's tgicla tgoesis, Ed. 
1551, P- 47. 
Alciat's /z'm. Ed. I66 I, 
Symeoni's Oz'id, Ed. 1559, 
Perriere's Th. 1tons Eugius, 
Ed. 539, Emb. 
Whitney's tttb. Ed. I56, 
p. 175. 
Beza's Emb. Ed. 5 , 
Emb. 22. 
Aiciat, mb. 64, Ed. I58 L 
p. 57L 
Whitney's tttb. Ed. 1586 , 
p. 213. 
Camerarius, Ed. 1595, p. 
Symeoni's fttrese, Ed. 1574, 
P. 75- 
Giovio's Dialogo, Ed. 157  
p. IO. 
Whitney's ttk. Ed. I556 , 
Corrozet's '6«t[Otlt. Ed. 
I54O, f. 70. 
Whitney's mb. Ed. 586, 
p. o3. 


Eagle renewing its 368 
*Eclipses of Sun and 124 
Elephant and under- I96 
mined Tree. 

Elm and Vine 


307 A»ticitia eti«m bost tot'lem 
308 ,, ,, 
432 Ittti«ti«  descritio 
431 .... 

Camerarlus, t?mb. 34, Ed.. 
Dnmmond's ScollamI, Ed. 
1665 . 
Sambucus' t?mb. Ed. 1564, 
p. IS4. 
Whitney's E»d,. Ed. I586, 
p. 5 o. 
Alciat, .mb. 159 , Ed. 158I, 
p. 556. 
Whitney'sE»zb.Ed. 1586,p.62. 
Camerarius, Ed. 59o, p. 36. 
Whitney's/mb. Ed. 1586,1».94 . 
Alciat, E»tb. 7, Ed. 1581. 

Falconry 366 

Faine armed vith a 446 
Fardel on a Swimmer 480 


Sic »miora cecwtt 
l',vzztce gloria im»zor[alis 
.4ttri sacra fa#tes 

Februa3 • 35 htdio, perche  uecchio, 
Fa sttoi al suo essemio. 
Fleece, Golden, and 229 l)itt'sitdoc[t«s 
Fleece, Golden, Order 22S rccimn touvile laborttllt . 
Flourishes of Arms, 24 abi[ etts œeis foftetet 
Forehead measured 9 Frmde mtlla[as 
by Compasses. 
129 ,, , 
129 ,, . 
Forehead shows the  z9 Frozs homincm prl 
Fortnne z6 L' ymae de rttme 
Fox and Grapeg 3 o Fic[a dus quod habcri tcqui[ 
31 o Shtl[i[ia sta seisztm sagimri 
311 ,, ,, 

Giovio's SezL lmp'ese, Ed. 
1562, P- 4x- 
Whitney's Emtk Ed. 1586 , 
13 • 197. 
Jtmius, Ed. 565. 
Whitney's t?mb. Ed. 1586 , 
13 • 179 • 
Perriere's Th. lons lltffitts, 
Ed. 1539, p. 7 o. 
• qpenser's ll'm's, Ed. I616. 

Alciat, l?»zb. 189, Ed. 1581. 

Whitney's mb. Ed. 1586 , 
p. 214. 
Paradin's /)ew. /-:r«r. Ed. 
1562, f. 25. 
I)rummond's Scotlatd, Ed. 
1665 . 
Cullum's f-rawslecl, Ed. ISI 3. 
Whtney's 'mb. Ed. 1586 , 
13 . lOO. 
Sambucus, tttt[,. Ed. 1564, 
p. 177. 
qymeoni's /gew. 1ter. Ed. 
I56I, p. 46. 
Corrozet's l[ecalomg. Ed. 
154o, Emb. 41. 
Freitag's [.,[h. t?lk. Ed. 
1579, p. 127. 
Faerni's [tables, Ed. 1583. 
Whitney's'mb.Ed. 1586,p.95. 


Geln in a Ring of Gold 418 

t?cattll: comjaifflte de boltlL: . 

Gemini 355 7)'atla ddla S;hera 
Gold on the Touch- 175 Sics;eclandafides 

178 .... 

177 l"ccttuia sat, çuis el atima 
Good out of Evil 447 tx tualo bomt»z 

Corrozet's I«catomg. Ed. 
t54o, p. 83. 
Brucioli, E. Venice, 1543- 
Paradin's Der. ]fer. Ed. 
1562 , f. IOO. 
Whitney's E»tb. Ed. 1586 , 
p. 139. 
Crispin de Passe, about 1589. 

Montenay, Ed. I574. 

IIalcyon days (sec 391 
I lands of Providence. 489 ]9omimts 2#attte»e»z frcit, et 
Pl. XVI. dilal. 
Ilares biting a dead 305 Cure la7tis non htclamhtm. 
I tion. 
305 .... 
3o6 .... 
Harpocrates guarding 208 Sil«ntium . 
his Mouth. 
209 The Godd«ss Aeniora 
Itawk on ]kIummy-case 26 FI lhoô« çvx¢Tv 

Ilen eating her own 411 Qztcc azteb«tt«s . 
411 ., ,, 

Ilives of Bees (sec 358 , 
Becs). &c. 
Ilope and Nemcsis 

Hydra slain by Her- 374 

Illicilttn tou seramhtm 
Ahtlti;lication de troces 

Coornhert, Ed. 1585, p. 6. 

Whitney's mb. Ed. 15S6, 
p. 127. 
Alciat, Emb. 153 , Ed. I5SI. 
Rensner's Emb. E. I58 I. 
Whitney's Emb. Ed. 1586, 
p. 61. 
/9g'ma, Ed. 1555, p. lO9. 
Cory's t,raibollo , Ed. IO, 
l'l. 15. 
Wlfitney's ]»zb. Ed. 1586, 
p. 64. 
Sambucus, Emb. Ed. 1564, 
p. 3 o. 

Whitney's Emb. Ed. 1586, 
p. 139. 
Corrozet's ]Zeca[omg'. Ed. 

Icarus and lais ill For- 

2SS ]t astrologos 
2S 9 Faire tottt lar toj,eu . 

Idiot-Fool, and Death 472 

*Introductory Lines 464 
(sec D. O. M.). 
Inverted Torch . I7 

Qzq me alit »te extbtg«'il 

Alciat, mh. lO 3, Ed. 581. 

Whitney's ]»tb. Ed. I586, 
p. 28. 
Corrozet's ZZt'cahmtff. Ed. 
154o , Emb. 67. 
Holbein's ]maç. 3hwtis, 
Lyons, 1547. 

,qymeoni's SctL 
1561, P. 35- 
3 x 


lnverted Torch . I73 

Qd me alil me exlingz,il 

Pm'adin's Z)ev. I-]er. 
1562 , f. 169. 
Whitney's ïnb. Ed. 1586, 
p. IS3. 

oeJackdaw in Peacock's 313 
Janus, Double-headed 139 

14 ° 

John, St. (Apoca- 49 
lypse). Pl. V I 1 I. 
John, St., the Evan- 49 
gdist, llistory of. 
Pl. VII. 
June . I36 

Qvod sis esse vdi« 
lrudcntes . 
R«sic,; et 2ro«ice 

Cmnerarius, Ed. 1596, Emb. 
Alciat, Ed. I58I, p. 92. 
Whitney's 'mb. Ed. 1586, 
p. 108. 
Pcniere's Th. ons l'nns, 
Ed. 1539. 
tTlock-bool,', about 143 o. 

tTlocb-bool,', about 143 o. 

Spenser's ll'ors, Ed. 1616. 

King-fisher, Emblem 392 
of Tranquillity. 

A'ovs scavons bien le Avns . 
AIediis IranqMlhts in ttndis. 

Giovio's S«nL Imrrse, Ed. 
1561, p. lO 7 . 
Drummond's Scol[ancL. Ed. 
1665 . 

I.amp burning 456 

l.aurel, Safety against 422 

«:Leafless Trees 

and 128 

-Lion and Whelp 12 4 

:Lion in a Net, and 24 
Loadstone (see Astro- 335 
:'Loadstone towards I "3' 3 
the Pole. 
*Lotterie in London, 2o8 
 Lucrece 131 

3[aria Stttart, sa z,ir&t m 'at- 
ïoo, ci firceo 

Horapollo, Ed. I55I, p. 
Sambucus, /?m. lïd. 1564, 
p. 14. 
Whitney's Emb. Ed. 156 , 
p. 67. 
Cmnerarius, Ed. 159o , p. 35- 
Pm-adin's 19,'z,. lier. Ed. 
1562, f. 38. 
Cullmn's Zgawsted, Ed. I SI,3. 
l)rummond's Scotlaml, Ed. 
1665 . 
Drummond's Scolland, Ed. 
1665 . 

Drummond's Scollaml, Ed. 
1665 . 
Whitney's mb. Ed. 1586 , 
p. 62. 
Loi,o" Tal, lçv Old tlall, 


Macaber, Dance of (see 39 
]3runet's Amtd, 
vol. v. c. t559-6o). 
*Man measuring lais I 9 
Mal, svimming with a 480 
Burden (see Fardel 
on a Swilllmer). 
Map of inhabited 
Medeia and the Swal- 

Mercury and Fortune. 255 

Mercury charming 
Mercury lnending a 

Michael, St., Order of 227 

*Milo caught in a Tree 344 


Fronte nulla rides 

Moth and Candle (see ISI 
Motley Fool (se; Chikl). 484 
Mouse caught by an I3O 


MS. of the 4th century. 

Culluna's ltA«wsted, Ed. 1813. 

Sambncus' mb. Ed. 1564, 
p. 113. 
Alciat, mb. 54, Ed. 15SI. 
Whitney's mb. Ed. 1586 , 
1'- 33. 
Alciat, £'mb. Ed. 1551 , p. 
IO 7. 
Drununond's Scolland, 
1665 . 
Sambucus' 'mb. Ed. 1564, 
P. 57. 
Whitney's 'mb. Ed. 1586 , 
p. 92. 
Paradin's Da.: lier. Ed. 
1562, p. I2. 
Le Bey de Batilly, Ed. 1596 , 
Emb. IS. 

Alciat, mb. 94, Ed. Paris, 
16o2, p. 437- 
Whitney's Emb. Ed. 1586 , 
p. 28. 
Freitag's _/]Iytk. _Etk. Ed. 
1579, p- 169. 

Nal-cissus vim ing him- 

294 "bAavr'a 
295 ,4thon" sui . 
295 Cou&'mnens 
alllOr« sui. 

Nemesisand Hope (s,'« 182 
Niobe's Children slaln 292 


aHos, arsil 

Alciat, 'mb. 69, Ed. 1581 , 
p. 261. 
Whitney's m/k Ed. 586, 
p. 149. 
Aneau's ticta toesis, Ed. 
1552, p. 48. 

Alciat, 'm& 67, Ed. 158 , 
p. 255. 
Whitney's 'mb. Ed. 1586 , 
P. 3- 

524. SU.fEC/]" Of 7 J) I*]CES) [._I,PENDIX ll. 

Nun or Canouess 469 IIolbein's Simula«hra, 
Sigu. liiij. 1538. 

Oak aud Reed, or 315 17ncitluiatitur Whitney's 'mb. Ed. I586 , 
Osier. p. 220. 
314 Erres vnâ, or victrix luirai Junius' Em. Ed. 1565 . 
Occasion. Pl. XII.. 265 ltll Te#lus [ab[[ltr, Occa- David's Occasio, Ed. !5, 
sionc#t fi'onte ailla&m 13. ! ! 7. 
/k //lO/'a/Ztlllç Occasion, or Oppof 259 It occasioaem. &oTa,- Alciat, Em3. Ed. 55, 13. 


«ôv. 133. 
260 .... XVhitlley's 'm& Ed. 1586 , 
p. 181. 
258 l'erriere's T/. tons tn,¢ins, 
Ed. 539. 
26I L'i#ta"« doccasion Corrozet's lI«catomff. Ed. 
154o, p. 84. 

lflive and Vine (see 249 
Order, &c. (see Fleece, 228 
Golden, and ]Xli- 
chael, St., Order 227 
Orpheus and Harp 

(I>tricll eating hon 

271 La farce d'elo¢lucnce 
272 .lusice G el jocticw vis . 
272 Orphd #msica 
233 5h'ilus dm'issima coquit 

234 .... 
OStlich with outprcad 370 2Vil tenna , sed us«is 
370 ,, ,, 

Cottsteau's/'effzne, Ed. 56o, 
p- 389. 
Reusner's 'm Ed. 1581 , 
p. 129. 
Whitney's Emb. Ed. 1586 , 
p. 186. 
Giovio's Sent. Inrese, Ed. 
1561, t3. 115 . 
Caluerarius, Em/ Ed. 1595, 
p. 19. 
Gent. Ahg. Nov. ISlI, 13. 
Paradin's /9:«. _/fez'. Ed. 
1562 , f. 23. 
Whitney's Lmb. Ed. 1586 , 
p. 5I. 

l'alln Troc 

! 24 l"onderibus rb'lus innata Drunlnlond's Scolland» Ed. 
resislil. 1665 . 
141 .4Ers rhelor, trilex #w;,cl, 13occhius, Symb. 137 , Ed. 
.-c. 1555, p. 314. 
143 A'ou absqzw Thcsco Reusner's I£mb. E. I581 , 
p. Io 


l'egasus (sec t3ellero- 299 
Pelican and Young 393 rIEPI TH IIEAEKANO 

394 fro h'g'e ct grcge. 

394 .... 
395 Quai in te est, 20tome . 
395 .... 

Phaeton and the Sun's 285 In lemo'arios 
284 tVmclkonlis caï,s 


Epil»hanius, S., Ed. 58S, 
p. 3 o. 
Reusner's Emb. Ed. 1581 , 
P. 73- 
Cmnerarius, Ed. I596 , p. 87. 
Junius' .Emb. 7, E. 1565. 
Whitney's mb. ]Ld. I586 , 
p. 87- 
Alcit, .Emb. 56, Ed. I551. 

Plantinian Oz,id, Ed. I59I , 
pp. 46-9 • 

2SI Fch,nlefulmDta[oda Gioue. Symeoui's Ovid, l'.'d. 559, 
P. 34. 
l'htenix, l'hnblcm of 38I tuodliastudiaaonprouec- Frcitag's zlt,/h. Elh. Ed. 
New Birth, &c. lt?ri wlaletT-mttlala, t 579, P- 249- 
23  ma fin git mon coin- Drummond's Scotland, Ed. 
mencemotL 1665. 
Phoenix, Eblem of z 3 &s çvXV dv,aôO oAbv llorapollo, Ed. 55 I, p. 52 . 
Duration. Xpdvo 
l'hcenix, Elnblem of 234 Sdafactasohtm#a«mscfuor Paradin's #œe,. ç E. 
Loneliness.  562, f. 65. 
235 Sda facla solvm #,vm scqvor Giovio's Seuil lmz G E. 
l'htenix, Emblem of 385 l)dca scmer art& Paradin's #ce. 'ç Ed. 
Oneliness. 562, f. 53- 
385 .... Reusncr's &'m& Ed. 58I, 
p. 98. 
3S7 .... XVhitney's 'mb. Ed. 586, 
p. I77. 
Phoenix with two 384 adem inler sç Sltlllead«m I lawkin's APOENOX, Ed. 
11 earts, vni lerlia.  633- 
Pho'xus (see Fleece, 229 
oePilgrixn travelling I28 lolz transis, lime Cullum's t[asted, Ed. 1813. 
Pine-trees in a fitorm. 476 Wimium rebas ne fie& sdTt11-  hitney's mb. Ed. I586 , 

Poets, Insignia of (st 218 
Porcupine. 231 Col?lblUS et emhtvs 

t 24 AWvolutdur 


124 .4liera securilas . 

P- 59- 
bambucus' ]ïmb. Ed. I569 
p. 279. 

Giovio's ScnL Zmprese, Ed. 
1561, 10. 56. 
Drummond's Scolland, Ed. 
Drummond's Scotlaml, E. 


Progne, or Procne 193 
Prometheus chained . 266 



Providence and Girdle 413 
(sec I)rake's Ship). 
*l'yramid and Ivy 124 

Qztce sutS'a nos, nihil ad 
Czq'iosi[as Fz,gt'enda 

Te staJtge vh'cbo . 

_Aneau's Pic[a oesis, Ed. 
1552, P- 73. 
_Alciat, Emb. IO2, Ed. I55I. 

Aneau's licta oesis, Ed. 
I552, 19. 90. 
.llhcrocoat,; Ed. 1579, p. 5" 
Reusner's mb. E. I58I, 
P- 37- 
Whitney's mb. Ed. I586 , 
P. 75- 

1)rummond's Scollazd, Ed. 
I665 . 
Various Authors. 

Quivers of Cupid and 
Death (see Cupid 
and Death). 


Rock in \Vapes 
Rose and Thorn 

lZuins and Writings . 

125 RoȢe clt'il tcrcote 
333 _Post amara dulcia 
332 ,, ,, 
333 Af»rat sina 'osas, mella 
&tmt atSes. 
443 Scr@t«z mttzc/z[ . 

Drulnmond's Scotland, Ed. 
Whitney's mb. Ed. I5S6 , 
p. I65. 
Perriere's Tlt. tons tgis, 
E. I539, Emb. 3 o. 
Otho Vœenius, Ed. I6O8, p. 
Whitney's .Emb. Ed. 15S6 , 
p. I3I. 
Costalius' t+«»ta, Ed. 1555, 
p. I78. 

Salalnander 126 A'z'lrisco cl extitgz'o 
I23 . 
Satan, FMI of. 11. XI. I33 Lasvs Sagancc . 

Sepulchre and Cross I83 
(see Alrov wreath- & 
ed). I26 
Serpent and Cuntry- I97 
ruait (sec Country- 

lIaleficio bcneflcium 
ç(lff, ll lll. 

Jovio's 1)ialogtte, Ed. 1561 , 
p. 24. 
Drummond's Scotland, Ed. 
1665 . 
Boissard's Thcatrum, Ed. 
1596, p. I9. 

Freitag's .,,]lA,toe. EI]¢. Ed. 
I579, p. 177. 


*Serpent and Country- I98 
*Serpent in the 13osom 199 

Seven Ages of Man. 4o 7 
Pl. XV. 
*Shadows Fled and 468 
Shield, Untrttstworthy I95 
(see Brasidas and 
his Shield). 
Ship on the Sea. I2 5 

«L'rces anztina . 
In sinu alere soentem 
Idota ri/ce ftt«e stima 
htlicr vmbv v/ri 

Ship tossed by the 435 l«s kumance zu sttmmo de- 
"Waves. clinans. 
435 .... 

Ship sailing forward . 436 

Cons/antia cornes viclori, v 

436 .... 
12 4 Jttsfttam nisi rcctmu. 

*Ship with Mast over- 
Sieve held by Cupid 
(sce Cupid). 
Sirens and Ulysses z53 Sirenes 
254 .... 
Skull, human 337 Ex [aximo J/inimv»z 
338 .... 
Snake fastened on the 342 @ds comra nos ? 
342 Si dOœe¢s uobiscttm, fuis con- 
tra nos ? 
I26 Quis con/ra nos ? 
Snake in the Grass 34 ° Latct anffztis in ha'ha. 



Sleculuna, -tghotoliths 44 Scathtm 
in snmll size. Pl. tionis. 
IV. and V. 
btag woundcd 

Reusner's Emb. Ed. I58I, 
p. 8I. 
Whitney's £'mb. Ed. IS6, 
p. I89. 
Archwologia, vol. xxxv. 1853 , 
p. 167. 
Whitney's 'mb. Ed. 1586 , 
p. 218. 

Drunamond's Scotland» Ed. 
,allibtlCUS' FIll/. Ed. 1564, 
p. 46. 
"Whitney's /Ymb. Ed. I5S6 , 
p. II. 
Whituey's 'mb. Ed. I586 , 
p. I37. 
Alciat, Emb. 43, Ed. ISSI. 
Drum-mond's Scotland. Ed. 
1665 . 

Alciat, Emb. Ed. 1551. 
Whitney's 'mb. Ed. 1586 , 
Aneau's licla Poesis, Ed. 
1552, P- 55- 
Whitnêy's £'mb. Ed. I586 , 
p. 229. 
Paradin's Der. f-Av-. Ed. 
I562 , f. II2. 
Whitney's £'»tb. Ed. 1586 , 
p. I66. 
GenL 3[ag. Nov. ISI I, p. 416. 
Paradin's D««. Hcr. Ed. 
1562, f. 41. 
Whitney's Emb. Ed. I586 , 
p. 24. 
An exact MS. copy in the 
collection of H. Yates 
Thompson, Esq. 
Giovio and Symeoni's Sept/. 
»zbrese, Ed. I56I. 
Paradin's Z). tZer. Ed. 
I562 , f. I68. 
Cmnerarius, E. I595, Emb. 
69, P- 7I- 

528 S&.fCTS OF _D I'[CS, [APrENDIX II. 

Star, I Iieroglyphic 2 5 

T àtrrepa 7pdçovre 

Storks, their Purity 28 
and Love. 
Student entangled in 44 I 
Stm and Moon . 5 2 

*Sun in Eclipse. I24 

Sun Setting 

De sole et hma . 

AA'dio occidet die 

323 Tempts omnia lerminal 

l'lus iar doul«atr que tsar 
166 A[oderala z,is i]@olenli zio- 
L nlia oNor. 
of 218 Insignia pogta'um 

Sun, Wind, and Tra- 165 

Swan, Insignia 

Svan (Old Age elo- 215 

2I 7 
2I 3 
12 4 

Swan (Pure Truth) 

Swan singing at Death 
Sword broken on an 

*Sxvord to weigh Gold 
Sword with a Motto . 

SinoElicitas vm-i sana . 

Sibi canil e! orbi 

rlôs 7@ovra IOV«t«3v . 

Leeman's ][ora2bollo, Ed. 
i835 , Fig. 31 . 
Cory's I-Zoraollo, Ed. I84o, 
p. 3 o. 
Epiphanius, S., Ed. I588, p. 
Whitney's Emb. Ed. I586, 
p. I35. 
Alciat, 'mb. IO$, Ed. 155I. 
DyaL CrcaL Lyons Ed. 
Dnunmond's Scolland, Ed. 
Wlfitney's tïtb. Ed. I586, 
p. 230. 
Corrozet's I[ecatomg. Ed. 
i54o , Emb. 28. 
Freitag's e[j,th, t:'th. Ed. 
I579, P. 27. 
Alciat, £'mb. Ed. I551 , p. 
Whitney's Emb. Ed. I556 , 
p. I26. 
Aneau's ]'icta Poes[s, Ed. 
I552, p. eS. 
Reusner's t?mb. Ed. 1581 , 
p. 9I. 
Cmnerarius, Ed. I595, Emb. 
23 . 
Horapollo, Ed. 1551, p. 
Perriere's Th. l¢,ms t?ngins, 
Ed. I539, p. 31. 
Whitney's Z?mb. Ed. I586 , 
p. I92. 
Drummond's Scolland, Ed. 
1665 . 
Donce's !lluslr. vol. i. p. 452. 

Testing of Gold (see I73 
Gold on Touch- 
Theatre of Hmnan 405 
Life. Pl. XIV. 
Tlfings at our Feet 411 
(see Hen eating her 


Boissard's Thcatrum, 1596. 

ll.] II[OTTOES, MVD SOU]dC]S. 529 

Thread of Lire . 

Time flying, &c. 

Time leading the ,qea- 
sons, and of Eter- 
nity a Symbol. PI. 
Title-page, tghotolith 
fitc-simile, l'l. IX. 
*Tongue with Bats' 

Torch (ste Inverted 
Tree of Life (see Arrow 
*Tree planted in a 
*Triangle, Sun, Circle 

'Trophy on a Tree, &c. 

Turkey and Cock 

454 Quo ibaclo morlem seu koti- 
tis exi[um. 
466 Qu seçuimur fitgimta, nos- 
491 t'lllUS hT7,ocabilc 


MdvOporo T[wv 
,Vrrvis stultot-um 

Qtt3 /endis ? 

lielas 'ez'o,-abil oh orco 
Tritto not cottz'«ni[ orbls 
Ut castts ded«ret. 
ns lloslitalilatis 7.iolatum . 
,?bie «,ccetsa /z'mewi/ 

IIorapollo, Ed. 155L 
219 . 
Sambucus, Ed. 1564. 


Whitney's Emb. Ed. 1586 , 
p. 199. 
Voenius, '#zb. /Tbr. Ed. 
I6IZ, p. 206. 

Sambucus, Ed. 1564. 
Brant's and Locher's 
slltllifera, Ed. I497. 
Cttl|unt's Ira7vs[ed, Ed. I 

Paradin's /ger,. lv'. Ed. 
I562, f. 65. 

Dmtmmond's .%«/Irr:zd, Ed. 
1665 . 
Drummolld's Scolland, Ed. 
1665 . 
l)rUlUlnond's Scatlaml, Ed. 
1665 . 
Freitag's 31y[h, t?th. Ed. 
1579, p- 237. 
Camerarius, Ed. 1596 , Emb. 

Unicorn, Type of Faith 

371 l'ic/rix casla rides 
372 gril DWXlVorato • 
372 Ih,c ï,irluNs amor 
372 ['r,'Nosttm Çitod If[fit" 

Reusner's £'mb. Ed. 1581 , 
p. 60. 
Caluerarius, Ed. 1595, Emb. 
Camerarius, Ed. 1595, Emb. 
Camerarius, Ed. 1595, F.mb. 
4. PP. 14--16- 

«Venus dispensing Cu- 
pid from his Oaths. 
Vine .q.lld Olive . 

328 Mmorls A'siz'randvm prtzam 
non lta bet. 
249 tru,tenh's r'im rrbstitmd 
249 .... 

Van Veen's F»tb. of Love, 
p. I40. 
Whitney's l?mb. Ed. 1586 ' 
p. I33. 
Alciat, /»tb. 24, Ed. I6O2, 
p. I64. 
3 v 

53 ° SUBfECTS 0; 19] I'IC]S. [APPENDIX II. 

*Vine watered with 24 «'a sic JJti/tiJ-osttltt . 

Drummond's Scollaud, Ed. 
1665 • 

Waves anti Siren 

Vaves, with Sun over 

12 5 

Wheat among ]oues . 184 
Wheel ro]]ing into the 24 
Wings and Feathers 124 
Wor]d,Three-coruered 35  
(see Map, &c.). 
Wreath of Chivalry 69 llleomoeroterië aw 
Wreath of Oak . 224 Serltatigra?ia citis 
Wreaths, Four on a 22  FvrlHer elfi«iciler 
222 is orta art mori 
Wrongs engraved on 457 Scibilinmarotorehvstts 
45 S .... 
46o .... 

Drummond's Scott«n,t, Ed. 
Drummond's Scotland, Ed. 
Camerarius, Ed. '595, P- IO2. 
Paradin's.Dev. 1fer. Ed. 1562. 
Drummond's Scotlatd, Ed. 
Dmmmond's Scotlan,1, Ed. 

Paradin's D. Ifi'r. Ed. 
,562, f. ,46. 
Paradin's 1)er. tter. Ed. 
1562 , f. 147. 
Whitney's 'mb. Ed. 1586 , 
P- 5- 
Camerarius, Ed. 159o , Emb. 
Giovio and Symeoni's Seul 
Imbrese, Ed. 1562 , p. 24. 
Paradin's .D. ]-r«r. Ed. 
56z, f. 16o. 
Whitney's l?tb. Ed. ,586, 
p. 183. 

Zodiac, signs of. 1'1. 353 al/aIo d«lla sho-« . 

13rucioli, Ed. Venetia, i543, 

Dar,hl, ed. x6o. 



N.B. The subjects printed in italics have no corresponding device. 


I. 20 L 2 387 Appreciation of music 116 
3 6 II. 2 7 Ape and miser's gold 4'-;8 
48 III. 2 35 llands of Providence. Plate XVI. 4S9 
5 ° III. 3 2I Unicorn 373 
5 ° Iii. 3 21 Phoenix 373, 385 
5 ° III. 3 22 Phcenix, type of oneliness 234, 236 
53 llI. 3 95 Laurel, type of conscience 422, 424 
54 IV. I I Thread of life 454, 455 
5Î" IV. I I IO Diligence and idleness . 145, 146 
64 v. i 2I rater action in z, irtue 462 

 2 Ix. 6 24 a swartl, lt]tiole. 162 
I21 Ill. I 153 Phaeton 2S5, 2S6 
29 III. 2 68 Orpheus and harp 273, 274 
135 IV. 2 38 Gem in ring of gold 418, 419 
143 IV. 4 87 The Fox and Grapes 3 Io, 312 

177 l. 3 64 East and IlCt lndies 
I86 I I. I lO6 Actoeon and hounds 
190 II. 2 5 Gemini,--Zodiac. Plate XIlI. 
196 II. 2 I87 bhadows fled and follmved 

351, 352 
275, 276 
353, 355 
466, 468 







296 I. I 28 
303 I. 2 158 
324 II. " 2 I49 
327 II. 4 I 
334 11I. I 6 
334 III. I 17 
34 ° III. I I75 


Hen eating her own eggs 
Zodiac, signs of. Plate XIII. 
Gold on the touchstone 
Student entangled in love 
Idiot-fool, and death, ttolbein's Simulachres . 
Sleep and death, Holbein's Simttlachres 
Gem in ring of gold 

411 II. 
425 llI. 
437 v. 
455 v. 

97 Egle renewing its feathers 
I67 Elm and vine 
27 Sirens and Ulysses 
i31 AmerAca 
53 Time lm'ning back 
210 Cilce transforming luen 

22 II. I 
69 v. I 
75 v. I 


2I 4 llTt]tered lranch 
4 ll'a:er l]trouffh a siez,e 
17o Adanl hiding 



I I Ruins and writings 
I 4 Time leading the Seasolls. Plate XVII. 
I 56 Bear, cub, and Cupid . 
2 IOO Oak and reed, or osier . 
3 97 Rose and thorn 
3 I I I fftttO bttt an NlhioJe x,ere 
3 3 °8 Bacchus 

2o 4 I. I 168 
205 I. I ISO 
206 I. I 232 
2I 5 II. I 148 
216 Il. I I55 
216 Il. I 173 
216 II. 
217 II. I I94 
218 II. I 227 
218 Il. I 
225 II. 2 145 
239 III. 2 200 
240 m. 2 237 
24I III. 2 260 


arrow with a golden head 
Astronomer and maglet 
Bear, cub, and Cupid 
Mlbreciation of ntdody . 
Cupid and Death . 
Drake's ship 
Ape and miser's gold 
Astronomer and magnet 
Daphne changed to a laurel . 
Gohting' s Ovid used 
Countryman aud serpent 
Coats in keraldry . 
Ape and miser's gold 
Shake on the finger 

4II, 412 
353, 354 
I75 , 
44 I 
469, 47 ° 
417, 4 I8 

307, 309 
253, 254 
351 , 352 

329, 331 
415, 416 

443, 444 
349, 350 
315, 316 
ao», 334 
247, 249 

335, 336 
4ol, 4o 4 
413, 415 
335, 336 
296, 297 
I97, I98 
2i» 220 
342, 343 



lI. 250 iX'. I 37 
258 V.  1 
258 V. ! I2 

Vine and ehn 3o7, 3o9 
«'EsolO . 302 
The poet's glory 379, 380 


2O I. 
2SI I. i 
281 1. I 
284 i. I 
286 L 2 
286 1. 2 
296 II. I 
312 ll. 
312 I1. 7 
313 n. 7 
318 u. 9 
39 l. 9 
325 III. 2 
328 11 I. 2 
345 IV. I 
347 IV. I 
360 v. I 
361 V. 1 

5 ° The two-headed Janus . 39, 4o 
77 The world a stage x33 
77 The worid a stage. Plate XV. 4o7, 4IO 
16I Golden fleece and Phryxns 29, 23o 
24 Tbe old manprophesying 213, 2I 5 
4 Lottery 2o8, 2o 9 
I l Lottery 2o8, 2o 9 
4 .4 caskd scene 150 
20 " goldcu mind, .... golden b«d" 404 
62 Cast«el scete . 15 ° 
63 Casket scene . 15 I 
79 Moth and candle . 151 , 153 
41 Insignia of Poets . 218, 2t 9 
i 15 .ŒE pahtA'r's pazocr . I I 2 
75 The lnountain pine 476 
124 Ènvy, description of 432, 433 
54 A.#precialion of melod.i, . I I6 
70 Power of lnusic 271, 273 


391 . 3 69 
393 i. 3 12o 
394 ll. I 29 
400 I L 4 43 
405 Il. 7 13 
406 I 1. 7 42 
409 1I. 7 136 
4o9 ll. 7 137 
4o9 l I. 7 139 
427 III. 3 67 
44-" IV. 3 15 

5eunds swans, Golding's Ovid 244 
Gao'mede, Golding's Ovid 214 
The wounded stag 397, 398 
Sword broken on an anviI 326, 327 
A motley fool 485 
".4 nwlley coal" 485 
Theatre ofhulnan Iife. Plate XIV. 4o5, 406 
Theatre of hulnan life . 133 , 405 
The seven ages of man. Plate XV. 407, 409 
Hawldng 366, 368 
The Phoenix 234 , _.36 


fO Ind. 
IO Iud. 
IO Ind. 
IO Ind. 
IO Ind. 
2 3 I. 
45 ll. 
78 iv. 

41 I Iawldng 366, 367 
47 AIylhologic«l bictttt'es b., Tilian 114 
47 Cytherea, lo, Z)ahne, A_pollo 115 
52 tliA'r attd lo 246 
55 Daphne and Apollo 296 , 297 
24 Too Ilalian sentencês i63 
338 cauHful furnitttre described . 112 
174 Falconry 366, 367 
165 "honom'ccccth Dt the meanesl habit." Plate XVI. 49o 

534 ]d_FL'_RE_/VCS Z_/V S/f A KES]E.4EE]d " [Al't't.:Nt, tX Iii. 


III. II2 I. I 76 
119 I. 2 58 
123 l. 3 73 
I27 I. 3 I82 
I32 II. l 4 ° 
133 ll. 1 59 
2Ol V. 3 5 

III. 223 I. I 9 
224 I. I 33 
225 1. 2 IO 
23I 1. 3 127 
234 1. 5 5 ° 
24 ° l. 5 2 I4 
257 lI. 5 I5 
257 11. 5 27 
265 I I l. I 68 
27I 11I. 2 73 
285 ]ll. 4 34 ° 


323 l. 2 II 5 
371 IV. I 7 
32 IX'. 4 II6 
383 iv. 4 135 
420 v. 2 8 
422 V. 3 I4 
423 v. 3 I8 
424 v. 3 63 

17 II. I 134 
26 11. I 373 
37 II1. 1 96 
42 ]II. I 258 
65 IV. 2 125 
67 lV. 2 170 
76 IV. 3 155 
91 V. 7 I 

II6 l. I 202 
125 I. 3 129 
I3o I. 3 275 
131 1. 3 294 


Symbolical imagwy 
]3ees,--and native land. 
A Iottery 
CUlfid and the sieve 
"cicalrice.att onble#t (Z«"a]'" 
The Fox and the Grapes 
Niobe's dlildren slain . 

Actoeon mld the houuds 
"irke rich golden shafl" 
Arion and the dolphin . 
Zodiae,--Taurus. Plate XIll. 
«[olloes,--£atit G 
ower judgm E artis/ic skil/ 
A turkey-cock 
A turkey-cock 
A tm with l/te Indics 
Whitney's Iutroduction 

The wounded deer 
Old Time, of 
lrose,ina,--see Ovid . 
Z'oelic ideas, or- symbolical imagery 
"tlio 2omano " 
D'scri2#lion of slaluary . 
Sleep and death, Holbein's .5ïmtt/achv,.r 
l)escriybtioz of statua,'y . 

Hares biting a dead lion 
Theatre of humnn lire. Plate XI\. 
Gold on the touchstone 
SnŒEke on the finger 
Occasion, 259 ; or Fortune 
Mercury mending a lute 
Wind, sun, and traveller 
The swan, the Poet's badge . 

Wreath of dlivalry 
" no ab'tue like necessily" 
" tlzefrosly Caucasus" . 

361, 365 
208, 210 
329, 33 ° 
310, 311 
292, 293 

277, 278 
280, 282 
353, 355 

398 , 400 
Io 9 
469, 47 ° 

305, 306 
405, 406 
177, 18o 
342 , 343 
261, 264 
256, 257 
218, 219 

169, 17o 
432 , 433 


I\ r. 137 If. I 53 
I40 ll. I I20 
145 I1. I 270 
164 III. 2 12 
I64 III. 2 24 
164 iti. 2 29 
165 Ill. 2 37 
168 i11. 2 129 
179 111. 3 178 
2IO v. 3 57 

IV. 317 Iv. 
318 IX'. 
323 iv. 
337 v. 
342 v. 

RICIIARD II.--conlinucd. 
XVreath of chivalry 
The Pclican . 
hollozo ç,cs of dcalh 
Slmke in the gl'aSS 
Ca«hmts and tac soent's teet 
Human dependence 
Drake's ship 
Çountryman and serpent 
Phaeton and the Sun-chariot 
Conntryman and serpent 

I 97 Ostrich with spreading wings 
i 104 Mercury 
3 3 ° ,St)" ll'alh'r J?lount 
2 82 Time leading the Seasons. Plate XVII. 
4 25 llydra slain by llercules 


IV. 392 IL 2 4 
4o 5 L 4 165 
431 IV. I 70 
45 ° V. 4 103 
453 IX'. 5 35 
454 V. 5 75 
474 V. 3 136 

IV. 491 I. Chor. 
493 I. I 
502 l. z 
538 111. 4 
543 i. 6 
544 ii. 6 
549 ii. 7 
55 ° z. 7 
552 Ii1. 7 
555 IV. i 
555 IV. I 
564 Iv. I 
574 Iv. 4 
582 v. 7 
588 iv. 8 
591 v. I 
596 v. 2 
598 v. 2 

Time terminates ail 
Sword with Spanish lnotto 
Occasion, 259 ; Fortune 
IIands of Providence. Plate XVI. 
Sleep and Death, Holbein's Simttlachr,: 
Promethens chained 

5 Diligence and idleness . 
35 Hydra slain by Hercnles 
178 Bees 
I SlltZlt]le$ of F't'll(]l 
2O Image of Fortune. 
44 Thread of life 
I o Pegasus 
54 lrrench aml Latin 2bromrb 
13o The masliff praised 
3 "goodness out of evil" 
9 Time irrevocable. Plate XVII. 
256 Sottnd slee£b of tire slt?ŒEE't" . 
2 Snatchcs of Frenclz 
82 lttmau fi'lendotce 
Ioo lttmat dee'm[e'tcê 
13 Turkey-cock 
48 Evils of war. 
lO 7 Snatches if Frwc]t 

169, I7O 
393, 396 
34o, 343 
413, 415 
197, 198 
285, 286 
197, 198 

255, 257 
374, 375 

137, 138 
261, 264 
469, 47 ° 
361, 364 
266, 358 

145, I46 
374, 375 
360, 362 
26 I, 262 
454, 455 
141, 142 
357, 358 

536 I¢FtNCI?S IA r SHMA',_çPMI¢E [Al.vV.N»X III. 

V. 8 L 
14 L 
20 I. 
25 i. 
33 tl. 
4 ° i i. 
68 iv. 
71 IX'. 
72 IX'. 
78 iv. 
So iv. 
82 iv. 
86 v. 

I 12 7 ".d Talbol/ et Talbol. t'' 
2 129 Ilalcyon days 
4 49 Adamant on the anvil . 
6 6 Adonis' gardons, Golding's Oz, id 
I 78 The cD', " A Talbot ! a Talbot !" 
3 II Tlle cT, "A Talbot ! a Talbotl" 
3 36 .12#icluregalloy named 
4 3 o Rose and thorn 
5 28 Death . 
l IS8 Chaos,--discm'd 
3 17 Prolnethcus bound 
3 47 l'rometheus bound 
6 46 Icarus and his ill fortune 
7 6o Order of St. Michael 
7 60 Order of the Golden Fleece . 
7 92 l'hoenix 
3 3 ° ('irce 

V. 129 i. 4 
132 n. i 
145 Il. 3 45 
153 II1. I 55 
153 III. l 69 
158 III. l 224 
162 Ill. I 343 
162 III. I 360 
168 lIl. 2 125 
171 III. 2 232 
174 111. 2 310 
IS2 ll'. I 8 3 
I85 IV. 2 27 
197 IV. 7 49 
2o6 iv. io 23 
213 V. I 143 
215 v. i 196 
217 V. 2 28 
217 v. 2 28 
218 V. 2 45 

244 1. 4 
245 I. 4 
245 1. 4 
252 I. l 
252 11. I 


l'ART tIENRY \1. 
Pine-trees in a storm 
Fox and Grapes 
Ickdaw h cacock's f'athers. 
Snake in the grass 
Countryman and serpent 
The porcupine 
Conscience . 
The pelican . 
Thread of life 
alin ;#ro'verb, "bona to'ra," 
Ostrich eating iron 
Bear and ragged staff 
Bear and ragged staff 
The gmne of chess 
French provelb, «' Z(t filt COllFOltllG " "C. 
.,Eneas and Anchises 

16 Phaeton 
35 Phoenix 
39 Zeash of roz,erbs . 
5o Cuid felling a lrec 
68 1 luman -knll 

347, 348 
333, 334- 
45 453 
266, 268 
267, 268 
288, 291 
227, 228 
38 388 

366, 367 
31o, 312 
34o, 341 
197, 198 
231, 232 
361, 363 
421, 422 
432, 433 
393, 394, 397 
454, 455 
233, 234 
237, 239 
237, 24o 
I91, 192 

285, 286 
385, 387, 388 
337, 339 

APPFNI)tX lll.] TO DE ITCES OR EAIt3LEIhrs. 537 

V. 27t t. 6 IO 
280 I. 2 48 
284 Iii. 2 t53 
285 ni. 2 t$$ 
309 ix'. 4 32 
312 IX'. 7 24 
319 v. i 34 
319 v. I 54 
324 v. 3  
325 v. 4 i 
329 v. 5 25 
332 v. 6 IS 

PART HENRY VI.--continucd. 
AA O, drops ;bierce the slone 
Inverted torch 
13ear, cub, and Cupid 
Countryman and serpent, SDton 
Olive branch and lauz'l crozvn 
Fox and Grapes 
XVrongs on marble 
Four wreaths on a spear 
Ships sailing 
.Esop . 
Icarus . 

255, 257 
tTi, I73, 174 
349, 35 ° 
I97, 2oo 
458 , 
221, 222 
435, 436 , 438 
zS$, 290 



473 L I I 
580 v. 2 8 
583 IV. 2 65 
606 IV. 4 4 t8 
6I 5 v. 2 
6i 7 v. 3 3 ° 
625 v. 3 i$i 

3 Prol. 
45 II. 3 
46 I t. 3 
56 ll. I 
76 m. 2 
79 III. 2 
84 iv. I 
87 IV. 2 
88 w. 2 
io 3 v. 3 
io4 v. 3 
1I 4 V. 5 

I3O I.  
134 I. 2 
i42 I. 3 
142 I. 3 
142 I. 3 
I43 L 3 
t44 L 3 

Gold on the touchstone 
The phoenix. 
Sir ames Blount . 
Sir tmcs Blount. 
Laurel, type of conscience 

t 5 A motley coat 
60 Gem in a ring of gold . 
75 Gem in a ring of gold 
! Orpheus and his harp 
372 Laurel, type of conscience 
446 D.O.M. 
81 tmb[ems literally . 
27 \Vrongs on marble 
77 Swan, the Poet's badge 
io D.O. *I. 
43 Env), 
28 Phcenix 


94 Daphne 
ioo t?dithet gohten 
33 Ship sailing forward 
33 Perseus' horse 
39 Pegasus 
49 Oak and reed, or osier . 
75 Bees 

i77 , 
385, 389 
422, 425 

48, 419 
418, 420 
2îi, 274 
422, 424 
45 S, 459 
218, 2I 9 
432 , 433 
385, 39 ° 

295, 296 
403, 4o4 
436 , 439 
299, 300 
360, 36I, 363 



I44 I. 3 75 Chaos . 
155 I. 3 39 Ban-dog, or Mastiff 
64 IL 2 81 tgrrls and l«l«n 
164 11. 2 92 ]garoe and lldcn 
168 I l. 3 9 Mercury 
I69 II. 3 18 Envy 
I75 Il. 3 I89 Cancer,--Zodiac. Plate XIII. 
I77 n. 3 237 lilo 
I78 II. 3 240 2lilo 
191 III. 2 I69 Astronome6 magnet, polestar 
198 1 II. 3 145 Me/ire cxer/ion demanded 
2ot l[. 3 196 Iland of Providence 
228 I V. 5 183 Pegasus 
230 Ix'. 5 223 Setting sun . 
247 v. 3 37 "kindness b«.fltting a lion" 
253 v. 5 II Sagi//aO,,--Zodiac. Plate XIII.. 
259 v. 9 2I Hares biting a dead lion 
261 v. I I I6 Niobe and hcr children. 

449, 451 
255, 257 
432 , 433 
353, 355 
244, 344 
335, 337 
99, 3 °o 
353, 355 
304, 305 
292, 294 

287 I. 3 7 Wreath of oak 
3o4 I. 9 58 Wreaths of victory 
312 ll. I IO 9 Wreath ofoak 
323 ii. 2 84 Wreath of oak 
344 III. ! 6I D.O.M. 
369 IX'. I 44 Gold on the touchstone. 
380 IV. 5 IOO Swol'd on an anvil 
403 v. 2 102 Oak and reed, or osier . 
411 v. 3 206 Çrcat Yoman names 


224, 225 
22I, 225 
224, 226 
224, 225 
I77, ISI 
325, 326 
315, 316 

450 II. I 5 The zodiac. Plate XIII. 
45I I1. I 14 Prometheus chained 
451 II. I 18 Sirenes 
456 I1. 2 I a3[o' OlddC[aH, ddmncjiece 
459 n. 3 55 Actoeon and hounds 
472 1ii. i 12 " lo vri[e Dt lke dust" 
483 lIl. 2 9 Theatre ofhuman life. Plate Xl\ r. 
490 IV. I 85 Vrongs on marble 
490 v. i lO2 Wrongs on marble 
492 I v. 2 I S Conscience, ozoer . 
5OI IV. 3 52 The zodiac. Plate XIII. 
522 V. 2 I92 Progne 
527 v. 3 85 Countryman and serpent, I97 ; Sinon 

266, 268 
253, 254 
277, 279 
405, 4o6 
458 , 46o 
458 , 460 
353, à54 


VII. 23 1. 4 4 
3 ° 1. 5 41 
4 2 II. 3 9 ° 
58 li. 4 187 
59 1L 5 8 
72 IH. 2 t 
75 111. 2 69 
8 4 fil. 3 I26 
7 v. i 15 
12 4 V. 3 6I 
I26 v. 3 II I 

, II. 228 II. I 28 
245 IH. 3 1 
254 III. 5 3 t 
263 Iii. 6 Io3 
265 Iv. I 35 
269 IV. 3 I8 
270 IV. 3 5 t 
2S8 iv. 3 473 
269 iv. 3 25 
28I IV. 3 317 
2S1 IX'. 3 324 
2S1 Iv. 3 331 
283 IV. 3 377 
305 v. 4 69 

X, II. 322 i. 1 68 
326 I. 2 io 7 
329 1. 2 t92 
334 i. 3 5 
347 I1. i 203 
363 III. I 58 
36S III. I 205 
375 III. 2 73 
384 iv. I 2 
389 iv. 3 2 
396 iv. 3 213 
409 v. 3 8o 
4t3 v. 5 25 

 1I. 438 1. 5 61 
442 1. 7 44 

Cupid hoodwinked 
Gem set in gold 
lCus disi#ensing CuiMd fi'om his oatks 
Astronomer and nmgnet 
l)eves and 2vinged CujM 
Sllake in the grass 
l)isjensing fi-om oatks . 
Time and eternity, symbol. Plate XVII. 
D. O. M. 
Theatre of hmnan lire. Plate XIV. 

tckdaw in borrowed iMumes. 
Gold on the touchstone. 
Wrongs on marble 
Timon' s httense haD-ed . 
The extravagance of Timon's hatred 
The extravagance of Timon's hatred 
The extravagance of Timon' hatred 
The extravagance of Timon's hatred 
Gold on the touchstone 
AA'ntion of many animals 
A'ntion f many animais 
The mticorn . 
Gohl on the touchstone 
Timon' s 

ackdaw in borrmve, l gSlumes . 
Aneas and Anchises 
Charactewistics of lSrutus amt Cassius 
Oak and reed, or osier . 
Astronomer and magmet 
The wounded stag 
Wrongs on marble 
Three-cornered world . 
Dog baying at the moon 
Occasion. Plate XI l.. 
Wreath of victoty. 
Death of Brutus 

Shake in the strawberry 
" /date nal, .... I "watdd" 

329, 331 
418, 420 
t87, 335 
285, 286 
340, 341 
327, 328 
405, 406 

3t2, 314 
t75, t77, 18o 
458 , 459 
427, 428 
175, t77, 178 
371, 373 
177, 78 
43 ° 

312, 313 
t9t, t93 
315, 3t6 
37 t, 372 
335, 336 
398, 399 
458 , 459 
35, 352 
269, 27o 
259, 26o 
22I, 224, 226 
202, 203 

34 O, 34 I 

540 ]t»ts".F_E.I.EJVC]J.'S lJV St.etI'.ES.EM.tÇ.E [APPENDIX III. 


Vil. 444 Il. i 7 
454 11, z ïl 
454 il. 3 67 
459 I!. 4 lO 
467 II. 2 22 
512 V. 5 9 
5 I2 v. 5 94 

M AC 13 ETI I--colztiltued. 
l). O.M. 464 
Sleep and death, Holbein's Simulaches 469, 470 
Gorgon, Golding's Ovid 244 
Falconry 366, 368 
"Mfler lif«'s frdftl fever h« slas x,,'ll" . 492 
Theatre of life. Plate XIV. 4o 5, 4o6 
Time leading on the Seasons. Plate XVII.. 491 

\ II1. 

VIII. 28o 

VIII. 477 

14 l. 2 71 Time leading the Seasons. Plate XVII. 49 
35 L 5 I3 The porcupine 23i , 232 
63 II. 2 295 " Alan a God fo ruait" . 283, 284 
79 II1. I 62 Theatre of lire. Plate XIV. 405, 406 
79 llI. I 60 Sleep aud death, IIolbein's Simul«chres 469, 47 ° 
79 111. z 70 Z)ea[h's raises, life's ez,ils 471 
 111. I 76 Fardel on a swimmer 481 
97 III. 2 259 The wounded stag 398, 399 
III IIL 4 53 The herald Mercul'y 255, 256, 258 
III 111. 4 55 A poel's arlistic ,tescr(îNon 112 
I 17 n. 4 2o5 Cannon bursting . 344, 345 
I27 IV. 4 33 The ca#tri and his driver 283 
I35 IV. 5 I35 The pelican . 393, 394, 396 
45 Iv. 7 84 Pegasus I43, 144 
53 v. I 73 Hunmn skull 337, 338 
I54 v. I 86 IIunmn skull 337, 338 
58 v. I 9I Human skull 337, 339 
I64 v. 2 8 Drake's ship 413, 4i 4 

I. 4 93 Child and motley fool 485 
l. 5 33 "why sevot stars" 356 
1. : 73 King-fishers . S9z, 393 
II. 4 61 Ants and ga'asshopper . 148, 149 
H. 4 199 Prometheus and the vulture 966, 358 
111. 4 68 Pelican 393, 394, 396 
IV. I 64 IIands of Providence. Plate XVI. 489 
v. 3 171 our2#lea.ranl vices, c. . 425 

Il. I I29 " Oldf°nd2barad°xes" " 474 
1L 3 29o Hydl'a slain by Hercules 374, 375 
I. 3 326 Syml, ols 2 
III. I 47 Occasion. Plate XII.. 259, 26I, 265 
1II. 3 145 Conjqdence kel bacA 434 
III. 3 I59 Cahmmy 434 

AI'I'ENDIX Ill.] T(_) D'/C.ES (_)./ '/.//'J/S. 54I 

OTH ELLO--continue, L 
VIII. 5î4 V. 2 7 Light ; the Canoness 469 
58I v. 2 146 Swan . 2IS 
586 v. 2 249 ,qwan 213, 216, 218, 22o 



38 II. 2 2Ol A;;reciation of art 113 
40 Il. 2 245 The lottery . 208, 2II 
48 1I. 5 95 Narcissus at the stream. 2o5, 2o6 
60 I1. 7 lot Bacchus 246, 247 
64 III. 2 7 The Phcenix 381, 387, 389 
IOO III. 13 195 Ostrich, or estridge 371, 372 
109 IX'. 6 5 Map, "three-nooked world" 35 I, 353 
118 IV. 12 3 Medeia, swallovs oaa her bl-east 19o 
123 IX'. 14 46 Lalnp, or torch of lire . 456 
132 ix'. 15 $4 Lamp of life 456 
I5o v. 2 277 Time's and etcrnity's emblems. Plate XVII. 491 
151 v. 2 305 ChDmtO'-2#iece al the Old Iarall, Tabl O, 131 


167 I. I 13o The eagle renewing its feathers 369 
183 I. 6 12 The phceuix. 234, 235, 236 
183 I. 6 15 The phoenix, "Arabian bird" 387, 39o 
184 I. 6 3 ° Ape and miser's gold 4S8 
185 I. 6 46 Contrasts ofeithcts 474 
191 t. 6 188 'zvels attd ornalli£nts of rare dez,ice 8 
207 tl. 4 68 4dornments of hnogen's chamber . I I I 
2IZ 1I. 5 33 Envy 432, 433 
226 III. 4 57 Çountryman and serpent, Stnon 97, 2o8 
240 I11. 6 31 Diligence and idleness I.-l-5, 147 
253 w. 2 172 Pine-trees in a storm 477 
257 av. 2 259 The oak and reed, or osier 315 


325 I. 2 lO2 Thread of life 454, 455 
343 ll. 2 17 The Triumjbh Scene 158 , 159 
343 II. z 19 .4 black Ethioe 16o 
343 Il. 2 27 Stsanis/t motto 162 
343 I1. 2 3 ° Wreath of chivalry 168, 169 
343 1I. 2 32 Invertedtorch 17o, 171, I73 
343 t I. 2 33 Quod or qui me alit 17 O, 174 
344 1I. z 36 Gold on the touchstone 175, 177 
344 I1. 2 43 IYithe'albranc/, , 181, I83 
345 n. 3 9 Wreath of victory. 223, 224 
366 I 1 I. 2 26 3hn a God fo »tan 283, 284 
375 IV. Intr. 12 Evy 432, 433 

IX. 436 


I'AG Iqq. 


544 I723 
55 869 
537 53 


The chimne.v-iece, 7àbl O, Oht Ihdl 
Occasion or opportunity. Plate XII. 
Countryman and serpent, Sinot 

259, 264 

IX. 578  55 
583 I 65 

Ruins and vritings 
Ruins and writings 

443, 445 
443, 445 

IX. 638 92 





Phcenix with two hearts 
Phcenix with two hearts 
Phcenix' nest 


38L 385, 389 

38:, 385, 388 
23, 38, 389 

l-[esius, 3536. 



A, O. L. Linacre's Galen, Paris, 1538, 
p. IO5; O. L. 2V, fd«sfolz, f. xvi., Paris, 
I499, p. I88 ; O. L. Alciat's .tnblons, 
2, Paris, I534, p. 377- 

1. A. Bruck, Emb. mot. et bellica, 1615, 
P. 95 ; Emb. olilica, I618, pp. 34, 97- 
zEsop, zbh's, Latin and German, 473; 
Italian, I479; Greek, I48O; French 
and English, I4S 4 ; Spani-',h, I489 ; 
thirty other editions before I5OO, p. 5- 
Aesticampianus, Ta&da Cebeti 15o7, 
p. 12. 
A. Ganda, Sbicgel van .rettroot, I6O6, 
p. 98 ; lmblcmaht amatoria nova, 1613, 
p. 98. 
Alberti, .calonî*vla, 149I; 17renc h, I536, 
P. 55- 
Alciat, Andrew, l»tblcmatmn libcllns, 
lSZZ, p- 69; E»d,. liber, I53 I, its size 
compared with ed. I6:I, p. 69 ; in the 
interval above I3O editions; French, 
1536 ; Gerluan, i542 ; Spanish and 
Italian, I549 ; Egli.-h (?), 155, p- 7 ° ; 
Commentators, 7o ; amas or device, 

Aleander, Exllicatio antiq, fa3tt[w, &c., 
I61 I, pp. 95, 97- 
Altorfinoe, Eml*. annh.ersaria, 1597, p. 94- 
Alnman, Eiblical fl.tres, tt,'raldry, &c., 
1564, p. 85. 
Ammirato, Il rota oz,ero ddl' imlbrese , 
562, pp. 79, 8I. 
Aneau, rench Alclat, 1549, P. 7 ° ; t¥cta 
oesis, and L'imagination 2#octique, 1552, 
p. 76. 
Angeli, .4strolabhtmtlanum , I488, p. 4"2-. 
Anjou, La joycttse ci mag. enlr&' I582 , 
p. 87. 
AlocaO'ps,; a block-book, 48, 49. 
Arias Montanus, I-lrtttll. sa[tttis monum., 
I572, pp. 88, 89. 
A fs ttlt'ttiorantti» a block-book, about 141 O, 
P- 45- 
Astronomical MS., about I33O , Chetham 
Library, 4 I. 
Austria, Don John of, On Sambnctts, I57z , 
p. 86. 

9.. Aliamqtte moratnr, I24; Altcra s'ctt- 
riras, I24 ; Amicitia ctia,,z ost mortem 
durans, and Amiciti, e immorlali, 307; 


3__.8 ; .lmor viucit omnia, ï ; Anchor« 
SitSlll ¢ 185; Armat siua rosas, 
httlll apcs, 333 ; Ars IIa[ltFalI1 adjuvaus, 
55 ; Ars rh¢or trlex moz,«t, &c., 4 ; 
Ait naz,hr agité semb& &joltl" de l'homme, 
437 ; Attri sao'a fantcs quM nott 
.4ttxilio divino, 413 ; cire gratid plcna, 
dom[nlts IccUnt, 46 ; A vous ortier : 
suis contente, 45- 

3. iEschylus, on SymboL p. 2, Swan, 
213 . 
«Esop's Fabl«s, low estilnate of by Shake- 
speare, 3o2; Antwerp, ed. 1593, p. 313 ; 
Jackdaw and fine feathers, 312. 
Aikin's G«n«ra! Biograh.v: Chalnlfier, 63 ; 
Joachim, 67 ; Pierins, 8o. 
Alciat, characterised, 69; quoted, Janus, 
139-4o ; Hope, I82 ; _,ZEneas and An- 
chises, 191 ; Medea and Progne, 191 ; 
13rutus, 2Ol ; Zisca, 206 ; Swan, 213 ; 
Insignia of poets, 218 ; Phrixus, 229 ; 
Sirens, 253 ; Mercury and Fortune, 255 ; 
 ccasion, 259 ; Prometheus bound, 266; 
Dog and moon, 27o ; Actmon, 275 ; 
Arion, 280 ; Phaeton, 285; Icarus, 288; 
Niobe, 292 ; Narcissus, 295 ; Pegasus, 
299 ; Several fables, 303 ; Friendship 
after death, 307 ; t3ees, 360 ; Cupid and 
death, 4Ol ; Envy, 431; Ship-sailing, 
435 ; Student entangled in love, 440. 
Amboise, I62O, nalned by Menestrier, 79- 
Ames' Antiquities of5brintiug names an 
Ellglish version of Alciat, 7 o. 
Anacreon, the swan, 214 
Aneau, or Anulus, quoted : Pl'ogne, 193 ; 
Brasidas, I94; Swan, 213; Prometheus, 
267 ; Actoeon, 276 ; Narcissus, 295 ; 
Daphne, 296 ; Skull, 337 ; Chaos, 449. 
Animais, artistic books of, 156o-1586 , 
p. 85. 
Archoeologia, lottery, 2o8 ; Ages of man, 
Aristotle, the head an index of the mind, 
129 ; Halcyon's nest, 391. 
Arundel MS., ages of man, 4o6. 
.4l]teuce (Cantab. ii. p. 258), Spenser, 87. 
Angustine, S., Co'ssions, 426. 
Aulus Gellius, Androcles and lion, 281. 
Ayscough, 461. 

zl:. Achilles, shield of, o. 
Actoeon, referred fo by Alciat, 275 ; Shake- 
speare, Aneau, Sambucus, 276 ; Paloe- 
phatus, Ovid, Whitney, 278 ; and 
Shakespeare, 279. 
Adaln hiding, by Shakespeare, Whitney, 
416 ; Montenay and Stalnm Buch, 416. 
Adanfs apple, reference to Milton, Plate 
X., 132. 
Adamant, indestructibility : Le Bey de 
Batilly and Pliny, 347 ; Shakespeare, 348. 
Eneas, his shield, 2o; and Anchises, by 
Alciat and Whitney, 191 ; Shakespeare, 
Albret, Madame, Queen of Navarre, 88. 
Aldi, 149o--1563, device, 16; Horapollo, 
1505, 1 ). 64. 
Alphonso V., ancestor of Don Juan 
Manuel, I575, p. 90. 
Alnerica and West Indies ignored, 35 o, 352. 
Androcles and the lion, 28I. 
Antefixoe, of Etruscan art, 19. 
Ants and grasshopper, by Freitag, 148 ; 
and XVhitney, 148. 
Ape and nfiser's gold, by Cullum, I28 ; 
Paradiu, XVhitney, and Symeolfi, 486 ; 
Shakespeare, 488. 
Apollo and the Christian muse, Le I3ey de 
Batilly, 379; Shakespeare, 380. 
Appendices, I. 497, H. 515, lU. 531--542. 
Architecture and stature T excluded, I I. 
Argonauts and Jason, 229 ; Shakespeare, 
Arion, by Alciat, 280; Whitney, &c., 
28I ; Shakespeare and Microcosna, 282, 
-S 3. 
Arms on Queen Mary's bed, 123, 124. 
Arran, earl of, 1549; patron of Aneau, lO8, 
Arrow wreathed on a tomb, Paradin, 18 3. 
Art, Shakespeare's exquisite judgment of, 
IoS--I 17. 
Ascencian printing press, ISI I, p. 63. 
Ass and wolf, 53, 54- 
Astronolner and maet, Sambuctts, 335 ; 
Whitney, 335 ; Shakespeare, 336. 
Athenian coin, S. 
Atkinson's geln, xWc[a xPoesis, 76. 
Atlas, by Giovio and Shakespeare, 245. 
Augustus, lais emblem, 15. 


1. Radius, Stultif nm'ic,» re.Z, 
15oo, 5o2, p. 6r ; Af des filles, &c., 
5o, p. 6z ; Account of, 63. 
Balsat, Af'sprim'cs, &c., 5o2, p. 63. 
Barclay, S of fiO,s q tke vorl« 5o9, 
57 °, PP- 57, 65, 9t, t9; 
gvod ma.ets,  57 o, p. 
agagli, 79; D«ll' Imrese, 589, p. 
B+'+,rdAIissaL MS., 425, p. 44- 
Beham's Bib& figurcs, 536, p. 7 e. 
ellerophon, of £»st h¢ «5,sho,  64, 
p. 98. 
Belloni, iscorso, 6o, p. 9z. 
Bernardetti, Gior.ah ri.ta, &c., 59 z, 
PP- 79, 9z. 
Ilca,, accedunt e.tb., 58I, p. 
RibL'figtres, 5o3, p. 63 ; 536, p. 
Biblia «llel'ltlll, 4o42o , p. 45 ; 
Plate VI., 46 ; Description of, 46, 47- 
iNisre his¢arh'n, 55, p. 73- 
Billyng, Five oau,ds  Crisr, 
4oo, ed. 84, p. 4L 
Block-books : ihd ¢a¢«n«m, Plate V l., 
4547 ; oak OE Candides aml the 
ra(se OE S. ,n, 48 ; Arc memaramti, 
45, 48 ; ]tistm'ia S. aan. E'e¢elist., 
so!d for 45l., hOt for 451., Plates VII. 
and VIII., 49 ; Print, Plate XV., 4o 7. 
Bocclfius, SymbM. çu««st., libri v. 555, 
oissard, «a¢rum vile umen«, 596, 
p. 3  ; S&twsid vschliees 
597, P- 97 ; Fall  Sa¢an, Plate NI., 
33 ; Human 1oEea ¢a¢re, Plate NIV., 
oissart, .Btscarad«s 'ru«illies, 93, 94. 
Bol, Em& oe'ang, ad XII. sig, a, 
p. 88. 
oner, Çm« tMtx, about I4OO  ed. 
46, p. 5o. 
orcht, Ovid's A'¢amoose«, 59I, P. 94- 
Bori mre«e marales, 58, p. 
Brandt, arre, sc 494 ; 
before 5oo, Plate IX., ed. 1497, p. 57; 
AroE«tt'« l, 57 ; Flemish version, 5o4, 
Two English, 5o9, p. 57; tlortuhs 
a,im,G MS., ed. 498, p. 58. 

Broecnler .lbl. .m'a[ht tq 
6o9, pp. 95, 97- 
Brosamer, b'iMische hLrtorien, 55 , p. 73- 
Bynneman, lzu der Abol's t]ttzt% x569, 
p. 9 L 

A/aia, I2 5 ; 'o.a 
139 ; lTr«.e gA,At, 
llO.r«! 7'011215[1y  152. 

. P, acon's A,tv. o¢ L'«r.htg, . 
Bateman's ed. F/ve va.nds of Chrisg, 40. 
Bellay's Ct@ht an,t «'ak, 569, p. 4oo; 
Dog, 4Sz ; Emb]em writing. 36. 
Beeau's iblla a.erum, ed. $59, pp. 
45, 4S. 
Beza, quoted, l'hrixus, 23o;  
moo., 7o ; l?»g'im'r amt ch»'d, 3" 
iogr«?hie 3t&,«rsd&, Boner, 5o; Zainer, 
55 ; Badius, 63 ; Shoeufflein, 67 ; Manuel, 
9o ; Dinet, 94 ; Van Vischer, 98. 
Elanchet's .4? ori«.t«ua,  7- 
Blandford, lalogue of e»tbl,'m books, 35, 
Blomfiehl's A»fi»lb, Lotte T, zoS. 
Boha's l,lb«i., ed. 858 , Lottery, 207 ; 
Ed,,ar, t I I.  2 . 
Boisard quoted, S«h.'s ,ll, 3 z, 33 ; 
accus, 247; ear and rob@ autl 
CuM, 349 ; tt.tau I, 4o5. Sec 
Brucioli's Tvtt«to 'lla sho'a, 543, 
Zodiac, Plate XIV., 353- 
Brunet's .]htltttd dtt libraire, 39; 
ktttta. salvationis, 43 ; vaA,'us Crea- 
t.raTtltt, 51 ; calo.hyla, 55 ; Todt,'n- 
htnz, 56; FoEures du vieil '«t., 63 ; 
Tt.'.ierbltck, 68 ; trcs  the ibl, 
73 ; Gi,io, &c., 78 ; Spcl, vz z,aa 
8 ; Hoffer, 8 ; &c. 
3"an's ict.  tzffrazw's, Zaineq 56 
Roissart, 94 ; Van Veen, 96. 
Bridges, Egerton, Res lit«rari« G 78, loe. 

4. Bacchus, by 13oissard, and .qlicrocosmG 
z47; Alciat, Whitney, z4S; Shake- 
speare, z49- 
]3adges, traced by Giovio, 4 ; Of ancient 
usage, 14; Augustus, 5; Titus, 16. 

4 A 

546 GEArERZ IAI)EA ". 

Ban-dog, Sir T. Bloi'e, Spenser, 481: 
Sambucus, 482 ; Whitney, 483; Shake- 
speare, 484. 
Barrel with holes, Pal'adin, Whitney, 
33 z. 
13ear and ragged staff, Whitney, 236, 239 ; 
traced to the Earls of Warwick, 237, 
239 ; Shakespeare, 239. 
13ear and cul», Boissard, 349; Tromts 
Cupidids, 348 ; Shakespeare, 35 o. 
Beauchalnp, Thos. and Richd., their 
lnonunaents, 237. 
Beccafimfi's designs for seven ages, 4o7 . 
Bed of state, with emblelns by 1Mary 
Stuavt, -3, 126 ; at Ilinddey, 
ees, types of good government, IIora- 
pollo, 358; Alciat, 36o; King bee, 
l'lato, Xenophon, Virgil, 359 ; Types of 
love for native ]and, Whitney, 361; 
Commomvealth, Shakespeare, 362 -- 
13,ellerophon and Chimoera, Alciat and 
Shakespeare, 299, 3o0. 
P, ird caught by an oyster, 3 o ; In a cage, 
and hawk, 124. 
131ack Ethiope reaclfing at the sun, 173, 
6o--6"; No exact resemblance round, 
Reusner, 160, 16 I. 
131ount's erest, an armed foot in the sun, 
66 ; Families of 131omts, 6o. 
lq, odily signs emblematical,  7- 
13odleian library, its block-books, 49- 
13ona of Savoy, the Phcenix lier device, 
131"asidas and shield, Aneau and Whitney, 
94, 95- 
Bridgewater gallery, 13iana bathing, 
Britain, elnblem litel'ature known in,  9 
lqrutu, death of, Alciat and Whitney, 
2oi, 20_'2 ; .qhakespeare, o3, o4 ; 
Characteristics of Bruines and Cassius, 
Shakespeare, ?o4, --o 5. 
Bullogne, Godfi'ey of, lais impreça, _'2à. 
Butterv and eandle, Paradin, 5  
Corrozet, Cameraritt% \-oenius, 5 z 
Symeoni, lSà ; Shakespcare. 53 
Boissard, 15-". 

C, O.Z.., Alciat, 38 A,tt., 1581, • 497- 

1. Caburacci, Trattalo...di titre le 
5 So, PP- 79, 86. 
Callia, Emb. sacra, e libris [osis excerpta, 
1591, P- 94- 
Camerarius, S3,mb. t't emblcmalum, &c., 
159o, p. 89. 
Camilli, lmrese--co idiscorsi, &c., 1586, p. 
Canlicles, book of, a block-book, 48. 
Capaccio, 1)dle im2brese lraltah, 1592, pp. 
34, 85. 
Caputi, Zatompa, 1599, p- 9 . 
Cartari, lmagini dei Z)ei degli a,tlichi,  556, 
P- 79. 
Cebes, Tablel of, .c. 39 o, p. 12 ; Editions 
various, I497--I5O7, pp. 13, 68; De 
llooghe's and another's delineation, 
Plates I. and I. b, 13, 68. 
Champier, JLa uef etes dames z,erlttc,tses, 15o3, 
p. 63. 
ChartieI', Les blaso,ts de z,erttt lSar z'erlJt, 
574, PP. 87, 88. 
Chiocci, 1)cll« imprese, 6o. pp. 79, 92. 
Cimolotti, rl s«crbi, I587, p. 87. 
Clamorimts, Thttrticr-bttclt, 159o, p. 9 o. 
C]emens of Alexandria, Stro,tala, 2 I. 
Ccelius, Jmblemala sacra, 1589, p. 89. 
Colnbe, .mblems, about 594, P- 2o. 
gbmost des bcrgers, I5OOI705, p. 4"" 
Contile, JUaffiota**tetlo ... dell« imtrese, 
1574, pp. 79, 86. 
CoiSrnhert, Rccht ghe&'tO,ck e*Jd« 
585, p. 9 o. 
Corrozet, tl«calo**t£'ra2bhte, 154 O, and other 
works, 74- 
Cory, I:ricrçl.vhics of I,ratollo ATlotts, 
184o, pp. 2z, =4, 
Costalits, Pwma, cztm nar. hil., 1555, p. 
Costerius, 'O Mtp&o«t*o, 584, p. 98. 
Coustau, Lejbeffte, avec les tar. hil., 156o, 
P. 77. 
t'rosse, His coverl, MS. about 16oo, with 
rcasons for that date, IOO. 

2. Cauis qtwr,'t«tr *timhtt, m,c,'rc, 4R2; 

GArI.RAL LVZ)X. .547 

I ; C«tiz'us o3 ff2dam, I3O ; 
dura à mo'ctricius, 250 ; Cette lu vita 
es miM, I6 ; Cristus &julat 
43 ; Corne l'oro nd foco, I79 ; Combms 
t't t'llli#lllS, 231 ; nOç sa doth slrule 
Dt the m¢, 319; mci«ntia ittwra 
laurus, 422 ; Comevttilur vuodcttaVue 
:«tit, 3 ; Consilio d: virlde «Mmer«m 
supcrari, &c., 299 ; Conslantia concs 
,i«loriw, 436 ; Cottraria btd#striw ac 
desidi«e rwaia, 48 ; Cosi O'oo iaco" 
conduce à morte, I53 ; Csi ,iz* :iaco" 
conduce  mot: G 5 ; Crcalione ct con- 
:sione dal IitoRdo 3S ; Çixvil doiit:iltlS 
zar'zttlt szt'l- &'l'l'a#l, &C,, 47 ; Cttclllllts 
;tan fitcit momhum, 138 ; Çllll larvis 
nolz htclamhmt, 305 ; Curiosilaslgi,.n,ht, 

3. Calemb-ier et coml*ost des &'rgo-s, 17o5, 
p. 42. 
Callimachus, Peçuria ri«'t a#tanlmn, 328. 
Cambridge llbrks  Skakes:ca2; I863, 
I866, p. 57- 
Cenlittm stultorttat, 17o7, p. 33- 
Chaucer, use of the word Emblem, 7- 
Chrymstom, God loved and lmted in man, 
Cicero, use of the word Emblem, 5- 
Collier, J. Payne, :ha'nix' mt, 1593, 
reprint, 38o. 
Cotgrave's Dictiotao', Emblema L 
Cowden Clarke's Concordance, 3SS. 
Cudworth's Ittdleclual S),sl,'tn, ed. 1678, 
pp. z, m3. 
Cullum, Sir John, Hs:ory and autiquities 
os&'d ISI3, p. 127. 

4:. Cadmus, alluded to in Rick. II., 245- 
Calcott, Lady, account of the seven ages 
of man inlaid on the pavenent, Siena, 
4o7 • 
Calulnny, Shakespeare, 434- 
Camel and his driver, eS 3. 
Camerarius, quoted for,--Butterfly and 
candle, 151 ; Dog and moon, 27o; 
Eagle renewing youth, 369 ; Ehn and 
vine, 3o7; Falconry, 366 ; Jackdaw in 
fine feathcrs, 312 ; Lattrcl and lightning, 

423; Ostrich, 234 ; Pclican, 394 ; Stag 
ounded, 39 S ; Swan, "-I 7 ; Turkeyand 
cock, 357 ; Unicorn, 372 ; Wheat 
among bones, IS 4 ; Wreaths on a spear, 
223 . 
C.q.llllOll bursting, Beza and Shakespeare, 
Casket scenes, emblcmatical, 149I54, 
Cassius and Coesar in the Tiber, 193. 
Cervantes and Shakespeare dicd in 1616, 
Chaos, Ovid, Symeoni, 448 ; Anean, 
Whitney, 449, 45o; Shakespeare, 451, 
Car/es I., his fille collection of paintings, 
Carles V. elnperor, the T:zordannckh 
dedicated to him iii IIT, p. 68. 
Chatterton, Dr., on choice of a wife, 21o. 
Chess, enlb. of lire and equality in the 
gn'ave, Perriere, 320 ; Corrozet, 321. 
Cild and lnotley-fool, XVhitney, b'ambu- 
cus, 484; Shakespeare, 485; Drant, 
ChivahT,  reath of, l'aradin, Shakespeare, 
Cholmeley, knight, Sir lIughe, 320. 
Çhristian art, fitlness of its emblcms, 26. 
Christian love, the soul, and Christ, Plate 
II., 32. 
Circe, Alciat, 250 ; \Vhitney, IIorace, 
Reusner, 251 ; Shakespeare, 252. 
Classification of the correspondencies and 
parallelisms, I87. 
Cliffords, father and son, 192. 
Clip the anvil of my sword, Shakespeare, 
325 ; Perriere, 3z6 ; Whitne); and 
meaning, 3z7 . 
Closet adorned with emblems,  27. 
Coats of arms, often ima#native, 236. 
Coincidences of Whitney and Shakespeare 
iii the use of words, 478, 479, 497--514 • 
Coincidences and parallelisms in heraldic 
emblelns, 24 o. 
Coins and medaIs often emhlematical, 13. 
Columbts, tribulations on marble, 461. 
Commonwealth of bees, \Vhitney and 
Shakespeare, 361--365. 
Compress, difficulty to, IO. 

548 GEJOE)?AZ I«VDIz'X. 

Conclusion, Shakespeare acquainted with 
Eblem-books, 495. 
Confidence kept back, Shakespeare, 434. 
Conscience, pover of, I torace, 42o ; 
Voenius, 421 ; Shakespeare, 421, 424, 
425 • 
CoiSrnhert's device of Providence making 
poor and making rich, Plate XVI., 489 . 
Coriolanus, 2Ol ; his civic crowns, 225. 
Coronation scene, Arme Bullen's, 9. 
Correspondence of Whitney and Shake- 
speare in words, 477--479, 497--514. 
Corrozet, quoted, Butterfly and candle, 
152 ; Chess, 321 ; Dores and Cupid, 
245 ; Fortune, 261 ; Gem in gold, 418 ; 
l lydra, 374 ; Icarus, 289 ; Sun and 
wind, I65. 
Corser of Stand, Rev. T., I[istoria S. 
oan, soId for 415L, p. 49 ; De Sole et 
lmna, 52 ; Figures du 7.ieil 'st. d du 
nouucl, 63; Alciat of 1531, p. 69; 
Dance of ])e, zth, 71 ; Çl'osse Iris 
MS., 1oo. 
Cotton, Richard, Esquier, of Combermere, 
1586, p. 36o. 
Countryman and serpent, Fre,tag, Reusner, 
197 ; bhakespeare, 198. 
Coustau, Cmuel and driver, 283 ; Silence, 
OEo 9 ; Orpheus, 271 ; Rubis and writings, 
Crab and butterfly, Symeoni, t 5. 
Creation and confusion, Ovid, Plate III., 
Crescent moon, Giovio, 125, 1, 7. 
Crests of ancient rimes, 14-- 16. 
Crowns, civic and others, 221, 224. 
Cupid felling a tree, 3-'4; Blinded, Perriere 
and Shakespeare, 329, 331 ; and Bear, 
Boissard, 349 ; Trom«s CuidiMs, 348 ; 
Cupid and Death, Alciat, 4oo ; Whit- 
ney, 4Ol ; Haechtan, 4oo ; Peicham, 4o 3 ; 
Cupid in raid-air, Shakespeare, 4o 4. 
Curtius, a silver emblem omament, 5- 
Custom, a guide for Eblems, 37. 

1. 1)once of l),'a[h. Sec ]h,lbeia. 
l)aasc .|Atca[qt. cd. 1485, p. 56. 

Dalle Torre, Diafio, 1598, p. 92. 
Daniell, IIrthy ŒEE'ract of )gaultts ouius, 
1585, p. 77- 
David, lTrtttNs spcclacuhtm, 597 ; Vert'- 
dicus christiamts, 16oi ; Cltristdcke, 
16o 3 ; Occasio arr,/a, nefflecta, 16o 5 ; 
t"ançarimn marianttllt, 16o7; 3A'ssis 
m3qT-hw el aronalttm, 16o 7 ; laradisus 
sonsi et spousw, 16o7; Dtwdecim se- 
ado, 161o, p. 95 ; Occasio, quoted in 
illustration, Plate XII., 265. 
Daza Pinciano, Nlciat in S¢aMsh, 1549, 
p. 70. 
De Bry, T., Slam und eaenbuch, 1593, 
p. 32 ; Emb. nobililale el 'ttlgo scittt 
diffna, I592 , and mblemata secularia, 
1593, P. 94; mb. sec.--rhy/ltmis Ger- 
matticis, 596, p. 97 ; tourlr«ict de la 
cosmoff, mor«le, 1614, p. 94- 
i)e la Perriere, Theatre des bons ensi,'zs , 
I539 ; Ze's cetl consideralions d'amour, 
1543 ; Aes considera[ions des fttaD-e 
mondes, 1552 ; Za 3A,rosohi,; 553, 
P. 74- 
I)e Montenay, Entbl?mes ott devises chres- 
fleuries, 1574, pp. 87, 88. 
De Passe, 96 ; 31ctamorhoscwn OnhL, 1602, 
P- 95; StSecttlttIIt keroicttm--l[omo-i, 
1613, p. 36 ; Original drawings at Keir, 
about 16oo, p. 177; Quoted, thaëlon, 
eS4; Dahne, 296 ; Tronus Cuidinis, 
Derendel, I]istoj'ke tortreal¢tres, 1550, 
PP- 73, 119. 
De Romieu, Ze J°cgme de 19. Cstaz,, 
156o, P. 77. 
De Soto, mblemas moralizadas, 599, 
P- 99. 
Desprez, Tkdatre des animaux, &c., 1595, 
P- 93. 
ZYstructoriù vitiorttm (Dyalo. " Creat.), 
15o9, p. 52. 
l)ialoffes of crealures moralyzat, i52o , pp. 
5 2, 1 19, 3o3 • 
Dinet, Zes cire 1 livres des hierogl)¢h., 
1614, p. 94- 
Dolce, Ze prime imrese dal conte Orl«nda, 
1572; Dialogo, 1575, p. 86. 
Domenichi, NaA,-[omtmenlo, 1556 , 1574 ` 
PP- 77, 78. 

GEA/-IfdAL IA/-DEX. 549 

Doni, I mondl ; I marmi ; Za moral 
fllosofl«, 1552, x553, P- 76. 
Droyn, Za grt mf d«sfolz, 498, 579, 
PP- 57, 87- 
I hpont, SaOq-iqtax gro&xqucs, 1513, P" 67" 
lhtrer, Eh'for?, I5i 5 ; 
57 ; and 'iu»hwagen, 52z, p. 67. 
Dutch Emblem-books, ?assim, and 9 o, 97. 
luvet, L'aocaO?seflgur&  156i , p. 
1OEI'«IIO,rIlS C]'a[Ui'IIgll]iI, 1480 , p. 5 I ; French 
cd. 1482 , Englih, 52o, p. 5 x. 

9.. D«bit Dws his ÇltoÇtte fro'm, 124 ; Z)c- 
dcriDte e,ia]]t Castte _ ltc, I z 3 ; D«- 
'cil Dt doloe vita mt, &c., 13I ; De 
#rote c'l amore, 4Ol ; e fl[orte ,¢ 6tidin G 
403 ; «sc«mM dominus shut ttlvia 
"'llt6 47 ; D«ai«il «lla «cuis, 270 ; 
DA,es indoclu6 2z9 ; DA'csŒEue 
31 ; . O. J£, 464 ; ominus 
vh-orum ;-tissimc, 47 ; OlltiltttS vivit d 
vid«bit, 46 ; on,'c lolttln imlcat orb«m 
-3, 127 ; tt wtalis z,er affitttl] cousttle 
brumw» I48 ; ttm tt'llus labilt« G occa- 
sionc;n wn&" ca[illatam t'morant;t; 
265 ; «t;;t transis, lime, 

8. De Bry, Icon,'s viro;-um ilhtst;-m, 85. 
De la Perriere, quoted for,---Chess emb. 
of life, 320 ; Cupid blinded and sieve, 
3z9; Diligence, 45 ; Fardel, 495 ; 
Janus, 14o ; Occasion, 258 ; Sword 
broken on anvil, 3z6 ; Thorns on the 
rose, 332 . 
Democritus, Goht«n scnlcnc, ç, 13. 
De Montenay, quoted, Adam hiding, 416 ; 
Fearlessness, 440; Good out of evil, 
Dibdin, Bibliqffrahical .4;diqua;'iau, 58 ; 
Sibliomania, 5, 137; 'ibliwr. «ca- 
memn, 4 ; ibliothcca 5cnscrian, 48 ; 
7çur, 57. 
Dicl. Gz"ck and A'oma;t A ntiqu/li«s, eo. 
Diodorus Sicnlus, Hislou', 
Donne, 'AgT', Flowers, 18. 
Doré, Drawilsr lab*4 3 o. 
Douce isserlatiou, ed. 1833, pp. 56, 7 ; 
l¢emarks on .IacabcG 56 ; llhts#'alions 

18o7, pp. IO6, 167, 172 ; Ilolbcm's 
Images, ed. 1858 , p. I2I. 
Drake, Shaks«arc audhis 7ïmcs, lO6, IO7, 
23S ; on dcom'y, 365 ; Timon ,fAthcns, 
rant, fIorace's .qrt af l'octo,,  567, p. 4S6. 
Drayton, aron's ll]trs» 1598, nalnes, 
elnblclns, impresas, hieroglyphics, 13 z. 
l)rtunlnond, lIist,,ry tf Scotlan,1, 1655, p. 
blems on a bed ofstate, 123--I25 ; Other 
letters naming devices or eml,lems, 124. 
Dryden's opinion of the tcridt's, 157. 
kgdale, Anliq. of ll'a wicl«shire, z37. 
u Vondel, illustrious poet of 1 lolland, 98. 

4. I}aplnle to a laurcl, AlleaU, Ovid, 296 ; 
Shakespeare, 297. 
lcatll, its luention by Shakespeal'e, 339, 
469 • 
l)eath and sleep, 469--47 . 
Death's praises,--life's evils, 47L 
Icdalus and lais sons, 287. 
lfialm, ellal»leln and symbol in one, 3- 
Ifiana of l'oitiers, dcdication to, 3, 172. 
Dice an elnlAem of life, Le Bey de Batilly, 
32_ " . 
Diligence and idleness,--Perriere, 45 ; 
Whitney, 146 ; not followed by Shake- 
speare, 47- 
Direct References to Emblems, six in tlle 
t','ricles, 156- ISS. 
Di Terra Nova, Duke, embleln, 125. 
Division into thre« parts of Emblem-books, 
from 15oo to 1564, p. 6o ; into two parts, 
from I564 to 1615, p. 84. 
Dog baying the moon, Shakespeare and 
Alciat, 69 ; Whitney and Camerarius, 
27 ° ; Beza, 271. 
Dogs hot praised by Shakespeare, 45, 
483 • 
Dolphin and anchor, Synaeoni and Giovio, 
16 ; The device of Titus, and of the 
Aldi, 6. 
D. O. M., Whitney and Shakespeare, 464, 
465 • 
Doubtful if certain books are Embleln- 
books, 5 , 55. 
Dores and winged Cupid», SllakespealC 
and Corrozet, 245. 


Drake, Sir Francis, compared to Jason, 
Drake's ship, Whitney, 413 ; Shake- 
speare, 414 . 
Draving aud device or emblem, their dif- 
fcrence, 49. 
Drinking bout of Antony and his fliends, 
Droppes manie pierce the stone, &c., 
Whitney, 324 ; Shakespeare and Vœenius, 
324 • 
Dudley, Ambrose, earl of Warwick, died 
I589, p- 238. 
1)udley, Robert, earl of Leycester, died 
1588, p. 238 ; Whituey's £mNems dedi- 
cated to him, 239. 
Dupes emblematised, 33- 
1)ust, to write in, Sir T. More, 46I; 
Shakespeare, 46% 461. 


E, O.Z. of uncertain origin, 24I ; O. Z. 
ff-oto Plato's works, 7IO; Francfort, 
I6O2, p. 346; O. £., 19i«l. of L)-ea&«res, 
6, ed. 152o, p. 463. 

1. t?calotthj,la, I491, .centieque amour, 
1536, P. 55- 
l?hr«nfor¢t; or trimnphal arch, about 515, 
p. 67. 
'mb. Amat., Afbeeldinghen 6, p. 
mblemala vattg. a,1 .YII. sigtm, I555, 
p. 88. 
tttçl'sotc sttt" lgs actiotts «ht S«ttor s- 
agnol, 16o8, p. 93- 
Emblcma&ttzz kilomile Thiloni, e i- 
difftta, I3, p. 95- 
Emblem-books lu the tabulated forms, 
899 : 
Dutch or Flemish, 1585, p. 9o ; I3 
1614, PP- 97, 98. 
English 569I586 , p. 91 ; I59II612 , 
P- 99- 
French, I568I588 , p. 87; I595I614, 
PP. 93, 94- 
Gernmu, I576I59O, 1'-9o; 596- 
1611, p. 97. 

Italian, 1566---I589, pp. 86, 87 ; I592-- 
16o9, p. 92. 
Latin, 1568--I59O, pp. 88, 89; I59I 
1615, PP- 94, 95- 
Spanish, I575--I559, p. 90; 1599-- 
1615, P. 99. 
Emblem-books, in Greek ; Tabler of Cebes, 
3.c. 39o, PP. I2, 68 ; Clemens of Alex- 
andria, about A.P. 300, SD'olttala, 21 
Epiphmfius, .. 367, p. eS; Ilorapollo, 
originally Egyptian, about ..D. 40o, p. 
2; translated iuto Greek by Philip, 
about ..D. 55 o, p. 
English l';mblem-books down to Willet, 
1598, p- ll9;assim, 91, 99--1Ol. 
Epiphmfius, ... 367, thj,siologus, 1587, 
p. 28. 
Estieme, IIenri, Autkolqgiagzomica, 1579, 
pp. 85, S 9. 

ad«»z biler se, 384; ca; attcilla 
domhd, fiat mihi, 46 ; cce ascendbtztts 
Hicrosolimam, 66; cc« z,ho conch'l 
et ariel filittllt, 46 ; 
roderil, aliemt o'edi 
Elas utâ, 3 I4 ; lofttenlia fortilttdine 
prstantioG 164 ; loftthtttt lot htmina 
ltotgemeng, 123  tattt signa iu sole ct 
hota, 4 8 ; sto tic,te SU ram'dio y 
398 ; x dombo so,us, z76 ; x »mlo 
bOIlllIll» 447 ; 

3. Engravers, named, and referred to :-- 
Amman, Jost, 1564, pp. 74, 85- 
Avibu% Gaspar ab I555 , p. 8o. 
Bernard Solomon, t56o, pp. 36, 73- 
Bevick, Thomas, 1789, p. îl. 
Boissart, Robert, I59o , p. 94- 
Bonasone, Giulio, I555, p. 77. 
De Bry, Theodore, 159 , pp. 96, 34S. 
, John Theod., p. 96. 
,, John Israel, p. 96. 
De Hondt, Jost, 16o6, p. 98. 
De Hooghe, Rom)ax, I67% p. 13. 
De Jode, Gerard, I584, p. 53. 
De Passe, Crispin, 16II, pp. 95, 97 also 
PP. 57, I77. 

GEArE[A £ IArDEX. 5 5 t 

Durer, Albert, 15o9, pp. 65, 67, 73. 
Duvet, John, 1561, p. 81. 
Feyrabend, Sigismund, about 1581 , p. 9 o. 
Fortoul, 1832, p. 7 x. 
tlolbein, llans, 1538 , pp. 71, 72. 
Koster, Laurens, 141o, p. 46. 
IAitzenberge, Hans, 1538 , p. 72. 
Marcolini, Ant. Franc., 1552, p. 76. 
Pytheus, named by Pliny, 5- 
Raimondi, Marc Ant., 1516 , p. 67. 
Sadeler, .Egidius, 16oo, pp. 96, 98. 
Sadeler, Jolm, 96. 
Sadeler, Raphael, 96. 
Schlotthauer (Dane of Dcath), 1832 , 
p. 7 I. 
• qhaeufflein, llans, 1517, ]l 67. 
Solis, Virgil, 1555, p. 77 ; 156°, P. 74. 
Stimmer, Tobias, 1576, p. 9o. 
Stimmer, John Chr., 1591 , p. 9 O. 
Van der P,,orcht, 1591 , p. 95- 
Van Veen, or Voenius, Otho, 16o7, p. 96. 
Van Veen, Gilbert, 16o7, p. 96. 
Veneziano, Zoan And., xSOO, p. 55- 
Eschenburg's Ahtttttal class, lit., I844, 
PP- 7, 24- 

Eagle renewing its youth, Camerarius, 
368; Shakespeare, 369, 37 o. 
Edward VI., Emblena-books belonging to 
him, 121. 
Eerton, Lord Chancellor, and Thomas 
Wilbraham, 467 • 
Elephant and undermined tree, Sambucus 
and Whitney, [96. 
Elizabeth, Queen, devices, I24; prayer- 
book, 137 ; lottery, 2o8 ; phcenix, 390 ; 
flattered by Shakespeare, 4o4 • 
Ehn and vine, Alciat and Boissard, 3o7; 
\Vhitney and Camerarius, 3o8 ; Voenius 
and Shakespeare, 309 • 
E#B«#OE, guBoE7,7,«Tu, pp. 4, 5, 6. 
Emblem defined, Cotgrave, Qnarles, and 
I3acon, 1 ; \Vhitney, 6 ; Shakespeare, 9 ; 
origln, 9; dcfinition seldom strictly ob- 
served, 3 o. 
Enablems, original meaning, 4 ; Chaucer, 
7 ; kept by .qhakespeare and Milton, 9 ; 
changes of meaning, 4 : clasical an.1 
nlodtlll m¢alaig, 4, 5, I i. 

Emblem and Symbol, confounded, I ; dif- 
ference, 2 ; united, 2, 3 ; affinity of, 6. 
Emblena, the word introduced into Latin, 
5 ; opposcd by Tiberius, 5 ; used by 
Cicero and Quinctilian, 5- 
t?mblema llttdttlll, or bare, without a device 
or picture, 13, 51 ; in Slmkespeare, x49 
Emblem Artists and Artificers, 5, 2o. See 
also ugraz,ers. 
Emblem Authors, number before 166, p. 
Io2 ; men of literature and mental 
power, lO2 ; estimate in which they were 
hcld, o 3 ; introduce fables, 3o3. 
Emblem-books our theme, 1 ; preceded 
by writings, 119 ; threc large collections, 
accessible for this work, at Keir, Stand, 
ami Thingwall ; 86 ; nmnber composed 
from 1564 to 159o , pp. 91, 92 ; number 
oforiginal texts and versions, 770, before 
1616, p. lO2 ; ilhnninated MS., 38--45, 
5 ° ; block books, 46--5 o. 
Emblem Lkerature,--applied with great 
latitude ; what appcars essential to it, 
31 ; ltstanc,'s: provedm and itty say- 
ings, sccnes from hi.,tory, armorial bcar- 
ings, 31 ; celebration of cvents, devotion 
and satire, 32, 33 ; politics, 34 ; classic 
poets, 34--36; great latitude in using 
the phrase, Emblem Literature, custom 
the general gafide, 37 ; includes orna- 
mental devices in books, 38; architec- 
ture, sculpture, and painting too ex- 
tensive to be inchtded, 38; known in 
Britain, 19--137 ; bed of state, with 
emblems wrought by MalT, Queen of 
Scots, 123--125 ; macient bed at Ilinck- 
ley, 126 ; painted closet at Hawsted, 
1-"7--13o ; ancient hall at Lower Table)', 
131 ; Drayton's testimony, 1598 , p. 132. 
Emblems,--raised or carved figures and 
designs, a crust or framework, a mosaic, 
figured ornaments, 9, lO; devices on 
smooth surfaces ; any dl'awing representa- 
tire of thought, character, &c. ; a species 
of lfieroglyphics, 1 ; coins and medals, 
13; heraldry, x4--17; signs, x7--19; 
fictile ornmnelatation, 19, 2o; works by 
the silversmith, 2o ; hieroglyphic, ex- 
26 ; Ch«itian art, __.6. 27. 


Emblems classified--by Whitney into thrce 
kinds, 187 ; for this work into eight 
divisions, 188 :--historical, 188--21I ; 
heraldic, 212--24o; mythological, 211 - 
3Ol ; for fables, 3o"--317 ; for proverb% 
318--345 ; for objects in nature, 346_ 
376; fol" poetic ideas, 377--41o: moral 
and oesthetic, 4It--462 ; lniscel]aneous, 
463--496 • 
Emperors :--Maximilian I., 1517, pp. 67, 
68 ; Carles V., 1517, p. 68 ; Maxi- 
milian II., 1564 , p. 85; Rodolph II., 
1576 , pp. 85, 89, 96; lXlatthias, and 
Ferdinand II., 96. 
End crowns ail; or the end makes all 
equal, Shakespeare, Messin, Wlfitney, 
Perriere, 32o ; Illustrated by chess, Per- 
riere, 32o ; Corrozet, 321, 322 ; Whitney 
and Shakespeare, 323 . 
Engineer hoist with lais own petar, fl-Olll 
lqeza and I.e 13ey de 13atilly, 344; 
Shakespeave, 34-5- 
Envy, rioto Whitney, Alciat, 43 I, 432; 
Shakespeare, 433- 
Estl-idge, ostrich, or falcoll? Paradin, 37 ° ; 
Shakespeare, 37 I. 
Etemity, elnbleln of, 37 ; in Plate XVII., 
49I ; IIrapollo, 49I ; Shakespeare, 492. 

F, O. L., A',f ,tes fil:, Paris, 1499, xxv., 

1. Fables, Gennan, about 14oo, p. 5 o. 
See lone: 
Fabrici, Dalle alhtsioni, imp'«se oe emblemi, 
1588, p. 87. 
Faerno, Fabz,he ce»Iv»,,, I565, pp. 85, 3o3, 
3io, 3ii ; quoted, Fox and grapes, 3II. 
Farra, Scllenario ddl' hmna»a ridullion6 
1571, PP. 79, 86. 
Feyrabend, Statu nud ,vad#cnbuch , I579, 
p. 9o. 
Figures du viril Test. oe du nomwl, 1503, p. 63. 
Figures of the lil, le, 73- 
Fiorino, Oicra mwva, &c., I577, p. 86. 
Flemish books of emblems, assim, and, 
9o, 97- 

Franceschino, Ilmq Alsollinis selccta hLvv- 
glyhica, 1597, p. 94- 
Fraunce, [tl.rigttiltttl al'lllOl7tlll embLwta#tm, 
&c., I588, p. 89. 
Freitag, 3l_vlholo,ia elhic«, 1579. p. 88; 
17t-idiarium mot. dhil. ber fitbulas, 1594, 
p- 94- 
Frellonius, llolbein's lfistoriat'ltm Pe&'ris 
blsll'lllllellti, 1547, p. 72. 
French Emhlem-1)ooks, assim, and, 87, 93- 
Fnrmerus, De retw,l ttszl et abri.rit, 1575, p. 
88 ; Ilands of Providence, Plate XVI., 

9,. Facmda sctteclus, 2  5 ; zh'e tout tar 
moytw, 289 ; llUis l7,ia commilih,, 
484 ; erimzt SltlllmOS fitlffltl'a tltoltles, 
475 ; Festiua l«utc, I5 ; Fiera ttS «ttod 
habcri ncttil recusalio, 3 IO ; inis coronat 
ous, 437 ; ,rtitcr eglicile3 r ; or- 
titudo us hodmn lt.mtit, 124 ; ortlt,a 
7,bDtletn sterans, 202 ; Fm'[unw comilt, 
124 ; Frons hominou r«¢, I29 ; 
'otle mtlla d% 129 ; lTt([its ca[aht 
dal am[os, 124 ; 7tslra, 329, 331. 

B. Fariner, Dr., on t'ericles, 156. 
Flintneq A'bulo ncbtdonum, 162o, p. 65. 
Freitag, quoted for,--Monse caught by an 
oyster, I3O ; Ants and grasshopper, I48 ; 
Coultlyman and serpent, I97 ; Fox and 
grapes, 3o9 ; Phcenix, 38I ; Sun, wind, 
and traveller, 166; Turkeycock and 
cock, 356. 

4. Fables: doubtfttl if strict]y emblems, 
5 1 ; The best emblena writers introduce 
them, 3o3 ; A floating literature, inter- 
changed throughout the world, 3o2 ; 
Shakespeare's estimation of them, 303 ; 
Early editions, 3o3 . 
Fables, emblems illustrative of, 3o2--317 ; 
Fly and candle, I51--153 ; Sun, wind, 
and traveller, 164--167 ; Èlephant and 
tree, 196 ; CountD-man and serpent, 
197 ; Hares biting the dead lion, 304 -. 
3o6; Elm and vine, or elm and ivy, 3o7 _ 
3o9 ; Fox and grapes, 3o9--312 ; Jack- 
dav in fine feather, 312--314; Oak and 
reed, 314--316. 


Facts in Nature, emblems from, and from 
the properties of animais, 346--376 :__ 
Frosty Caucasus, 346 ; Adamaut on the 
anvil indestructible, 347; Bear, cub, and 
Cupid--uatural affection, 348--35o ; The 
inhabited, or three-cornered vorld, 35 I 
353; Signs of the zodiac, 353--356; 
The cock and turkeycock, 356--358 ; 
The vulture, 358 ; lqees, types of a well 
governed people, and of love for our 
native land, 358--365; Falconry, 365 
--368 ; Eagle reneving ifs feathers, 
368 ; Ostrich with outspread vings, 
37o; Unicorn, type of faith undefiled, 
3711373; tIydra slain by IIercules, 373 
--375 ; Various animals named, 375,376. 
Fa]comy, from Dr. I)mke, 365 ; Camera- 
rius and Giovio, 366; Shakespeare, 367, 
Faine armed with a pen, from Jmfius and 
Whitney, 445, 446 ; Shakespeare, 444, 
Fardel on a swimmer, 48o, 481. 
Ferdinand II., emperor, 96. 
Fictile ornamentation, 19, 2o. 
Fin couronne les œuvres, from Shakespeare, 
32o--323. Sec 
Firrnin Didot, 4 o. 
Flower lanmge, emblematical, 18. 
Fly and candle. Sec t?uttc3¢ly. 
Forehead, index of the miud, 129. 
Fortune, from Corrozet, 26I. Sec Occa- 
Fox and grapes, from Freitag, 3 o ; Faerni, 
31o; Whitney, 311 ; Shakespeare, 311, 
Francis I., impresa, 123, 125, 126. 
Friendship after death, 3o7 . See tlm att,t 
1 "ine. 
Frosty Caucasus, 346. 

G, O. L., an altered C, from Linacre's 
Galen, Paris, 1538 , p. 543. 
1. Ganda. See À Gatda. 
German Emblem-books, 2bassi»t, and, 9 o, 

Geschlech[«s uch, editions 1550 , I5O, 
p- 75. 
Geyler, IVavicula sire secuhtm faluorunt, 
lSII , and Aaz,icttla etil,'tltce, 1511 , 
several reprints before lSZO,--the first 
book with the imperial privilege, 66; 
Two Gemaan translations, 66 ; Latin 
version of Varreu Sch)'f, 1498, p. 66. 
Giovio, Dialogo dcll' imrest' or Ragio- 
tamot[o, I555, p. 77; 1574, pP- 14, 15, 
16; English version, 1585, p. 77; Me- 
nestrier, 79- 
Giovio, Symeoni, and Domenichi, 29iaIogo 
dcll" imrese, &c., 1574, p. 78; TwotO'- 
seve,t editious beteen 1553 and 1585, 
p. 78. 
Glisseuti, 29çcorsi »wrali, &c., 16o 9, 
pp. 9, 93- 
Golding, Ovfit's A[elamortVtoses, 1565, 
p. 243. 
Goulart, Les vraisottrlraits, I58I , p. 87. 
Grapheus, Ent, y of lPkili of Saitt, I55O, 
P. 75. 
Gre»in, Emblcttes d',4driatt fit 'ttne, I568 , 
p. 87- 
Guazzo, DiaA,ghi2MaceT,oli , 1585, po 87. 
Gueroult, tgremi¢'r livre des emblemes, 155 O, 
p- 75. 
Guillim, ,4 dislay of heraldry, 161 I, pp. 
99, 120. 
Gulden, 292n gulden oitckd, 1613, p. 98. 
Guzman, Trium2has moraIes, 1557, P. 9o. 

Gang forward ; I ara ready, 14 ; 
Giuramevdo sarso al venlo, 328. 

8. Gale's Otts m.v[]oL, 13. 
GettIetat' s 21Iaffaztm; 126, 208. 
German book--the first in pure German,-- 
a book of fables printed in I46I , p. 5 o. 
Giovio, quoted from,--Alciat's device, 211 ; 
Atlas, 245; Crescent moon, I25, i27; 
Dolphin and anchor, 16 ; Falconry, 365 ; 
Kingfisher, 392 ; Ostrich and iron, 233 ; 
Phoenix, 235; Salamander, I25, I26. 
Giovio and ,q)meoni, quoted,--Porcupine, 
23I ; ", rongs on marble, 457- 
Golding's Oz,id, I567, p. 243 ; Shakespeare 
indebted to it, 243 ; The epithet g'oIdct, 


Gough, on the edfvrd m£rsal, 1794, P- 44- 
(;ower's Conf ara.-]&tr r«»scr, 7. 
Green's iV,7,er lo lai,; 161o, p. 128. 

4. Gem in a ring of gold, by Corrozet, 
418 ; Slmkespeare, 419, 420. 
Gemini, 355. 
Geoaphy, 35o--353 ; more correct, 415 • 
Glance only, at rimes, to emblem subjects 
by Shakespeare, 269, 317. 
Glyptic art as exemplified in hieroglyphics, 
Gold on the touchstone, by Paradiu, 175 ; 
Whitney, I7 S ; Crispin de Passe, 177 ; 
Shakespeare, 175, ISO; Voenius, 179. 
Golden, the epithet, Douce, Sidney, Gold- 
ing's Oz,M, 4o0 ; Bellay, Alciat, 4o0; 
Whitney, 4oi ; Peacham, Whitney, 4o 3 ; 
Shakespeare, 4o4. 
Golden fleece, order of, 228. 
Gonsaga, l/anibal, saying on surrenderlng 
his svord and himself, I38. 
Good out of evil, Shakespeare and Blonte- 
nay, 447- 
Gravella, Cardiual, lais impresa, 125, 
Greatest out of least, from Auulns, 337 ; 
Whitney, 33S; Shakespeare, 338, 339- 
Greciau coius, 13. 

p. I87 ; Monogram, Il.G., a construc- 
tion, preface, xii. 

1. Haller, Cltartihtdium logicce, 1507, 
p. 64. 
Held, ,41ciat in German, i542 , p. 7o. 
Hesins, .Emblemaéa sacra, I581 , p. 88. 
Hillaire, Sjbectthtn [L'roicttm... ]onteri, 
I613, Pp. 36, 95- 
lisgoria S. oan. .EuaugelisL, block-book, 
I4ZO, p. 49 ; lXlS. of, belonged to Henry 
Il., 49- 
Histories of 7esh, Daniel, ttdilh, and 
stoeer, earliest printed book with text 
and engravings, 1461 , p. 45- 
Iloffer's X-oncs calecheseos, 156o , p. 

Holbein, Zes simufirc7zres oe Histarlees 
faces dela mort, 1538 , pp. 72, 350, 487 ; 
Previotts to I6OO at least flfle«n editions, 
72 ; )tOl'[«l'lllll z,eteris inslruntcnti 
hwn¢s, 1538 , p. 72; Spanish, ed. I543, 
English, ed. I549, within the century 
i,elz, e other editions, 73 ; The eanoness 
or nun, 469; Sleep and death compared, 
469, 47 ° ; Wrong done to the soul, 
433 ; Praises of death, evils of life, 47 o, 
471 ; The last judgment, and eseutcheon 
of death, 47 o. 
IIollar, Dancedcath, I79 o, p. 56. 
I lome5, Sccllhtlll hgl'O+lllll. See llillah'e. 
t lorapollo, accourir of, zz ; De sacris uotis 
gl $gU111«17$, 1551 , example, the Phoenix, 
22, 23; Other examples from Leemans 
and Cory, 2426 (see Lee»mns and 
CaO,) ; First priuted editiou by Aldus, 
5o5, Latin, Frcnch, Italian, and Ger- 
man, before 535 ; sixleen other editions 
before 66, p. 64. 
Hera/ii mbl«ma¢«, 7 and 6z, p. 36. 
I[orozoe, mblemas morMes I589, Sym- 
boloe sacroe, I6Ol, p. 9 O. 
Hortinu», Icom, 585, p. 88 ; ml, le»zala 
sacra, 1589, p. 89. 
orlu]us rosarttm, 499, P. 58. 
Hunger, Alciat, Cunz rhylhnds Germaulcis 
vet-stts, i542  p. 70. 

2. Icat of csus the rvell of er'erlastin, life, 
40 ; Homines volttlatibus transforntan- 
tut', 250; fi/iww komini #eus, 283 ; tto 
kondni hus, 28% 283 ; His ornari aut 
mol'i» 222. 

8. Haechtan's tat-«zts muudus, i579, 
p. 4oo. 
Hallaln, on lericl«s, 157. 
Halliwell, on Msrvn., MS., Chetham 
Library, 42. 
Haslewood, reprint Dialooeues of Crealures, 
I$16, p. 3o3 . 
Hawkins' H rlAP®ENO, i633 , p. 383. 
Heraldry, ornamental I6th centmT, I868» 
p. 14. 
Herodotus, the Scythian arrow, mouse, 
&c., I8; the phoenix, 382. 
Hcsiod, shield of Hercules, 2o. 

GE.VEld.4Z 12V_E: 555 

I Iessells on Stclen van stnot, S I, 82. 
I lippocrates, Seven ages of lllall, 406. 
1 lolbein's Si#tulackres, the canoness, 469 ; 
Death and sleep, 469 ; 1)eath and fool, 
472 • 
Hol]and's lio, , a work of art by Pytheus, 
to be put on or taken off,a ]iteral 
Enblen, 5 ; l tardnesse of a diaamnt, 
348 ; The phoenix 382 ; llalcyones, 39 I. 
I I orner, Ilia,1, shield of Achilles, 2o ; kVol'd 
Emblem illustrated, 4 ; leath hot unbe- 
coming the defcnder of his country, 222 ; 
Insults to llector's dead body, 304; 
O,O'sso,, Circe, 250. 
llood's Miss Kilmansegg, to illustrate 
"golden," 403. 
llorace, conscience, 4o, 42i ; Circe and 
Sirens, 251 ; l'iue-trees in a storm, 49 ° ; 
The swan, 214 ; Time lcading the seasons, 
49 ° • 
Ilorapo]lo, quoted, Bees, 358; llawk on 
mummy case, 26 ; Lamp burning, 456 ; 
l'hoenix, 23; Star, 25; Swa b 213; 
Thread of lire, 454- 
tlumphrey's Ilist.  art & rintin 867, 
P- 43 ; Plates from block-books, iblia 
,uerum, 43, 46 ; Ars m.'morandi, 45 ; 
ance OEdeaM, 469 . 

4. Ilalcyon. See A7tgsha: 
Ilands of Providence, by Furmer and 
Coornhert, Plate XVI., 489 ; Shake- 
speare, 489. 
" t[appe some goulden honie brings," 
\Vlutney, 364 ; Shakespeare, 365 . 
Hares biting a dead lion, Iliad, Alciat, 
Shakespeare, 304 ; Alciat, \Vhitney, 
305 ; Reusner, 306 ; Shakespeare, 306. 
I larpocrates, Silence, \Vhitney, 208 ; ff, g- 
ma, 2o 9. See Lollet'y. 
I[ak on a mummy case, its meaning, 26. 
IIawsted and tIardwick, emblems there, 
lien eating ber own eggs, Whitney, Sam- 
bucus, 411 ; Slmkespeare, 4IZ. 
Ilenry II. of Egland, 5 o. 
llenry II. of France, lais impresa, I23, IzS, 
Ilenry VIII., collection of pictures, , 
I 14 ; lais impresa, 24. 

IIeraldic Emblems, 212--240 ; in three 
divisions :-- 
I. Poetic tIeraldry, 212--221 :--The swan 
singing at death, tIorapollo, 213 ; Virgil, 
Horace, l'indar, Anacreon, 24 ; On 
death poets take the form of swans, 
Ovid, l'lato, 24; type of old age 
eloquent, Aneau, Zl 5 ; of the simplicity 
of truth, Reusner, 2 5 ; fine thought by 
Çamerarius, 217 ; insignia of poets, 
Alciat and Whitney, 218 ; Shakespeare 
combines various of these emblems, or 
of their spirit, 219--22I ; Shakcspeare's 
beautiful comparison of heraldry, 22 I. 
II. IIeraldry of Rcward for heroic achieve- 
ments, 221--23o 1--\\ reath of chivalry, 
\Vhitney, Camcrarius, 222 ; Shal.espeare, 
223 ; Victors' crmns, l'aradin, 224 ; 
Eschcuburg, 224 ; Shakespeare, 225- 
227 ; llonours from soereia princes, 
Shakespeare, Ta]bot, 226 ; Order of St. 
Michacl, l'aradin, 227; ¢}rder of the 
golden lleece, l'aradin, 228 ; Argonants, 
\Vhitney, 229; Phri\us, Alciat, 229 ; 
\\ hitney, 23o ; Bcza, 23o ; Shakespcarc, 
I I I. hnaginative De ices, 3 --z4o :--Por- 
cupine, Giovio, 23I ; Camerarius, 23 ; 
Shakespeare, 232 ; Ostrich and iron, 
Giovio, 233 ; Camerarius, 234 ; Shake- 
speare, -"34; l'hoenix, l.ady Bona of 
Savoy, Paradin, 234; Gioio, 235; 
Shakespeaxe, 236 ; Bear and ragged 
staff, \Vhitney, 236 ; Dugdale, 237 ; 
Dudley, 238 ; Shakespeare, 239. 
leraldry, Emblems its language, I4, 7, 
8-" ; Its close connection with Emblems, 
217 ; Beautiful comparison from, 22o. 
I Ieraldry of poetry, 2  2--22 I. 
IIeraldry of heroic aclfievements, 221-- 
Heraldry of imaginative devices, 23I. 
Hercules, his shield, 20. 
I lieroglyphics, their emblem character, 2I, 
25 ; Subjects, 2I, 26; IL\amples, 24, 26; 
Meanings of several, 26. 
Hinckley, bed at, with emblems, I26, 

556 GEArERAZ I2VA)tX. 

Historical Emblems, 188--21I :--Medeia, 
Alciat, Whitney,' 189, 19o ; ..'Eneas and 
Anchises, Alciat and Yhitney, 191, 
192 ; Shakespeare, 192 ; Progne, Aneau, 
Shakespeare, 193, 194; Sinon, illustrated 
ri-oto Brasidas and his shield, Aneau, I94 ; 
Whitney, 195 ; The elephant and nnder- 
mined tree, Salnbucus, 196; Countryman 
and viper, Freitag, I97 ; Shakespeare, 
198; Siege of Antverp, Whitney, 199 ; 
Sinon often alluded to by Shakespeare, 
2oo; Coriolanus, 2Ol ; Death of Brutus, 
Alciat, Whitney, 2Ol ; Shakespeare, 
2o3, 2o4 ; Characteristics of Brutus and 
Cassius, -',o4, 2o5; Formidable after 
death, Alciat, Whitney, 2o 5 ; Shake- 
speare, 2o7 ; The lottery, video et taceo, 
Whitney, 2o8 ; Costalius, 2o9; Shake- 
speare, 2o9--2I I. 
tlives of bees, 371. See l?ees. 
IIomo homini lupus, Whitney, Chrysostom, 
281; Androclus and the lion, 281 ; 
Shakespeare, 282. 
IIomo honfini Deus, Coustau, 283 ; Reus- 
ner, 283 ; Shakespeare, " in apprehen- 
sion how like a god," 284. 
IIonours from sovereigïa princes, 226. 
ttope, illustrated by Alciat, Pamdin, 
Whitney, and Sambucus, 182--185 ; 
Camerarius, 184; Spenser, 185. 
tlmnan life a theatre, Plate XIV., 4o5. 
Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, the Tewr- 
,tamzckh, 67. 
Hydra slain by Hercules, Corrozet, 374; 
Shakespeare, 375. 

O. Z., Giovio's Iagionamcnto, Venetia, 
556, p. 3o; O. Z., Alciat's /),,herse 
lJ@resê (p. 2), Lyons, 1551 , p. 84. 

1. Ieucht, Dot nieuw«n Zeucht siegh«l, 
16o, p. 9 8. 
Italian emblem-books, 2asssim, and, $6, 
9 2 • 

9.. Iddio, perche é z,ccchio, fa sud al sue 
«sse»io, 136 ; Il caos, 448; Il flue 

corozta l'ere, 437 ; lllicitum non eran- 
du»t, 182 ; Il mal me preme et mi a- 
volta cggio, 124 ; ]#ltettsi tremor 
oceani, zz 7 ; Importunitas m,tatda, 327 ; 
hototlis vindicte f«mina, 193 ; Im- 
roba sb'en desidia, 5 ; In astroloffos, 
288 ; lt az'aros val fuibus melior cot&Tio 
imtoctttm, 29 ; fttstria natto'at cor- 
rigt, 256 ; ltgotio s,@erat vin, 6 ; 
In kac ez,ivo, 59, 8, I85 ; fn morte 
rira, 185 ; lit occasiouot, 259 ; ht rec- 
latores sicarioTtm, 275 ; Zt situ alere 
swentem, I99 ; Insotti qui insidias 
struit, se fierit, 54 ; In spe fortitu&,, 
I82 ; lt stahtam acchi, 248 ; lt 
Stltdiosut calztlt ato% I ; ]Il lglllg- 
rarios, z85 ; Invidioe descritio, 43 z ; 
Isa sibi lumen quod itn,idel atTl, I24 ; 
Isaac portat ligna mat, 43. 

. hnage or symbol of St. Matthexv, 48. 

. Icarus and iii-fortune, Alciat, 288; 
Whitney, 288 ; Corrozet, 289 ; Shake- 
speare, 291. 
Idiot-fool and death, Ilolbein and Shake- 
speare, 472. 
Index, General, 543--571. 
Indian lfieroglyphics, 18. 
Industry. See Z)iligence and Idleness, 
Introductory lines,Whitney, D.O.M., 
464 ; Shakespeare, 464- 
Inverted torch,--Shakespeare, Symeoni, 
171 ; Paradin, Whitney, 173 ; Shake- 
speare, 17o ; Voenius, 171 ; Corrozet, 
1% 245. See iler. 

1. Joachim, Abbot, died 12Ol; editions 
I475, 1515, t"rohetia ddlo Abbate oa- 
chimo ch-ca le tgontfici  c, 67. 
oau. S., uatg'e'list., block-book. See 
Jodelle, Rccudl, 1558 ; .xlttslriacis ffotlis 
imag'ims, I558 , 1569, i573, p. 8o. 

GArERAL I¢VI)EA: 55 7 

John, Don, of Austria, A'otes on Alcial, 
1572, 13 . 86. 
Joseph, Daniel, 'u«h'gk and tïsth«r. See 
t[istories of, 45. 
Jovius. See Giaz,io. 
Jnnius, tmbl«mah, 1565 ; and IO others, 

9,. ltll salis, I28 ; ltS hospitalitatis vio- 
latum, 357 ; uvcnilia studia cu#t 2#ro- 
z'cctiori «lat« fiowmlah,, 381. 

3. Jode, Gerard de, 89, 282, 298 , 313 . 
ohnson aud . teevens Soeak@earG 483. 
Johnson, Ir., 426. 
Jones, Mr., Chetham Library, on Joachim, 
67, 123 . 
Jonson's testimony to Slmkespeare, 496. 
Junius, quoted:--Fame armcd with a 
pen, 446; Oak and reed, 314; Peli- 
can and young, 395; The caged car 
and the rats ; The crocodile and her 
eggs, 303 . 

Jackdaw in fine feathers, Canlerarius, 
Esop, 3Iicrocosme, Shakespeare, 313 . 
James VI. of Scotland, Beza's enlblems, 
122 ; Epigram on, 122. 
Janus, two-headed, Alciat, Whitney, 139 , 
14o ; Shakespeare, 14o. 
Jar, with Emblelns, named by Pliny, 
Jason, 229, 23 o. 
Jove laughs at lovers' perjuries, Shake- 
speare, 327; Van Veen, Callimachus, 
Tibullus, 328 ; Shakespeare, 328. 
June, illustration from Spenser, ed. 1616, 
p. 136. 
Jupiter and Io, Symeoni, Ovid, Shake- 
speare, 245, 246. 


K, O.L., Plato's IUors (p. 153), Franc- 
fort, 16o2, p. 212. 

1. -alot,h'icr des lergers, MS., 133 o, p. 
42 ; Kindred works in I.atin, Italian, and 
Gernran, 1475, P- 42. 

8. Kcnrick's Atc. EgytV, p. 21. 
King's Val« Idoyal, 2II. 
Knight's ]iclorial Sabs2,'re , I56; Ac- 
knowledging Shakespeare's acqttaintance 
with XVhitney, 396- 
Kugler's IA«ndbuch de gcschichte do" ma- 
l«r«i, P, erlin, 1847, pp. IiO, III, 114. 

zi. Katherine, Queen of France, ber em- 
blem, I28. 
Keir, near Dunblane, N.B., its libl'ary :-- 
AsD'olabium 2bhlnum, 1488 , p. 42 ; A1- 
ciat's mbh'ms, 1531, p. 69; nOy  
l'hili  Saht Ddo Anoo, t549, p. 
75 ; (;ucroult's z'micr li-,m des 
blemes, 155 ° , P- 75; Iloni's 
llbrX's, 1552, 553, P. 76; Remark, 
86 ; Guilliln's lZ'r«hly, loe ; 
original Emblon Dmwings by Crispin 
de Passe, 177. 
King-emperor, or master-e, 359--363 • 
Kingfisher, I lalcyon-days, Ovid, Aris- 
totle, and l'liny, 39 ; Giovio, Shake- 
speare, 392- 
Knowledge of Emblcm-books in Britain, 
Kostcr of Ilaarlcm, about 43 o, p. 43 ; 
Ediestengmver of block-books, 141o-- 
1420, P- 45- 

L, O. L., Camerarius (i. 35), Norimberg, 
16o5, p. 38 ; O. L., David's 12"ridicus 
Ckristiamts (7o), A.ntverpioe, 16o6, p. 60. 
1. L'Anglois, Discours des hierog', tff3 - 
tiens, 1580, p. 87. 
Le Beyde Batilly, Emble»tata, I596 , p. 94- 
Leemans, [toraibolliuis A'iloi tlierogl. , I 835, 
examples from, pp. 24, 25. 
Lefevre, tmblemes de Alaislre A. Alciat, 
1536, p. 7o. 
Le Vasseur, D:iscs dcs .Em.:. Rom., I6oS, 
P. 93 ; D:,ffses des ois de Franc G I6O9, 
P- 93- 
Zibri cronicarum, 1493, p. 56. 
Locher, Stttllifoa mz,is, before I5OO , 
Plate IX., 57- 

Lonicer, J. A., Stand und Orden, I585, 
p. 9 ° ; lCalus et aucttum icon., I582, 
p. 88. 
Lonicer, Ph., Znsig'n[a sacrw Coesarew maj., 
1579, p. 88. 
Lydgate's Dance of Zacaba; about I43 o, 
p. 56 ; llollar's account, I79O, quoted, 
56 • 

.. Za fin couronne les a'uvrcs, I39 , 32o, 
322 ; La fin uous faict tous egmttlx, 32I ; 
La fwce d'doquence, 273 ; Za guerre 
doulce attx imuo-i.tcntc:, 152 ; Latet 
augzt# bt herba, 34 ° ; La 'œee de lonob" G 
444 ; Le ch#/t est rchutrng à son firore 
I ; £ottes triall, 79; Luc«t et igescit, 
sed ton Ttbtts igTte calescit, 64 ; £tta- lira 
r'ita mca, I6O ; £ux tzta z,ita mihi, I6O ; 

8. Langhorne's t'lutarch, Timon, 43 o. 
Le Bey de Batilly, quoted :--Admnaut on 
anvil, 347 ; Apollo and Christian Muse, 
379 ; Milo caught in a tree, 344; Life 
like a gaxne of dice, 322. 
Lindsay, Lord, Christian Irt, 293 ; Sez,en 
A£es, 4o7. 

. Labour in vain :--Cupid and sieve, 
Perriere, 329 ; Shakespeare, 33 ° ; A tun 
wifla holes, Paradin, Whitney, 33 I, 332- 
Laing, D., letter, I867; Queen Mary's 
bed, I23, note. 
Lamp-bunfing, Horapollo, Shakespeare, 
456 • 
Land-iewels of the Netherlands, what, 83. 
Languages, snatches of, by Shakespeare, 
I63 . 
Laurel, safety against |ightning, Smnbucus, 
422 ; Whitney, Cmnerarius, 423 ; Shake- 
speare, 424, 425. 
Life, its seven ages, Plate XV., 407 . 
Life, evils of, Holbein's Simulachres, 
Shakespeare, 471- 
Limbert, Stephen, of Norwich School, 46I. 
Limner's art in Emblems, 38. 
Loft, Capel, his opinion of Shakespeare, 
lO6, IO 7. 
Logomaniacs, reproved by Cudwoïth, lO 3. 

Lorrain, Car& of, his impresa, 124. 
Lottery of I569, Whitney, 208; Shake- 
spem-e, 2o9--21 I. 
Louis XI., Order of St. Michael in I469, 
p. 2-'7; his impresa, 23. 
I,ouis X1V., hibtory of, in medals, &c., 13. 
Love, its transforming power, Shakespeare, 

ll, O.Z., Linacre's Galen, f- 35, Parib, 
I538, p. I19. 

1. lacabct; Dauceof, I4th ceutury, p. 39 ; 
ed. I484, P- 39 ; La Danse lacabre, 
I485, and several other editions, 56. 
Mansion, Dialqgue des creatzox's moralizie, 
1482, p. 52. 
Manuel, 'l coude Lucano', I575, p. 9 o. 
Marquale, Diverse imrese, I547, p. 7 o. 
Martin, Orus Mollo de jte, I543, 
p. 22. 
Mercerius, mblcmata, I592 , p. 9 
Mercier, Horapollo, I55I , p. 22. 
Messin, Boissard's mbldm,w, I588 , pp. 87, 
64, 307, 320, 383, 4- 
licrocosme, le, 1562, p. 247. 
Mignault, or Minos, mb[emes .t[ciat, 
1583, p. 7o ; OmMa Andreoe[ciatim- 
blenmta. Adj. comm., 573 and 1581 , 
PP- 7, 79- 
MIKPOKOMO, aloE,us rot»Mus, 579 
and 1592 , pp. 88, 267. 
Modius, Liber ordiuis ecd. ortffo, I585, and 
Waudect trhtmha[es, 1586, pp. 88, 89. 
Moerlnan, Aologi crealztrum, 1584, 
PP- 53, 88; De C[eyn ll,'dt, 98. 
Montenay. See De Antenay. 
More's "pageauntes," 496, p. 2o. 
Murner, Chartiludium logic, 1507, p. 64 ; 
rarren esch7og'un, I512 , 1518 , p. 65. 

2. [alcficio benefichtm com2#ematum ' 197 ; 
lalè 2#af/a, malè dilabuntur, 128, 502 ; 
lanie droibjbes pierce lhe stone, 324; 
[ateriant su2#erabat @us, I24 ; laulvaise 
nourritzo-e, I î5 ; 3Iea sic mihi prosunt, 
Ie 4 ; [edio occidet dic, 124 ; 3[«diis h'alt- 


quillus iJt ttJtdls, 125, tote ; Zcts 
»tatct, 335 ; Aie ompr roE,exit 
158, 168;.]'rcesattgttina, 198; IKPON 
hdcrata ,is imotetti vtblet[ia otio3 
166 ; «h,rl ,&,athç185 ; «]htc raDt 
z,ears the marblt 324 ; lhtltlicattt de 
p'oc, 374 ; ]htli«r umbra viri, 468 ; 
J]htlTts wnats» sana cotsciettia, 423 . 

3. Magnat, On flower sig»s , 
Martin, Shak'szb'are's serwz ages, IS48 , 
p. 4o7. 
llenestrier, 'hilosophia and yttaticlttllt, 
595, PP- 78, 79- 
«][icrocosttt, quoted:--Fortune, 263 ; Pro- 
metheus, -67 ; Arion, 2So ; Milo, 98. 
]lignault, quoted :-- Symbols, Coats of 
Arlns, and Emblems, cd. 1581 , Or 16o8, 
p. 2; Narcissus, 295 ; I[ares anti dead 
lion, 3o4, 3o5 . 
Milton, Emblem, 9 ; laJ'«dise Zos[, curi- 
ously portrayed in Adores atA«l , I64Z, 
p. I32 ; in Boissard's tœeealrtott, The 
fall of Satan, Plate XI., I33. 
Moernmn quoted, Wolf and ass, 53, 54- 
Moine's Devises, Roy des abeilles, 363. 
[ontalde, P. Horatius, 79. 
]klol-e, Sir T., quoted, IZO, 46I, 45I. 
Motley, Z?u[clz ,ublic, 81, 82. 
lXlulgl'ave, l'oyage go glte Vorth Sea, 348. 

4. Maidens, llindoo and Persian, and 
flowers, I8. 
l[anchester Free Libl'aly, Faerno's Fabl«s, 
1565 , 13 • 85 • 
Man, like a wolf, zSI ; like a god, zS 3. 
Man measnring his forehead, lZ9. 
Man swilnming with a burden, from 
Perriere, 48o; Whitney, 48o ; Shake- 
speare, 48I. 
l[an's greatness, Coustau, "83 ; Reusner 
and Shakespeare, z83, z84- 
Manuscript Embleln-books, Macabel', 39 ; 
Astronomical, 4 ; Slecttlttm 
salvagiouis, 42, 44 ; Bedford [issa[, 44 ; 
lrgtdusatimoe, 58 ; Crosse, IOO ; Eng. 
Alciat, IOI. 
Map of the world, Sambucus, 351 ; Shake- 
speare, 35 z. 

Marble, writings on, 457--46-'- 
Marcus Curtius, 5- 
Marquetry or mosaic work, in Emllems, 4- 
Mary of Lorrain, her impresa, lZ 3. 
l[ary, queen of Scotland, educated in 
France, 1548 , p. _.z ; Bcd of state 
wronght by her with lnany emblems, 
123 ; Account of it, I23--I25. 
Matthias, emperor, 96, 97- 
l[aximilian I., ïCrarajttc]ez attributed to 
him, 1517, p. 67; l]tl'otzsfor[e and 
Trimthwagcu in his honour, 67. 
Maximilian I I., patron of Sambucus, 85. 
Maxwell. See 5?irliJtg-,]hxw,'ll. 
Mead, Dr., his copy of the Z?mtceofZ?,'ath, 
4 ° • 
Medeia and the swallows, as showa by 
Alciat, 19o ; "Yhitney, 19o ; Shake- 
speal'e, 192. 
3[ercul-y and fortune, Alciat, 255 ; Mercury 
charlning Argus, Drummond, 123 ; 
Mercury mending a lute, Sambucus, 
Whitney, 256 ; Shakespeare, 057 , 258. 
3[etrical renderings or trallslations : I fiana, 
3; the Fool, 34; Wolf and ass, 54; 
Oarsman's cry, 61, 62; Epigram on 
James I., 122 ; Janus, 14o ; Diligence, 
145 ; Sun of the soul, 161 ; Sun and 
wind, 165; Illverted torch, 171 ; Money, 
178 ; Ilope, 184 ; Shake, 198 ; Drums, 
2o6 ; "Vreatlls, 2zz ; Porcnpine, 23z ; 
Courage, z33 ; Lady 13ona, 235 ; "Vine, 
z49 ; Sloth, zSI ; Fortune, z35 , z6z ; 
Prometheus, z66 ; Dog and moon, o71 ; 
Eloquence, 2îz ; Assassin, 276 ; Actoeon, 
z77 ; Arion, 25o; Man to nmn a god, 
z83; Phaeton, 285 ; Daphne, z97 ; 
Pegasus, z99 ; Iusult to Hector, 3o4 ; 
Dead lion, 3o6 ; Em and vine, 3o8 ; 
False feathers, 3z; Ash and reed, 
314 ; Cupid and the sieve, 33 ° ; Mind 
unmoved, 335; Adamant, 348 ; Wasps, 
36o ; Falcon, 367 ; Renewed youth, 
369 ; Unicorn, 37z ; Law's delay, 374 ; 
Glory of poets, 38o; Phcenix, 383 ; 
Alcyone, 391 ; King-fisher, 39 z ; Peli- 
can, 394, 395; Wounded stag, 398; 
Theatre, 4o5 ; State of man, 4o8 ; The 
hen, 4II ; Beauty, 419; Integer vitoe, 
4Zl ; Laurel, 4zz ; Timon, 4zS ; Con- 

56o GtLArER.4A LVDA: 

stancy, 436; Cupid and a ship, 437 ; 
Chaos, 448, 449; Wrongs on mari»le, 
457; We flee what xve folloxv, 467; 
]3an-dogs, 482; Riches and poverty, 
Michael, St., order of, I469, p. 227. 
lqilo, in a tree, De I3atilly, 344; Bull- 
bearing, Shakespeare ; 31io ocosm, 296. 
Minerva snperintending the Argo, 2o. 
Minnesingevs, or tronbadours, remains of, 
I46I, p. 5o. 
lXliseellaneous Emblems : Words and forms 
of thought, Paris and IIelen, 463 ; D. 
O. BI., 464, 465 ; Time flying, &e., 466 
--468 ; Shadows fled and pursned, 468 ; 
Death and sleep, 469--471 ; Death's 
fool, 471 ; Old time, 473, 474 ; Simila- 
rity of dedications, 475 ; Pine-trees in a 
storm, 475--477 ; Correspondeneies lu 
vords, 477--479 ; Man swimnaing with 
a lmrden, 48o; I3an-dogs, 481--483 ; 
Child and motley fool, 484 ; Ape and 
miser's gold, 487 ; Hands of Providence, 
439; Time leading the seasons, 49I; 
Eternity, 49I. 
Montgomerie, Earl of, Shakespeare's dedi- 
cation to, I22. 
Mot,'al and oesthetic Emblems, allusions to, 
Corrozet, Montenay, Le Bey de Batilly, 
Shakespeare, 411-462 :--Things at out 
feet, 411--4i 3 ; I)rake's ship, 413--4i 5 ; 
Adam in the garden, 415, 416 ; Gem in 
a ring of gold, 417--42o ; Conscience, 
42o--422 ; Laurel, safety of, against 
lightuing, 422--425 ; Pleasant vices, 
425 ; Timon of Athens, 426--431 ; Env)-, 
431--433; Shlp tossed on the sea, 434-- 
44o ; Studeut in love, 440--442 ; Ruins 
and writings, 443--445 ; Fame armed 
with a pen, 446 ; Good out of evil, 447 ; 
Il Caos, 448 ; Chaos, 449--454 ; Thread 
of life, 454, 455 ; Lanlp burning, 456 ; 
Wrongs ou nmrble, 457--46i ; Write in 
dnst, 46i ; Higher nmrality, 462. 
Moth and candle, I5i--i53. See 17uttc3q.l,. 
Motley fool and child, 499. 
Mouse canght in an oyster, Alciat, Whit- 
ney, Freitag, i3o. 
Mulcaster, of Merchant Tailors' school, 
1561, p. I00. 

Music, Shakespeare's appreciation of, I I6. 
lXlythological characters, Emblems for, 241 
--3oi :--Instances, 243 , 44; Milo, 244 ; 
Cupid's wings, 245 ; Cadmus, 245 ; Atlas, 
'45 ; Jupiter and Io, 25 ; Baechus, 246-- 
248 ; Circe, 25o ; Sirens, 253 ; Mereury 
and Fortune, 255 ; Mercury and the 
lute, 256 ; MercnD" , 257 , 258 ; Fortune, 
or occasion, and opportunity, 258--26o ; 
Fortune, œe6I ; Fortune on the rolling 
stone, 263 ; Occasion, 263-265 ; Pro- 
methens bound, 265---269 ; The dog 
baylng at the moon, 27o ; Orpheus, 
271--274 ; Actoeon and the hounds, 
2ï4--279 ; Arion, 2ï9--28I ; The con- 
trary sentiment, 281--283; Phaeton, 
2S4--287 ; Daedalus and IcalalS, 287-- 
29I ; 1Niobe, 291--294 , Narcissus, 294 
--296 ; Daphne, 296 , 297 ; lXlilo, 297 ; 
Pegasus, 298--30o. 
lXlythologT, a fi'uitful source of illustrations, 
24 ; Open to every one, 242 ; Ovid the 
chief storehouse, 242. 

1. Aarren t?eschw6run., 65. See 2]htrner. 
2Varren Scvff, I494, p. 57; Snpplied texts 
for Geyler, 66. See I,'ra,zt. 
sV, wi«,d,,, iSii, p. 66. See G,'yler. 
Za,,is slultift'ra, before 5oo, p. 57- See 
2Cdes dames z,ertlteTtses, 15o3, p. 60. See 
A'f des folles, selon les ch,q sens, I5Ol , p. 6I. 
2Vef des princes, 5o2, p. 63. 8ee Cham- 
Nestor, Ifisloire des kommes--de ][edici, 
ed. i564, p. 8o. 
Iorth, lorall philosophie of Doni, I57O 
and I6Ol, pp. 76, 9I, lZO. 

9,. Aë 2cr morte muore, 309 ; Ail 2benna 
scd usus, 370 ; Arimimu rebus ne ff,le 
secundis, 476; ATu,o veccbio, Savcnla 
Iddio, i36 ; Aobil è qttd, dt' è di virllt 
dolala, 366 ; A'on absque Tltes¢o, I43 ; c'va 
jNeasure wilhoul aht, 333 ; A'ous saz,ons 
bien le tc»qbs, 392 ; J'ltlŒEtam siccabilur 

GEArE4L INEX. 5 6  

eestu, izS, note ; lrusquam nisi rêctttm, 
I24 ; lrusuam tutafldes, 196. 

3. ]Vebulo ncbulonum, 162o, p. 65. See 
l'ffol'th's tglutarch, 1579, Timon of Athens, 
426 ; Epitaph, 43 o, 431. 
«'Votes and quies, 1862, p. 67. 

4. lXlapoleon's return from Elba, 
Narcissus, from ]Xlignault, Alciat, 294 ; 
Aneau, Whitney, Shakespeare, 295 , 296. 
Nature, Emblems from facts in, and from 
properties of animais, 346--376 :--Natu- 
r.-d, one of the divisions of emblems, 
346 ; Frosty Caucasus, 346; Adamant 
indestructible, 347, 348 ; Bear and cul», 
power of love, 348--35 ° ; The inhabited 
world, 35o--353 ; Zodiac, 353--355 ; 
Tul-key, 356--358 ; Vulture, 358; Com- 
monxvealth of bees, 35S--365 ; llappe 
goulden honie bringes, 364 ; Falconry, 
365--36S; Eagle renewing its youth, 
369 ; Ostrich spreading its wings, 37o ; 
Unicorn, 371 --373 ; Hercules and 
dragon, 373--375 ; Various animais, 
375, 376- 
lXlemesis and hope, 1Sz. See the. 
lXliobe and her children, from Alciat, 292 ; 
Aneau, Whitney, Shakespeare, 293. 
Nowell, Dr. Alexander, 395- 
lXlun, or canoness, Holbein, 469 . 

1. Occulti academici, &c., 1568. See Rime. 
Orozco, mblemas morales, 16IO, pp. 3 I, 99. 
 vid, lareroidum liber, 473, P- 242 ; .1/da- 
mothosës, 148o, p. 242 ; 11r. cum flguris 
de2biclis, 1497, P- 35; B[etamorhoses, 
Spanish, 1494, p. 242; Italian, 1497, 
p. z4z; BACamor2hoses , filrato, &c., 
1559, PP- 35, z45; Plantin's ed. I59, 
p. z46 ; Golding's English translation, 
1565 and 1567, pp. 241, z43; Za bible 
des poetes, z4z. 

9. Oribhd mnsica, 272; Otiosi semer 
(,,cenh's, 46 ; O z,ila misero lot.'a, 268. 

3. Oetlinger, t?ibh'og, biog. mdv., 97. 
Ormerod, taristoo, of Cheshire, 2I I. 
Ovid, «II,¢amorhoses, quoted:--Singular 
subscription, 4  ; Swan, 4 ; Circe, 
25o; Orpheus, 274 ; Actœeon, 278 ; 
Phaeton, 284; Niobe, 291 ; Daphne, 
96 ; Phcenix, 385 ; IIalcyon, 39  ; 
Wounded stag, 399 ; Cupid's arrow 
golden, 40o; Chaos, 448; 2 Trist., 
Jove's thunderbolt, 209. 

4. Oak and reed, Junius, Shakespeare, 
Voenius, 315 ; Whitney, 36. 
Oarsman's ciy, 6I, 62. 
Occasion, or opportttnity, 258; Alciat, 
259; Whitney, 26o; Slmkespeare, 26o, 
264, 265 ; Plate XII., 265. 
Ohl lncn at dcath, Sllakespeare, 2 5. 
Old rime, Shakespeare, 473. 
Olive and vine, 249. See ['ine. 
Orange, l'rince of, device, 25, 
Order, of St. Michael, 227 ; Ofthe golden 
fleece, 228. 
Ornamentation of houses, Emblems used 
for, I26--3o, I3I. 
Orpheus, Coustau, 27 ; Reusner, Whitney, 
272; Ovid, 274; Shakespeare, 273, 
Ostrich, eating iron, I26 ; Giovio, 233 ; 
Camerarius and Shakespeare, 234 
Spreading its wings, Paradin, 370 ; 
Whitney and Shakespeare, 37o, 37L 

P, O. Z., Alciat's Emb. p. xii., Antverp., 
I58I, p. 318. 

1. Palazza, I discorsi im2rese , &c., I577, 
PP. 79, 86. 
Paracelsus, tgrognosticatio, i536 , p. 7 I. 
Paradin, Quadrins historifues d« la I3ibl«, 
I555, P. 75 ; Devises heroiques, I557, 
Symbda h«roica, I567, and other editions 
before I6OO, p. 75; English version, 
59I, p- 75 ; Menestrier, 79. 
Parker, Tryttmhes of 19elrarcke, 1564, 
Passoeus, 95, 96. See .De 'as«e. 

4 c 

5 6 2 GEOEId.4 L I-ArDEx. 

Peacham, l]Hnem,a Brilanna, I612, pp. 
99, lOO. 
Percivalle, ICsus et emNemata, I588, p. 79- 
Pergaminus, 19yalogus Crt'(ltnI'(llTItll, 
writtcn in the I4th century,--editions, 
Latin, 148o, 1483 ; French, 1482 ; 
and English, 152o, pp. 51, 52, 66. 
Perriere, 6o. See De la to'riere. 
Personé, alluded to by Menestrier, 79- 
Petrarch, Trionhi, 1475, I5IO, and 1523, 
Pezzi, Za vilna dol sig'ttore, 1589, p. 87. 
Pfintzing, TtTol'dallllC],'h, 1517 ; love adven- 
tures of Maximilian I. and Mary of 
Burgundy, 67, 68. 
Phasimfinus, Latin version of IIoraollo, 
1517, p. 64. 
Philieul, Z)ialoue des 19wises, I56I, p. 78. 
Pierius Valerian, larierofflJ'fihica, I556, pp. 
24, 80. 
Pignorius, lCuslissimce lalnl«e, 1605 ; 
Characteres .Evtii, 16o8, pp. 95, 97 ; 
and Short notes on Alcial, 1618, p. 71. 
Pinciano, Zos 2mblonas de Mlciato, 1549, 
p. 7o. 
Pinedi, 19ttodecim symbola Dz obum, 16oo, 
P. 79. 
Pittoni, Z»@rese dt divo'si princii, 1566 , 
p. 86. 
Ponce de Leon, EpoEhanins, I587, p. 28. 
Porri, l'aso dt verita, 1597, p. 9". 
Porro, ]lrimo libro, 1589, p. 87. 

tàfait¢ est l'amilie qui vit afir,s 
mort, 307; tartinm 
sytnbola, 351 ; tlria cuique chara, 
36I ; atert immo'ita, 489 ; Pecnnia 
&t/lffnis et anAma mortalium, 177 
edus familiaris, 195 ; ennœe Klaria 
immorlalis, 6 ; Perplit incultum 
aulagitn lemtts amoron, 348 ; «r 
,inc2tla crescit, 123;  à ett, 349 ; 
¢Aavçfa, 295 ; t'iena dt dolor voda de 
s«ren,a, 124 ; ffiglas filiolTttt in arenl«s, 
191 ; i«las revoca# ab orco, I4; itt 
or dulzttra que or terza, 162, 16 
Plus ar doulcatr que ar rce, 165 ; 
lns 'irlttle qttàm armis, or lvs ar 
vertv qz,e ar armes, 164; oetarutn 
gloria, 379; onderibus z,irttts innala 

resisllt, 124 ; tgorta hoec dausa o'itd non 
atoqetnr, 47 ; tgost a»zara dulcia, 332 ; 
7«povrtt ixovafuov, 213 ; IIs Aabv 
rtOvtov BatrtA«î, 358 ; ]reci2#itio senza 
seranza, 124 ; 19reciu»t non vile la3orum, 
22S; l'rinciibis [ona imago, 143 ; /'rin- 
citais demottia, 36o ; tro leKe et greKe, 
394 ; 19r°l era larde, 6 ; _Prudottes viuo 
abstinent, 249 ; 19ur reoso; 7. 

Paloephatus, on Actwon, 278. 
Paradin, quoted,--Ape and miser's gold, 
5Ol ; Arrow wreathed on a tomb, 183 ; 
13arrel filll of holes, 332 ; 13utterfly and 
candle, I51 ; Fleece, golden, 228 ; Gold 
on the touchstone, 175 ; Leafless trees 
and rainbow, 12S; Michael, order of St., 
227 ; Ostrich with stretched wings, 370 ; 
Phcenix, 234, 385 ; Snake on the finger, 
342; Stag wounded, 399; Wheat 
among bones, IS 4 ; \Vreath of chivalry, 
169 ; \Vreath of oak, 224 ; Wrongs on 
marble, 458. 
teno , Cyclo]boedia, on t9cricles, 168 ; on the 
plays of/:reny l-Z, 238; Unicorn, 372. 
tgercy eliques, Dragon, 373- 
Pfister, earliest printed book on scriptural 
subjects, 1462, p. 45 ; Eadiest German 
book, 1461, p. 5 o. 
Pindar, on S.vmbol, 2. 
Plantin, 1564 -- I59O , flfty editions of 
Elnblem-books, 85. 
Plato, the swan, 214 ; king-bee, 359- 
Plautus, "lire to nte," I6I. 
Plutarch, Timon of Athens, 43 ° ; Carking, 
Priestley, Jeclures on l[isloy--on Grecian 
coins, 13 . 
Proclus, Seven ages of man, 4o7 . 

. Painters referred to, Romano, I IO ; 
Rubens, 96; Titian, 111, 114. 
Pahn-tree, a device on Queen Mary's bed, 
124 . 
Parallelisms and correspondencies between 
Shakespeare and emblem writers, 
numerous, 494- 
Pegasus described, 14--i44 ; Alciat, 299 ; 
Shakespeare, 300. 
Pclican, Eiphanius, 393 ; Cmnerarius and 


Reusner, 394 ; Junius and Whitney, 395 ; 
Shakespeare, 396. Note in Knight, 396. 
Pembroke, earl of, dedication to, 1668, p. 
P,v'iclcs, accepted as of Shakespeare's au- 
thorsltip, 156 , 157 , 158 ; the triuml,h- 
scene, 158 ; First knight, Zux lua vita 
mihi, 16o--162 ; Second knight, _/'tu 
2bt,r dtdzura que 2#or fiterza, I62--I67 ; 
Third knight, 3le dbomp,e provexit atex , 
168--17o ; Fourth knight, Quod me alit, 
roc exttn.çwit, 17o--175 ; Fifth knight, 
Sic stectanda fldds, 175--181 ; Sixth 
knight, /-n bac .e vivo, 181-- 186. 
Personification, cspecially in mythologD" , 258. 
Perth, earl of, Emblcms in aletter to, 
l'haeton, Ovid, 284; Alciat, 285; 
meoni, 284 ; 8hakespeare, 286, 287. 
l'hilip, duke of ]3urgundy, 1429, Golden 
floece, 228. 
Phcenix, emb]em for long life ; for return- 
ing to friends ; restoration after long 
ages, 23; One]iness or lone]iness, 235 ' 
236 ; Accounts of, 22, 23, 234--236 ; 
Phoenix' nest, 380 ; Emblem ofloneliness, 
Paradin, Giovio, 234 , 235 ; Shakespeare, 
236 ; Emblem of duration, Horapo]lo, 
23 ; Emb]em of new birIla, and resur- 
rection, Freitag, 381 ; Mary of Lorraine, 
123 ; Emblem of oneliness, Paradin and 
Reusner, 385 ; Whitney, 387 ; Shake- 
speare, 388--390 ; Emblem of life 
eternal, 386. 
Phcenix with two hearts, Hawkins, 383 ; 
the Virgin mot]ler and ber son, entire one- 
ness of affection, 384 ; Shakespeare, 384 . 
Phryxus, or Phrixus, 229. See Golden 
Pictnre xvriting, 18, 3 o. 
Picture and short poesie, marks of the 
Emblem, 3 I. 
Pilgrim travelling, Cullum's ]-]aeos&'d, 128. 
Pine-trees in a storm, Hotace, Sambucus, 
475 ; Whitney, 476 ; Shakespeare, 477. 
Plate, of emblematical character, 2o. 
Pleasant vices, their punishment, 425. 
Poetic ideas, emblems for, 377--41o 
Shakespeare's sp]endid symbolical ima- 
gery, 377 ; Gloryof poets, 379, 380 ; The 

phcenix, 381--383 ; PhCelliX xvith txvo 
hearts, 384 ; The bird always alone, 384 
--39o; Kingfisher, 391--393; Pelican, 
393--398 ; Wounded stag, 397--4oo ; 
Golden, the epithet, 400; I)eath and 
I.ove, 4o4, 405 ; Cupid in raid-air, 404 ; 
I lnnmn life a theatre, 4o5, 4o6 ; Seven 
ages of life, 4o7--41o. 
Poct's badge, Alciat, 218 ; ",, hitney, 2  7 ; 
• %hakespeare, 219. 
Poet's glory, 379 ; Le Bey de Batilly, 38o; 
Shakcspeare, 380. 
Politics iu emblems, Il t'riucipc, 34- 
Porcupine, Drummoud, 124 ; Giovio, 231 ; 
Camerarius, Shakespeare, 232. 
Portcnllis, emblcm uscd by lleury VIII., 
Powers granted for noble purposes, Whit- 
ncy, Shakespcare, 42- 
Printing with lflocks, 45--49; with more- 
able types, 5 ° . 
Progne or Procne, Aneau, Shakespeare, 
Prometheus bound, Alciat, 266 ; Anean, 
267 ; 3Iicrocosme, 267 ; Reusner, XVhit- 
ney, 268 ; Slmkcspcare, 268, 269. 
Proverbs, Emblems in connection xith, 
318--345 :--Proverbs suggestive of nar- 
rative or picture, 3 8 ; La fin couronne 
les a'uvres, 320--322 ; .'lAlnie drotpes 
pierce lhe slone, &c., 324 ; To clip the 
ara,il of my sword, 325--327 ; ove laughs 
al lo'vers' petjuries, 328, 329 ; Labour in 
z,ain, 329--332 ; Every rose its lkorn, 
332--334 ; True as the needle fo lhe pole, 
334--337; Out of greatesl least, 337-- 
339 ; A shake in the grass, 340, 34 ; 
Il'ho agahtst tts ? 342, 343 ; Hoisl witlt 
his own 2#etar, 343, 344- 
Providence, and girdlc, 413 (see Z)rake's 
shijb) ; Making poor and enriching, Plate 
XVI., 489 . 
Pyranfid mad ivy, D-ummond, I24. 

1. Quadrins historiques ,te la Bible, 1553- 
1583, twenly-two alitiens in various lan- 
guages, 73- 


Quadrins historiques du Çetl#se I553, p. 73- 
Quadrins historiques de l'Exode, 1553, P- 73- 

9.. Quce ente pedcs? 4II; Qttce scquimur 
fugimus, nosque fugiunt, 466 ; Qu supra 
nos, nihil ad nos, 26o; Qwl che hutte, 
estinffu G I75 ; Que mas u«de la elo- 
quençia que la 'laliza, I64 ; Quem nulle 
pericMa terreur, 347 ; Quibus rebus con- 
fldimus, ils maxbue ,ertimus, 3; 
Quid nisi victis dolor, 124 ; Qui me alil, 
meexlDtffuil, I7iI73 ; QMs conh'a nos ? 
26, 342 ; Quod in te est, rome, 395 ; 
Qtod me alil, me extingu& 17o , 74 ; 
Quod nutril extinguit, I74 ; Quod s esse 
c,dis, 312 ; çelO IllOdO vilain ? 456 ; Quo 
aclo mortem seu ]wminis exitunt ? 454 ; 
Quo lendis ? 128. 

8. Quafles, definition of Emblem, 1. 
Quinctilian, use of the word Emblem, 5- 

Qui or quod, variations in the reading, 

R, O. L., zVef des folz, xlix., Paris, I499, p. 
411 ; O. Æ. of uncertain origin, p. 53 l. 

Rabelais, Zes songes drolatiques de Pan- 
tagruel, 1565, p. 86. 
Rastall, Z?ialo$e of crealures, I5O , p. 5 I. 
Regiomontanus, or Muller, 1476, p. 4 . 
Regisehnus. See oachim. 
Reusner, mblemata, I58I , Mto'eolorunz 
mblem., 159I , pp. 8S, 89, 25I. 
ime de gli academici occulli, I568 , p. 86. 
Rinaldi, Il tnosh'ltosissimo, 1588 , 13. 87. 
Ripa, Iconologia, &c., 16o3, 1613, p. 92. 
Riviere, Nef des folz du monde, before 
15°% P. 57- 
Rollenhagen, Zês emblemes, 161I, p. 95 ; 
Arucleus mblematum, 1613, P- 97. 
Ruscelli, Discorso, 1556 , p. 77 ; Imirese 
i[[uslri I566 , p. 78. 
Rfixner, Tuvdêr-buch, 153o , p. 68. 

9.. Eabiê succcnsa, 356 ; fi'emem&'r still lhy 

ende, 320 ; enovatajuz,entus, 369 ; es 
humance in summo declinant, 435 ; 
sice et rosice,  39 ; ome ch' il percote, 
I25 ; Rore madct c,e/lus, ermansit aride 
lellus, 47 ; Rota vitf que sti»ta notalttr 

Rapin, Hislo'y of ngland, 1724, p. 
A'eal museo lorbonico, I824, p. I9. 
Reusner, quoted:--Circe, 25I ; Hares and 
dead lion, 3o6; Man a god to man, 
83 ; Orpheus and harp, Tz ; Pegasus, 
143 ; Pelican and young, 394 ; Phoenix, 
385; Prometheus, 268 ; Serpent and 
countl-yman, 197 ; Sirens, 252 ; Ssvan, 
215, 216 ; Unicol-n, 37 I. 
Roscoe, Leo .AL, 303 - 

:. Recapitulation and conclusions, 492_ 
References and coincidences not purely 
accidentel, 494- 
References to passages from Shakespeax'e, 
in the order of the plays and poems, and 
to the corresponding devices and subjects 
of the Elnblems, A;bendix iii., 531--542. 
Rhetoric, chambers of, their pursuits and 
anausements, 81, 82 ; Extent and nature, 
Rich and pOOl', Plate XVI., 489. 
Rock in waves, Drummond, I25, note. 
Romano, Julio, works known to Shake- 
speare, I IO; Where there are nov Wolks 
of his, I IO, I I I. 
Romano, Capitano Girolamo Mattei, 233. 
Rose and thorn, Whitney, Perriere, 333 ; 
Voenius, 333; Shakespeare, 334. 
Rubens, desciple of Voenius, 96. 
Rudolph II., 85, 89, 96. 
Ruins and writings, Whitney and Costalius, 
444 ; Shakespeare, 444, 445, Boissard, 

S, O. L., Giovio's Sent. l». 3, Lyons, 
I562, pp. 156, 515; O. L., Sambucus 
(Elnb. 232) , Antverp., 564, p- 3oz. 

Gt2Vt)AL IVDIL: 565 

1. Sadeler, S.j'»bol«t divina et humaua, 
16oo, 16oi, p. 95 ; Thcatrutn ptorttn, 
16o8, pp. 95, 96 , 97. 
Sambigucius, Iulcrirclallo , i556 , p. 77. 
Sambucus, ubletal«, I564, and m- 
blëtues de ffchan Satnbucus, I567, p. 85; 
Notes by Don John of Austria, I572 , 
p. 86. 
Sanctius, or Sanchez, on Alcial, I573, 
pp. 7I, 88. 
Sassus, referred to by Menestrieq 79- 
Sceve, Ddi, 5, P. 75. 
Schoppes, auoMa, I568, and D« 
bns iiberalibus sire nechanlc# artibus, 
1574, P- 88. 
Schrot, lleubnch, 1581 , p. 90. 
Scribonius, I55O. See Grah«cus. 
Ses, referred to by Menestrier, 79- 
5 OEfooles. See IVatson and arclqj,. 
Sicile, Le blason de toutes artttes and Ze 
blason des couleur% i495, p. 58. 
S#uulackres  histoees faces de la tuort, 
1538 , p. 7I ; Fecn editions, 72, 47I. 
Soto. Sec De Solo. 
S. (P.), eroical dices, I59I , pp. 75, IO. 
Spanish Emblem-books, assi»t, and, 7 o, 
9o, 99- 
Sgcttlntlt humauoe salvaliouis, MS., printed 
about I43O by Koster, 43 ; Description 
of his edition, 43 ; Many editions and 
kindred works before 15oo, p. 43 ; Plates 
I V. and V., 44- 
Sdlcn van nne» allegofical plays, I539, 
p. 8I. 
Stan uud wacnbttch, I579, p. 3I. 
Stimmer, çue kunslliche figur,'n iblischcn, 
I576, p. 9o. 
Stockhamer, co»t»teutaqola to Alciat, 
I556, p. 70. 
Slttl[7"a navls, previous to I5OO, Locher, 
Riviere, Plate IX., 57 ; Other versions, 
57 ; Badius, 6I. 
Symeoni, l'ira et [et. dOvid., I559, pp. 3, 
35, 79 ; De,,ises ou e»tb&mes heroigues et 
tttot'alc's 1561, pp. I5, I6; 
I574, P. I7 ; I»t'ese Aeroiche et norale 
1562 , p. 78; Seuleuliose inrese 1562» 
p. 78. 

9.. Sa virln n'alti% I23; Scelesti hotuinis 

i»tago &, exihts, 53 ; Scribil in mar»tore 
l, rsns, 457, 458 ; Scrijbla tancul, 443; 
Scrz,ali g1"atia avis, 224; Sibi canil et 
orbi, 7 ; Sic »tajora ceelttn[ 366; Sic 
s?,'ctau&l dcs, 59, 75, I78; Si Deus 
nobiscutu, qnis contra nos P 342 ; Si for- 
tuna ue lormenla, il serare me 
lenta,  37, 38 ; Si fortune nte tourtnenle» 
l'eserance ue conlenle, 138 ; Silenlintn, 
zo8 ; 6ïne justitia cotsio, 9, 45 ° 
Sola facta, soltttn Dattn seguor, z34 ; 
Sol anitni z,irtns, 16 ; Sola viz,it in illo, 
6 ; S?oe'az,i et ?erii, 3o ; Ses alloe'a 
vit, e, 83, 84; Ses aulica, 
ca, 182 ; Sirilus dnrissitna 
z33 ; Slultitia sna scisutn saffuat'i, 31o ; 
Stttltorunt itnilus e.rt 66 ; Subia, 
z9z ; )oEerbioe vRio, z93. 

1. Sadeler, Zodiacus christianus 1618, 
P- 353- 
Sambucus, quoted:--Actœeon, 277; Astro- 
nomer, 335 ; Ban-dog, 482; Child and 
motley fool, 484 ; Elephant, I96 ; Fore- 
head, 1:9 ; lien eating ber own eggs, 
4II; Laurel, 42-; Mercury and lute, 
256 ; Pine-tees in a storm, 475 ; Ship 
on the waves, 435 ; Time flyin, 466 ; 
Timon, 427 ; World, map of, 35 I. 
Schiller, IVerke, I99. 
Schlegel, on l,'Jqcles, 157. 
Shakespeare quoted, by way of allusion, or 
of reference to :--.sop's Fables, 3o 3 ; 
Actoeon, 276, 279 ; Adam hiding, 416 ; 
Adamant, 048 ; «Eneas and Anchises, 
I9I ; Ape and miser's gold, 488 ; Apollo 
and the Christian mnse, 379 ; Argonauts 
and Jason, 23o ; Arion, 233; Astrono- 
mer and magnet, 356 ; Atlas, 245 , 
Bacchus, 249 ; Ban-dog, 484 ; Bear and 
ragged staff, 237--24o ; ]3ear and cub, 
349, 35o; ]3ees, 361--365; 13ellero- 
phon and chimoera, 3oo; Brutus, 2oi-- 
2o 5 ; ]3utterfly and candle, I53 ; Cad- 
mus, 245 ; Cannon bursting, 345 ; 
Casket scenes, I49--154 , I86 ; Cassius 
and Coesar, I93 ; Chaos, 451 453 ; 
Child and motley fool, 485 ; Chivalry, 
xvreath of, I68 ; Circe, 252 ; Cliffords, 
I92 ; Clip the anvil of my sword, 327 ; 

$66 G I IVI R A L IIVD I X. 

Commonwealth of Bees, 362 m 365 ; 
Conscience, power of, 42I ; Coriolanus, 
2oI ; and lais civlc crowns, 226 ; Coro- 
nation scene, 9 ; Countryman and ser- 
pent, I9Î' ; Çupid blinded, 331 ; Cpid 
in nfid-air, 4o4 ; Daphne, 297; I)eath, 
469 ; Dog baying the moon, 269 ; I)ogs 
hot praised, 145 , 483 ; D. O. BI., 464, 
465 ; l)rake's ship, 415 ; Drinking bout 
of Antony and lais friends, 246 ; I)rops 
pierce the stone, 324 ; Dust, to write iu, 
461; Eagle renewing its youth, 369 ; 
Elizabeth, queen, 4o4 ; Elm and vine, 
309 ; Emblem defined, 9 ; Emblems 
without device, I49--I5I ; End crowns 
ail, 32% 323; Engineer hoist, 345 ; 
Envy, 433; Estridge, 371 ; Etemity, 
491, 492 ; Falconry, 367, 368 ; Faine 
armed with a pen, 445, 446 ; Fin 
couronne ]es oeuvres, 320--323 ; Fortune, 
262; Fox and grapes, 311; Frosty 
Cucasus, 346 ; Gem in a riug, 419; 
Goldeu, 4oo, 404 ; Gold on the touch- 
stone, 175 , 18o ; Golden Fleece, 227 ; 
Good out of evil, 447 ; Greatest out of 
least, 337--339; Hands of Providence, 
489, 49o ; Happe some goulden honie 
bringes, 365; Hares and dead lion, 
3o4 ; Hen eating her own eggs, 412 ; 
Heraldry, 222, 223 ; Itomo homini lupus, 
28o, 283; Homo homini Dens, 283, 
284; Hydra, 375 ; Icarus, 29i ; Inver- 
ted torch, I7O ; Jackdawin fine feathers, 
313; Janus, two-headed, I4O ; Jupiter 
and Io, 246; Jove laughs at loyers' 
perjuries, 328 ; King-fisher, 392 ; Labour 
in vain, 331, 332 ; Lamp burning, 456 ; 
Laurel, 422--425 ; Lottery, 209--2II ; 
Love's transforming power, 349 ; blan 
with a fardel or burden, 48I ; Man's 
greatness, 284 ; Map of the wofld, 351, 
352; Medeia, 192 ; Mercury, 257 , 258 ; 
Michael, order of St., 227 ; Milo, 297 ; 
Narcissus, 296 ; Niobe, 293 , 294 ; Oak 
and reed, 315, 316 ; Occasion, or oppor- 
tunity, 26o, 264, 265 ; Old Time, 473 ; 
Orpheus, 273 , 274 ; Ostrich, 234 , 37I ; 
Pegasus, 299, 3oo ; Pelican, 394--397 ; 
Pen, its eternal glory, 447 ; ericles,-- 
the triumph scene, i58 , i6o-- I86; 

l'haeton, 286, 287 ; Phoenix, 236 , 38I - 
390 ; Pine-trees, 477 ; Poet's badge, 
218, 219 ; Poet's glory, 379, 380 ; 
Porcupine, 232 ; Powers granted for 
noble purposes, 412 ; Progne, I94 ; 
Prometheus bonnd, 268 ; Romano, Julio, 
I IO ; Ruins and writings, 443--445 ; 
Rose and thom, 333, 334; Serpent in 
the breast, 198 ; Seven ages of man, 
4o7--4IO; Shadows fled and pursued, 
468 ; Ship in stonu and calm, 435--44 ° ; 
Sirens, 254 ; Skull, human, 337--339 ; 
Snake in the grass, 341 ; Shake on the 
finger, 343 ; Stag wounded, 397--4oo ; 
Student entangled in love, 44I; Sun 
and wind, 16o; The setting sun, 323 ; 
The swan, 2I 9 ; Sword on an anvil, 327 ; 
Sword with a motto, 38 ; Testing of 
gold, I75, 8o, 181 ; Theatre of life, 
4o5, 406 ; Things at out feet, 4II, 412 
Thread of life, 454 ; Time leading the 
seasons, 491 ; Timon, 427--431 ; Tur- 
key and cock, 357, 358 ; Unicorn, 37I, 
372 ; Vine and olive, 249 ; Whitney's 
dedication lines, 464 ; Wreath of chiv- 
alry, 168 ; Wreaths, 222 ; Wreath of 
oak, 225; Wrongs on marble, 457 
462 ; Zodiac, signs of, 353- 
Shakespeare, acquainted with languages, 
IO6, IO7, 168; with the works of 
Julio Romano, 11o ; and of Titian, Il 5 ; 
with Emblems, i37 , i58 , I86.--Attail» 
ments, IO6-i16 ; suflïcient for cultiva- 
ring Emblem literature, io7, IOS.-- 
i)ramatic cereer, 159o---1615, pp. 91, 92 ; 
An Emblem writer, i48 , i54 , 493; 
Genius, IO 5 ; Judgment in works of art,- 
sculpture, IO9, IiO ; ornament, III ; 
painting, II2--II 5 ; melody and song, 
I I5, 116.--Knowledge of ancient hlstory 
and customs, io5, IO6, 225, 226 ; Marks 
of reading and thought, 242 ; endency 
to depreciate his attainments, lO 5 ; Use of 
terre Symbol, 2 ; Iï)evice, 8; Emblem, 9. 
She2bheards calender, Spenser, I34I37 , 
Siegenbeek, Geschi«denis der 2Vedo'landsche 
leglerknde, 82. 
Snfith, 1)icliinay of Geek and 
Anliquiti,:r, IO. 


Sotheby, lrinciia O,tSogra:hica, 1858 , 
PP- 48, 49- 
Spenser, ideas of devices, S ; Early sonnets, 
88 ; Visions, I34 ; ShetVteards caleuder, 
134, 136, 185; Ban-dogs, 4S. 
Slantttt 'ttck, 1619, Adam hiding, 46. 
Statius, badges, 47. 
Suetonius, Tiber. C,saris vita, 5. 
S),mbola divita et humatta, 1652 , p. I76. 
Symeoni, quoted :--Apo and nfiser's gold, 
486 ; Butterfly and candle, I53 ; Chaos, 
448 ; Creation and confusion, 35 ; 
Diana, 3 ; Dolphin and anchor, I6; 
Forehead shovs the man, I29 ; Inverted 
torch, I7I ; Phaeton, 284; Serpent's 
teeth, 245 ; Wounded stag, 398 ; Wrongs 
on mari»le, 457- 
S.l'itlagnta de s3,mbolis , 2. 

. Saint Germain, fair at, imprese, I24, 
Salam,-mder, impresa of Francis I., 123, 25. 
Satan, fall of, Boissard, 1596 , Plate X[., 
I32, I33. 
Satire in Emblenas, 33- 
Savionr's adoption ofa human soul, Voenius, 
Plate I I., 32. 
Savoy, duke of, his impresa, 24 ; 
Madame Bona of, ber device, 235. 
Sepulchre and cross, Diana of Poitiers, I83. 
Serpent and countryman, Freitag, Reusner, 
197 ; Serpent in the bosom, Shakespeare, 
Seven ages of man, Arundel MS., 4o6 ; 
Hippocrates, Proclus, AntonioFederighi, 
Martin, Lady Calcott, 407 ; Block-print 
described, Plate XV., 407, 4o8 ; Shake- 
speare, 4o9, 4o. 
Shadov, fled and pursued, Whitney, 467 ; 
hakespeare, 468. 
Shiehl untrnstworthy. See Brasidas. 
Shields of Achilles, Hercules, Aneas, &c., 
Ship, vith mast overboard, Drummond, 
I24 ; Ship on the sea, Drummond, I25 ; 
Ship tossed by the waves, Sambucus, 
Whitney, 435 ; Ship sailitag forward, 
Whitney, Alciat, 436 ; Boissard, 437 ; 
Shakespeare, 438--44o. 
Sieve held by Cupid, 34 o. See 

Silent academy at Hamadan, 17- 
Silversmiths, thelr craff and emblems, o. 
Similitudes and identities in literature, 302. 
Sinon, I94--2oo ; Virgil, I94 ; Whitney, 
I95, I96, I99 ; Shakespeare, 2oo. 
Sirens,  Alciat, 253 ; Whitney, 254 ; 
Shakespeare, 54- 
Six direct references to Emblems in the 
tericles of Shakespeare, 156--I86. 
Skiff of foolish tasting, Badius, I5o2 , p. 6L 
Skull, human, Aneau, Whitney, 337 ; 
Shakespeare, 338, 339. 
Snake in the grass, Paradin, Whitney, 34 ° ; 
Shakespeare, 34- 
Snake on the finger, Paradin, 342 ; Whitney, 
Shakespeare, 343. 
Soul, its lfieroglyplfic sign, 5, 6. 
Spanish motto, 16, 164, 67. 
St«#lum humance salz,ationis, Plates IV'. 
aud V., 44- 
Stag wounded, Giovio and Symeoni, 398; 
Paradin, Camerarius, Virgil, Ovid, 
Vœenius, 399; Shakespeare, 399, 4 °0. 
Stage, the world a, 409 . See S,'z,tt ages. 
Star, ifs hieroglyphic meaning, 25. 
Statuary and architecture excluded, 1I. 
Stirling-Maxwell, Bart., of Keir, De Bry's 
.çtatt ttd waibctbuch, I593, p. 3"; 
MIKPOKOMO, by Costerius, 98. See 
also .Cr. 
Stork, cmblem of filial piety, &c., 
Epiphanius and Alciat, 28. 
Student in love, Alciat, Whitney, 44I ; 
Shakespeare, 442. 
Subjects of the Eblem Imrese, &c., 515 
Sun and moon, in dialogue, 5-"- 
Sun of York, zz3 ; Sun in eclipse, lZ 4 ; 
Sun setting, Wlfitney, 3z3 ; Sun, wiud, 
and traveller, Corrozet, I65; Freitag, 
Shakespeare, I66. 
Swan singing at death, /Eschylus, tlora- 
pollo, Zl 3 ; Virgil, Ilorace, zI4; Old 
age eloquent, Aneau, z5 ; Pure truth, 
Reusner, z I6; Camerarius, z 17 ; Insignia 
of Poets, Alciat, Whitney, z18 ; Shake- 
speare, 219, -°-20. 
Sxvord with motto, 138. 
Sxvord on anvil, Perriere, 3z6 ; Whitney, 
3z7 ; Shakespeare, 3z5, 3z7 . 

568 GEArERAL trIvDEw. 

Sword to weigh gold, Drumlnond, 124. 
qylnbo], more exact use, Pindar, ./Eschy- 
lus, Cudworth, Shakespeare, 2. 
Symbols and Elnblems, allnost convertible 
terres, 1 ; yet a difference, 2. 
Symbolic properties of anilnals, 28. 
Symbolical imagery, fine example of, 377. 

T, O.L., iXSf des ,lz. 7, Paris, 1499, 
p. xiii. 

1. Taëgius, referred to by Menestrier, 79- 
"Fambaco, Sp«cMff-pacoetierum, I5O9, p. 65. 
Tasso, Torq., 19iscorsi deloeme, 79, 92. 
Tasso, Herc., referred to by Menestriel', 
Taurellius, tmblema 2bhysico.ethica, 1595, 
PP. 94, 96. 
Tewrdanckh, in hononr of Maximilian I., 
dedicated to Charles V., splendid vo- 
lulne, 67. 
Th,"alre des atimattw, 93- See Zesprez. 
Todlentanz, the original editions, I485 to 
149% hot by the Holbeins, 56. 
Trebatius, Latin version ofI-[oraflollo, 1515, 
p. 64. 
t)'itttt2#hoaffet, 67. See 29ttrer. 
Troiano, Z)iscorsi d«lli O-iom fi, i568 , 
p. 86. 
Tttrnier-buch, 68. See 2920-o-. 
Tyolitts, 16o1--16o3, p. 95- See Sadder. 

9.. 't G«ld ver»taalles, 177 ; Temere ac 
2bericvlose, or Temerit," dangere,se, 152 ; 
Temus io'ocabile, 36, 4 ; Tempus 
omnia lermitat, 323 ; Te slante virebo, 
124; Time twminales all, 323 ; Trito 
non convertit orbis, 124 ; Trtte as uecdle 
fo the pole, 334 ; Trtte as sled, 337- 

8. Tennyson, £lahzc, 3 o. 
Tibullus, on loyers' vows, quoted, 328. 
Timperley, l-)ictiom 7 of printers, 1839 , 
PP- 44, 56 • 
Titian, Tritttttk oflrtttk audfltme, 32 ; his 
paintings, I I I, 114. 
Tod, remarks on Spenser, I37. 

z. Tabley, Cheshire, ancient hall of the 
Leycesters, with emblem, I3I. 
Talbot, earl of Shrewsbury, 2o7, z27. 
Theatre, hulnan life, Boissard, Plate XIV., 
4o5 ; Shakespeare, 4o6. 
Theological conjecture, a curious, 383. 
Thieves, so triumph, 319 . 
Things at out feet, Whitney, Sambucus, 
411 ; Types of powers to be used, 
Shakespeare, 412. 
Thingwall, the emblem library there, 86. 
Thompson, H. Yates, of Thinvall, 5, 
Thread of life, tIorapollo, 454 ; Shake- 
speare, 455- 
Time flying, Sambucus, 466 ; Whitney, 
467 ; Plutarcll, 468 ; Shakespeare, 468, 
469 ; Turlfing back, Shakespeare, 473- 
Time leads the seasons, Voenius, Horace, 
Plate XVII., 491 ; Shakespeare, 491. 
Timon of A/hors, Dr. Drake, 426 ; North, 
Plutarch, Salnbncus, 426, 427 ; Shake- 
speare, 428, 429 ; Epitaph, 43 ° ; Mode 
of death, 43 I. 
Titus, son of Vespasian, his emblem, 16. 
Tongue with bat's wings, Cullum and 
Paradin, I28. 
Tree of lire, 126. See Mrrow wrealhed. 
Tree in a churchyard, Drummond, 124. 
Triangle, sun and circle, Drummond, 124. 
Triulnph scene in the tericles, 1589, pp. 
T'omts Cttfiidinis, De Passe, 348. 
Trophy on a tree, Drummond, 124. 
Tl-ue as needle, Sambucus, 334 ; Whitney, 
335 ; Shakespeare, 336 ; Iode stars, 336. 
True as steel, 337- 
True men so yield, 319 . 
Truth, an emblem so named, 2o. 
Turkeycock, Freitag, Camerarius, 357 ; 
Shakespeare, 358. 

1. Ulloa, Alphonsus, 56i, Menestfier, 
9.. Utde, 124, note ; Undifue, 123 ; Unica 
se»er avis, 385; Umtm ¢ttiden, sed 

GEAzt?IA L LA;DEA'. 5 69 

lvm'm, 124 ; OEI casus ded«rit, 124 ; 
Ul 2harta &bltnlltr, I28 ; Utilia trudenti, 
i.rudcnli fitlilia, 53. 

4. Ulysses and Diolned as an elnblem, 5- 
Unicorn, 371 ; Reusner, 13rtlcioli, 
Qvdo2#,edl"a, and Calleraritls, 372 ; 
Shakespeare, 373- 

1. Vœenius, 93 ; Zinn«bedaen, 16o3, p. 98 ; 
Q. ]Zoralii F/. Embl«mata, 16o 7 & 1612, 
PP- 36, 95 ; Amorum Emblema&z, Latin, 
English, and Italiall, I6oS, pp. 95, 99 ; 
A morton Emblemala, Spanish, 16o8, 
PP- 99, 122 ; ABioris Diviui mblemata, 
1615, PP- 32, 99. 
Valence, Eml, h'smes-- du Segnor Es2#a gnol , 
16oS, pp. 93, 94- 
\'alerian, 8o. Ste lierius. 
Vander Noot's ThcalrG &c., 1568 , pp. $7, 
91 • 
Van Ghelen, Fiera. trans. Azis slullorum, 
1584, p- 90- 
Van Vischer, Simu',,en (Emblem play), 
1614, p. 9 8. 
Verdier; trans, into French, lmagini, &c., 
158I, p. 87. 
Villava, Em resas Es2hirilual,'s , &C., I613, 
P- 99" 
Virgil Solis, 85; Libelh«s sartorum, I555, 
P-77 ; awiff utïs f°r the A'ew Testament, 
and ArKslic book of animMs, between 
1560 and 1568, p. 85, 
lblucribtts, d,; sire de tribus cohtmbis, 
MS., x3th cemury, 44- 

I'«l osl mortcm tbrmLlolosi, 205 ; 
IT"ri[as armaht, 123 ; 12't'ilas btvicta, 
264 ; Via, ï,erilas, rira, 462 ; Victrix 
animi cquitas, 314 ; Vtrix casla fldcs, 
3 71 j ddo et lac% 208 ; I ilantia et 
custodia, 21o ; kïuacoronal, IOI ; lïucil 
tti atiIur, 315 ; I ïolentior exil, 154 ; 
I )o'a vi»z twdet, sine pi aroente m'lla, 
47 ; l'io salulat¢tG innuta manens g ra- 
z,hlatttr, 47 ; l'irlttti fortttna cornes, 211 ; 
Iïttd ttl z.iaas, 4; I]»[al 7z'pocabi[e 

te,oEtts, 36, 494 ; l'ohttas oerttmnosa, 
277 ; l'tir A,fi*ms aptcl @foot, Ell«n,te 
Z,,mlc oz Doodt, 132. 

. Voenitts, quoted, Butterfly and candle, 
152 ; Christian Love presenting the sorti 
to Christ, Plate 1I., 32 ; Conscience, 421 ; 
Cupid felling a tree, 324 ; Ehn and vine, 
3o8; Fortune, 263 ; Rose and thorn, 
333 ; Sllip sailing, 407; Tilne leading 
the seasons, Plate XVII., 49 ° , 491 ; 
Two Cupids at vork, 179 ; Venus dis- 
pensing Cupid froln llis oatlls, 328; 
\Vounded stag, 399 ; Amorum Em- 
bl«mata, Latin, Englihç and ltaliall, 
179, 437- 
Van der Veen, .4,tares «,'l, 1642, Plate 
X., 132. 
Van llooglle, Frontisiece f Ccb,'s, 167o, 
P. 3- 
Virgil, .cEnd, t, Bees, 359; Circe, 25I; 
Crests, 14 ; Shicld of,Eneas, 20; Sinon, 
194; Stag wounded, 398 ; San, z14; 
L'l£mhlede l'irKile, l.yons, 56o, p. 36. 

4. Van I looft, illustrious Dntch poet, 9 S. 
Varieties of Elnblems, 18 ; great, 34- 
Vases ith cmblems, Warwick, IO ; ltalo- 
Groeco, 19. 
Venus di.-pensing Cupid from his oath% 
Vcrard, 1503, publisher of Lesfiffurcs, &c., 
Vine and olive, Whitney, Alciat, 249. 
Vine watered with vine, l)rtlllUnond, 124. 
Volvelle, astrological, 42. 
Vostre, Simon, of Paris, printer, 39- 

W, O. L.,  ylneom s Vthz d Oz'tdto, Lyons, 
1559, p. I. 

1. Watson, Sh:'tSie of Fooles, 1509, pp. 57, 
65, I 9- 
Whitney, Choice of Fmblemcs, 156 , pp. 
91 , 12o. 
Willet, Sacrozvtm Emblemahtm C,'ttluria, 
59S, PP- 99, lOO, 9, 

4 I» 


Wohlgemuth, Zibri crouicarum, 1493, 
p. 56. 
Wyrley, Trne use of armorie, 1592, pp. 
99, 100. 

9.. lirai den mensch aldo'mccst toi' conste 
z,era,ect? 82; IFhcre the end is good, 
all b ffoo 437 ; lçïth manie blmt,x the 
ffe is o¢tehrozocn, 324 . 

I1. \Valcott, Saa','d Ar«hceology, 1868, 
p. 27. 
Wallel; master-bee, 363 . 
llédg««ood, Zife of, fictile ornament, 19. 
\Vlaitney, Fac-simileReriul, 1866, p. 172; 
Emblems quoted by Knight to illustrate 
I[amlcl, 396. 
Whitney, quoted :--Definition of Emblems, 
6; Actoeon, 278; Adam hiding, 46; 
.Eneas bearing Anchises, i91 ; Ants and 
grasshopper, 148 ; Ape and miser's gold, 
-,S, 487 ; Arion and the dolphin, 28I ; 
Astronomer and magnet, 335 ; Bacchus, 
248 ; Ban-dog, 483 ; Barrel witb holes, 
332 ; Bear and ragged staff, 236 ; Bees, 
36I, 364 ; Brasidas, I95 ; Brutus, o2 ; 
Chaos, 45 ° ; Child and motley fool, 
484 ; Circe, 251 ; Cupid and death, 4oz ; 
Diligence and idleness, i46 ; Dog baying 
the moon, 27o; D. O. M., 464; 
Drake's ship, 413; Elephant, I96 ; Elm 
and vine, 3o8 ; Envy, 432 ; Faine al-med 
with a pen, 446 ; Fardel on a swimmer, 
45o; Fleece, golden, 229, 23o ; Fore- 
head, 129 ; Fox and grapes, 3I ; Gohl 
on the tonchstone, I78 ; IIares and dead 
lion, 3o5 ; Harpocrates, silence, 2o8; 
Hen eating ber own e««st,, 412 ; Hope 
and Nemesis, 152 ; Icarus, 288 ; Intro- 
ductory lines, D. O. M., 464; Inverted 
torch, I73 ; Janus, 139 , note; Laurel, 
423 ; Lottery in London, 2o8 ; Medeia, 
19o; Mercnry and lute, 256 ; Mouse 
and oyster, 13o ; Narcissus, 295 ; Niobe, 
293; Oak and reed, 315; Occasion, 
26o; Oïpheus, 272 ; Ostrich stretching 
out its wings, 37 ° ; Pelican, 395 ; Phoenix, 
357; Pine-trees in a storln, 476 ; Pro- 
metheus, 267 ; Rose and thorn, 333 ; 
Ruins and writing, 443 ; .qcrpent in the 

bosom, 199 ; Shadows, 468 ; Ship tossed 
by t/le waves, 435 ; Ship sailing forward, 
436 ; Sirens, z54; Skull, 338 ; Shake 
in the grass, 34 ° ; Shake on the finger, 
342 ; Student entangled, 441 ; Sun set- 
ting, 323 ; SWall, of poets, 217 ; Sword 
on an anvil, 327 ; Time flying, 467 ; 
Vine and olive, 249 ; Wreaths on a 
spear, 222 ; Wrongs on rnarble, 46o. 
Wranglmm, Plttarch, 431. 

z]:. Walker, Rev. T., 462. 
Waves and siren, 125, nte; Waves with over thenl, 125. 
Wheat among bones, Paradin, 183 ; Came- 
ral-ius, 184; Boissard and Messin, IS 5. 
Wheel rolling into the sea, 124. 
Whitehall, collection of paintings there, 
founded by Henry VIII. and Charles I., 
Who against us ? Paradin and Whitney, 
342 ; Shakespeare, 343. 
Wilbraham, Tbo., Esq., the old English 
gentleman, 467 . 
Willialn III., history of, in medals, 14. 
Wings and feathel scattel-ed, 124. 
Wolf and ass, a fable, 52--54. 
\Voltlnann, lfolbdtt and kis lime, Death's 
fool, 471 ; Shakespeare's mistakes as to 
costume, lO6. 
Woodcock, so strives the, with the n, 
Shakespeare and ,:Esop, 319- 
WOl'ds and forms of tlmught, some, the 
sarne in Whitney and Shakespeare, 463 . 
World, inhabited, three-corlmred, earth the 
centre, Bmcioli, 35 ° ; Sanlbucus, 35 t ; 
No America, 351, 35 z ; Shakespeare, 
352 ; Thrce-llOoked world, 353. 
\Vorld a stage, 133. 
Wreath of chivalry, Paradin, 169 ; Shake- 
speare,  68, 17 o. 
Wl-eafli of oak, Paradin, 224 ; Shakespeare, 
225, 226. 
Wreaths of victory, Whitney, Cmerarius, 
222; Shakespeare, 222, 223 ; Paradin, 
224 . 
Writings remain, Whitney, 443 ; Boissard, 
444-; Shakespeare, 444, 445. 
Wrongs on nmrble, Symeoni. 457; Para- 
di», 458 ; Shakepcare, 450, 460 ; 

Whitxxey, 460 ; Origin of the sentiment, 
460; Sir T. More and Columbus, 46t ; 
Nobler sentiments, 462. 

Xenophon's C.vr,,cdia, king bec, 359- 

V, the letter, an emblem of lift, 3-'o. 
Yates, Joseph 1., .41cht, lXl S., 161o, p. IoI ; 

I/VD/A'. 5 71 
Skctch y Embl«m-books, 4, 5 ; Silver 
emblem, 5 ; Dedication Plate to, p. v. 

Zainer, Das hddcn buck, 1477, p. 55. 
Zeb, Dr., of the Silent Academy, 17. 
inne-b'ddcn, off Mdams atp,'l, Plate X., 
132 . 
Zisca, named by Alciat and XVhitney, 2o6. 
Zodiac, signs of, Sadeler, Brucioli, Plate 
XIII., 353 ; Shakespeare, 353--355- 
Zuingerus, lcoues, 1589, p. 89. 

t't Lt I'1 |ON. 
1" /ilcrarum sgttdiis immot lalilah'm a«qttD L 

Alca, ed. 534, /- 45. 



'Ç I,